How tall fig trees grow

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When it comes to growing homegrown fruit, nothing could be easier than figs. Cultivated for thousands of years, figs have few demands on their caregivers. There are about 470 varieties of common figs — the ones we grow in the southeast. Their delectable fruit can be eaten fresh, preserved, or used in cakes and desserts like ice cream.

Figs should be sited in a well-drained location in full sun.
Barbara H. Smith, ©2012 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Figs should be sited in a well-drained location in full sun. They can grow into large trees or shrubs from 15 to 30 ft tall, but severe pruning can restrict them to a manageable height because they tend to grow wider than taller. Figs can be cultivated as edible shade trees, summertime screens, and espaliered or container-grown specimens. They do well in most parts of South Carolina except in the mountains.

Site & Soil Requirements

Figs will grow in many types of soils, but they need a site free of root-knot nematodes. In the colder areas of the state, the ideal site would be the south side of a building. Cold injury can be further reduced if the fig does not receive direct sunlight early in the morning or late in the evening during the winter months. However, the site should receive a minimum of 8 hours of sunlight daily during the growing season.

Purchasing or Propagating Your Own

Fig trees from nurseries may be sold bare-rooted or in containers. Since considerable confusion exists about fig variety names, order fig plants only from reputable southeastern nurseries. Never purchase or attempt to grow the kinds of figs grown in California. They require pollination by a tiny wasp that cannot survive under South Carolina’s climatic conditions. The only kinds recommended in South Carolina are the common types that produce only female flowers and set fruit without cross- pollination. See Table 1 for a list of suitable fig varieties for South Carolina.

Fig trees are easy to propagate and a home planting can be started at very little expense. The simplest and easiest method of propagating figs is by digging up and transplanting suckers. Alternatively, take 8- to 10-inch long cuttings of one-year-old wood in early spring. Set the cuttings in a prepared bed so one or two buds on the tip are above the ground. Let them grow for a season before transplanting them. These cuttings root early, grow rapidly, and make good trees for permanent planting in the fall.

Figs may also be propagated by mound layering. Root suckers emerging from below-ground can be separated from the parent bush and transplanted.

Soil Preparation & Planting

Soil preparation should always include a preplant soil test. Adjust the pH and any other requirements based on the results of the test.

Plant fig trees while they are dormant. In warm areas, bare-rooted trees can be set out in fall or early winter. In the mountains and piedmont, it is best to set them out in spring after the danger of hard winter freezes has passed. Container-grown plants can be planted later in the season than bare-root plants.

Training Pruning

Figs require little pruning — just enough to keep growth within bounds, to keep the crown open to sunlight and air, and to remove dead wood. Pruning should be done during the winter months, preferably after the coldest weather is past but before growth starts in the spring.

Most fig cultivars bear two crops a year: a light one in early summer borne on previous season’s wood and the second crop in mid- or late summer borne on current season’s wood.

Though fig plants can be trained to either a tree or a bush form, the tree form is not practical for the piedmont. In this region, fig plants are occasionally frozen back, making the tree form difficult to maintain.

Begin training to bush form at time of planting by cutting off one-third of the young plant. This forces shoots to grow from the base of the plant. Let these shoots grow through the first season. Then, during the late winter after the first growing season, select three to eight vigorous, widely spaced shoots to serve as leaders. Remove all other shoots.

Be sure the leaders are far enough apart to grow to 3 to 4 inches in diameter without crowding each other. If they are too close together, the leaders cannot grow thick enough to support themselves and their crop and tend to fall over or split off under stress of high winds. If this happens, remove the damaged leader and select a new one late the next winter by choosing one of the many suckers that arise annually.

Beginning the second year after planting, if more branching is desired, head back the bush each spring after danger of frost is past but before growth has started. Do this by removing about one-third to one-half the length of the annual growth.

Also, prune out all dead wood, and remove branches that interfere with growth of the leaders. Cut off low-growing lateral branches and all sucker growth that is not needed for replacement of broken leaders.

Do not leave bare, unproductive stubs when you prune. These stubs are entry points for wood decay organisms. Make all pruning cuts back to a bud or branch.

Fertilization & Watering – Sandhills & Coastal Plain

Fertilizing: Fig trees grow satisfactorily in moderately fertile soils without fertilizer. However, fertilizer is needed in soils of very low fertility or where competition from other plants is heavy.

Though nitrogen is usually the only needed plant nutrient, other nutrients may be lacking in some areas. If poor growth indicates the need for fertilizer, follow these general guidelines:

  • Use a fertilizer with an analysis of 8-8-8 or 10-10-10.
  • For feeding plants one- to two-years-old, apply 1 oz of fertilizer each month from the beginning of growth through the end of July.
  • Apply fertilizer to larger plants three times a year: early April, early June, and mid-July.
  • Use ⅓ lb per ft of bush height per application. If the fruit are not reaching maturity and ripening properly, excess fertilizer or drought may be the problem and fertilization should be reduced. Increase the amount of fertilizer as the tree grows, up to 10 lb per year.

Watering: For highest yields, figs need watering throughout the summer. The frequency and the amount of water depends to a large extent on the soil. As a rule of thumb, 1 inch of water per week from rain or irrigation is adequate. Yellowing and dropping of leaves may indicate drought.

In lawns, the grass beneath fig plants may wilt in the heat while the rest of the lawn does not. This indicates the figs need water. Figs grown with lawn grasses may require one or more waterings a week during hot, dry periods.

Fertilizing & Watering – Mountains & Piedmont

Winter injury in figs is directly related to the amount of vigor. A vigorous, fast-growing plant is easily killed by low winter temperatures in the piedmont. If figs are frequently cold-damaged in your area, reduce the fertilization recommendations by one-half. If you are attempting to grow figs near the mountains, no fertilizer should be applied to make the plants as cold hardy as possible.

For plants one to two years old, apply ⅓ lb 10-10-10 fertilizer each month from the beginning of growth through the end of July. For a bush 12 to 15 ft tall, apply 4 lbs 10-10-10 in mid April, early June, and mid-July. For plants less than 12 ft in height, use about 1 lb 10-10-10 for each foot of height and split into three applications as given above. If the fruit are not reaching maturity and ripening properly, excess fertilizer or drought may be the problem and fertilization should be reduced.

Fruit Drop or Absence of Fruiting

A number of conditions may cause the fruit not to ripen or to drop prematurely. The following list of most common reasons is presented in order of importance:

  1. Young, vigorous plants will often produce figs that do not ripen. If the plants are excessively vigorous, stop fertilizing them. Quite often, it may be 3 or 4 years before the plant matures a crop because most figs have a long juvenile period before producing edible, quality fruit.
  2. Dry, hot periods, which may occur prior to ripening can result in poor fruit quality. If this is the case, mulching and supplemental watering during dry spells will reduce the problem.
  3. The ‘Celeste’ variety will often drop fruit prematurely in hot weather, regardless of how well the plants are cared for. However, it is still one of the best varieties for the lower part of the state. ‘Celeste’ is best for the piedmont because of its cold hardiness.
  4. An infestation of root-knot nematodes can possibly intensify the problem when conditions are as described in #2 and/or #3 above.
  5. Perhaps this particular fig requires cross-pollination by a special wasp, which is a rare problem. If this is the case, then it will never set a good crop. One way to resolve this is to replace the plant with a recommended variety from Table 1. Alternatively, propagate a shoot from a neighbor’s plant that produces a good crop each year.


Root-knot nematodes are the primary pest of fig trees in the sandhills and coastal plain. An on-the-spot diagnosis of root-knot infection is possible. Dig up a few roots and look for the characteristic galling or swelling caused by the nematode. There is no other similar problem in figs.

Root-knot Nematode: Infected fig trees cannot be cured with chemical treatment. Pruning back the top to balance it with the weakened root system and attentive watering and fertilization may prolong the life of a root-knot infected fig tree. Usually, however, they will die sooner or later regardless of the care they receive.

When planting a new fig tree, select a site as far as possible from any old garden sites. Take a nematode sample in this site. If root-knot nematodes are present, do not plant figs.

Fig Rust: This fungus attacks the leaves, usually in late summer. Severely infected leaves turn yellow-brown and drop. The underside of the fallen leaves will have numerous small, somewhat raised, reddish brown spots. These spots are often covered with a dusty golden-yellow mass of rust spores.

Fig rust is usually not fatal, but repeated epidemics will weaken the plant. In any given year, heavy leaf drop from rust will reduce size and quality of the fruit. Unless fig rust is an annual problem, spraying is not warranted.

Fig Fruit Souring: This is caused by yeasts that are spread by insects. Souring becomes noticeable as the figs begin to ripen. A souring fig will often show gas bubbles and/or scummy masses oozing from the eye. These figs will give off an offensive fermented odor. Souring cannot be controlled with chemical sprays. The only control is to grow fig cultivars that have a tight or closed eye that prevents insects from entering the fig fruit.

Pink Blight: This is a fungus that appears as a dirty-white to pale pink velvety growth on dying and dead twigs. It usually occurs in the interior of the tree. Prune out infected branches and prune the tree to allow good air movement within the tree.

Leaf Blight (Thread Blight): This is a fungal disease that attacks leaves and fruit. Infection may start as a semicircular brown spot at the base of the leaf. Some leaves shrivel and die while others may be covered with brown spots that break out to leave irregular holes. During hot, wet weather, leaves can die and drop very quickly. Dead leaves are often matted together and held to the tree by threadlike strands similar to spider webs.

Table 1. Recommended Fig Varieties for South Carolina

Variety Fruit Color Fruit Size Quality of Fruit
For Fresh Use For Preserving
Alma Greenish brown Small Very good Good
Brown Turkey Bronze Medium Good Excellent
Celeste Light brown to violet Small Very Good Excellent
Ischia green Bright green Medium Good Good (seeds objectionable)
Hunt Dull bronze with specks Small to medium Good Excellent
Kadota Bright greenish yellow Small to medium Fair Excellent
LSU Gold Yellow Large Good Excellent
LSU Purple Reddish to dark purple Medium Variable Unacceptable*
Magnolia Bronze with white flecks Medium with specks Fair Excellent
* “Although it tastes fine, the black-colored syrup may be unacceptable. Add lemon juice to the packing syrup to reduce the pH.” Paul Wilson, Ph.D., Food Processing Specialist, Horticulture Department, LSU, Baton Rouge, LA.

Other cultivars that should be considered for landscape or container gardens are in the following Table 2. (excerpted with permission from W. H. Outlaw Jr. and N. N. Outlaw, 2001). These figs were exposed to 15 oF in January 1999 and damage and plant size were assessed in midsummer 1999. Fruiting was evaluated in 1999 and 2000. Only the five high-yielding cultivars are presented.

Table 2. Other Cultivars That Should be Considered for Landscape or Container Gardens

Cultivar Plant Size1

Diameter (in) /Height (ft)

Description of Cold Damage2 Fruit3
Excel 2/3.5 Dieback to 7. 5in. ++/+
Jelly 2/3.5 Bark damage to 1 in. ++/+
LSU Gold 2/4.8 Tip dieback; unthrifty +/++
Verdal Longue 1/4 No damage ++/++
Violette de Bordeaux 1/2.7 Dieback to soil 0/++
1Diameter was measured 4 in. above soil level. Height measured from soil level to the tip of the longest shoot.

2Dimensions refer to shoot diameter larger than which no cold damage was observed.

3+ = some fruit; ++ = much fruit.

Source: “Experiment: Twenty potted fig cultivars on the Gulf Coast of the southern U.S.” by William H. Outlaw Jr. and Nedra N. Outlaw, The Fruit Gardener, California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc., July/August 2001, pp. 15-16.

Originally published 10/12

If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] edu or 1-888-656-9988.

How to Grow Healthy Fig Trees

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Good Eats: How to Grow Healthy Fig Trees

Is there a tree more outrageously sensual than the fig? Those iconic leaves, the sculptural branching habit, and those sweet-as-honey fruits are the stuff of legends and lore. Cleopatra dished them up to Mark Antony. Adam and Eve found the foliage to be a handy coverall. Nations went to war over them.

Figs are also a bit of a botanical oddity as they’re not actually “fruits” but a mass of inverted flowers. Wait, what? Yes, the flowers are inside the “fruits” and what you are eating are the blooms. (Impress your friends–this structure is known botanically as a syconium.)

Best eaten lusciously ripe and sun-warmed straight off the tree, figs can vary in size, shape, flavor, texture, and time of harvest and can be black, green, brown, violet, yellow, or purple. Self-fruitful, so you need only one plant to produce fruit easy to grow, and there’s one for just about every size garden (and several that are quite cold tolerant).

How to Grow Fig Trees

How to Choose the Best Fig Tree For Your Space

Mature fig trees can be 15 to 30 feet tall–space a bit apart so that you can really see the unique shape of the mature tree. There are several varieties that stay naturally small and fit nicely into large containers (see below). If you have the room, plant several and choose early-, mid-, and late- fruiting varieties to extend the harvest from early summer into early fall. Some figs will produce fruit very early in the season, called a “breba” crop, as well as the main crop.

Where to Plant Fig Trees

Fig trees thrive in full sun and love the reflected heat of walls and buildings. In colder zones, choose cold-hardy varieties such as ‘Brown Turkey’ and ‘Desert King’, or consider other selections that are somewhat less cold-hardy that you can grow in big pots and protect during the winter by storing in a cool garage or basement.

How and When to Harvest Fig Fruit

This is the moment! When fruit is developing, it’s important to water regularly. Check daily, and pick just as they ripen. You’ll be picking the main crop of fruits depending on your climate and conditions, anywhere from June to September in warmer inland areas to October and November for cooler coastal places. In some tropical locations, fig trees may bear some fruit throughout the year, with increased production in early summer and midwinter.

Now, about the birds and squirrels. Yes, they love figs. The trick is to stay ahead of them by harvesting daily. If you wait too long, they'll get to your harvest first. 

How to Care for Fig Trees

Once established, figs can be very low maintenance, as well as drought tolerant. During the first year, as plants become established, water regularly and mulch. It can also be helpful to prune back young trees to encourage strong root growth. After the first 2-3 years, they need little pruning apart from removing weak, diseased, or dead branches. If conditions get too dry, an occasional deep watering will keep the tree healthy.  

While they aren't too picky about their soil, fig trees enjoy a well-draining loamy soil with healthy organic matter. Adding a layer of compost around your fig trees every year can provide the right amount of nutrients and organic matter to help your fig tree thrive. 

9 Best Fig Tree Varieties

Peter’s Honey Fig

Originally from Sicily is an attractive garden tree. Needs plenty of heat to ripen fruit in cooler areas. Up to 25′ tall and wide. Full sun. Zones 7–9.

Fruits: Soft-skinned, yellow-green with honey-like amber-hued flesh. Great for preserves.

Photo by Getty

Mission Fig

Cultivated in the western US since 1768 and loved for its tall and wide habit that offers dense summer shade and abundant fruits. Up to 35′ tall and wide. Full sun. Zones 7–9.

Fruits: Deep blue-purple with deep-pink syrupy sweet flesh. Lovely dessert fruit.

Photo by FotoSearch

Black Jack Fig

Wonderful container plant and cold-hardy, too. Up to 15′ tall and wide; easily kept to 6′ with annual pruning. Full sun. Zones 7–9.

Fruits: Elongated purple fruit with strawberry-red juicy flesh; sweetest with plenty of heat. Chop and add to salads.

Photo by Hort Printers

Brown Turkey Fig

Site where you can easily harvest its two yearly crops. Medium size, good for screening or as background. Up to 25′ tall and wide. Full sun. Zones 7–9.

Fruits: Deep-purple with rose-hued sweet flesh. Mild flavor pairs well with goat cheese.

Photo by Monrovia

Desert King Fig

Exceptionally productive even in cool climates like coastal regions or high elevations. Up to 25′ tall and wide. Full sun. Zones 6–10.

Fruits: Large yellowish-green, strawberry-colored flesh, sweet, melting texture. Drizzle with honey and broil.

Photo by Mazzzur

Corky’s Honey Delight® Fig

Semi-dwarf thrives in mild coastal and warm humid areas. Can be grown in a large container. Up to 12′  tall and wide. Full sun. Zone 7–10.

Fruits: Greenish with amber-colored flesh, flavorful honey note. Great for smoothies.

Photo by Monrovia

Chicago Hardy Fig

One of the hardiest of its kind, endures colder zone 6 winters (great conversation piece!). Look for a large late-summer crop. Up to 15′ tall, 12″ wide. Full sun. Zones 6–10.

Fruits: Deep purple when ripe with reddish flesh. Luscious and sweet, perfect to fill a tart.

Photo by Getty

Celestial Fig

Smaller-sized tree prized for vigorous growth, improved cold resistance bountiful early harvest. Up to 10′ tall and wide. Full sun. Zones 7–11.

Fruits: Violet-brown with pinkish-purple sweet flesh. Perfect for preserves.

Photo by Getty

Kadota Fig

Treat this fig as a small shade tree or accent if you don’t have it in a fruit garden. Its green fruit is not as decorative as other figs, but some say even more delicious. Up to 25′ tall and wide. Full sun. Zones 7–9.

Fruit: Pert green skin gives way to a heart of pale amethyst. The taste is especially sweet and appealingly complex. Spoon over ice cream or yogurt.

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What grows on a fig tree


General information

Many people know the name figs, however, this is far from the only name of this wonderful culture. It is called a fig tree, a fig tree, a fig, a fig, a smyrna berry, or simply a fig. This is not only the name of the tree, but the fruits themselves.

The fig is considered the most ancient cultivated plant. Initially, the cultivation of wine berries was carried out in Arabia, but after that they began to be engaged in Syria, Phenicia and Egypt. The fig tree came to America only at the end of the 16th century.

As an undergrowth, the wild fig tree grows not only in deciduous forests, but also on open slopes and mountain slopes in Georgia, the Crimea, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the North Caucasus and Tajikistan.

The fig is a subtropical tree that belongs to the mulberry family and can grow up to 12 meters in height. The crown of this tree is quite spreading and wide. The trunk of a fig tree is dark grey. Fig leaves are quite large, which grow on long petioles, they are rough and slightly lowered from the underside. The leaves are dark green above and much lighter above. The stems and leaves contain milky juice.

This tree has a very well developed root system. Figs are not whimsical in choosing the soil for growth, so they can be grown anywhere.

It should be noted that the fig tree is a very close relative of indoor ficus. In room conditions, it does not grow to such large sizes as in nature, but reaches only two meters in height. Not all varieties bear fruit in room conditions, but such as: Honey or White fig, Oglobsha, Kadota, Purple Sukhumi, Sunny, Dalmatian and Sochi.

The color of the fruits depends on the variety of the crop, their color may vary between yellow and dark blue. The most common are yellow-green fruits. Their appearance is very similar to a pear, but the sizes are different. Figs can be the same as a walnut or several times larger. An unripe fig is inedible. The taste of wine berries can be sugary or moderately sweet.

How to choose

First of all, you need to take the fruit in your hand, because that's how you can understand how dense it is. Nowadays, finding tasty, ripe and, of course, fresh figs is quite a challenge. On the shelves, the old fig tree is most often found, which is why it is important to feel the fruits. It should not have any dents. Fresh figs should be easy to press.

How to store

It should be noted that figs are highly perishable and should be consumed as soon as possible. It follows from this that this culture is not subject to storage. However, it can lie down for some time in the refrigerator, but not more than three days. In order for the fig to be stored for as long as possible, it is dried. It is quite simple to “revive” a fig, for this it is enough to dip it in boiling water or hold it for a while for a couple. The fig tree can be dried.


Sugar figs are used to make delicious marshmallows, marmalade, preserves, marmalade, cakes, sweets, ice cream, all kinds of drinks and gingerbread. But the fruits of this plant are wonderfully combined with cheese, meat, eggs, nuts and ham. Note that nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon and figs perfectly complement any omelet. After the figs are soaked, you can stuff them. To do this, you can use grated cheese, which can be mixed with eggs, sugar or nuts. It can then be baked in the oven and served topped with sour cream or melted butter. You can also try a more interesting dish: figs with bacon. To prepare it, you need to cut the fig and bacon and fix it on cocktail sticks, and then lightly fry.

Figs are even used to make homemade wine.

Reflection in culture

Many historians believe that the fig tree was the very first plant cultivated by man. The fig tree was known in ancient times, and it has been cultivated for about 5 thousand years. There is an opinion that for the first time the wine berry was introduced into cultivation on the very fertile lands of the Arabian Peninsula. Currently, the wild species of figs also grows in these areas.

Calorie content of figs

Calorie content of raw figs is 74 kcal per 100 g. 100 g of canned figs contain 53 kcal. However, 100 g of dried figs contains 257 kcal. Excessive consumption of figs in this form can lead to the appearance of extra pounds.

Nutritional value per 100 grams:
Protein, gr Fat, gr Carbohydrates, gr Ash, gr Water, gr Calorie content, kcal
1.5 0.4 4.9 12.5 1.4 74

Useful properties of figs

Composition and presence of useful substances

Figs contain a huge amount of trace elements: copper, iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium, as well as vitamins A, B.

Fresh fruits contain approximately 24% sugar, and in dried 37%.

Useful and medicinal properties

Wine berry decoction is a wonderful diaphoretic and antipyretic agent. To prepare it, you will need two tablespoons of dry seedlings per one glass of milk or water.

The fruits of this plant significantly improve the condition of the kidneys and stomach.

Traditional medicine has long used a decoction of figs to treat colds, sore throats, gum disease and inflammation of the respiratory tract.

The fig tree is very useful for people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. This is due to the potassium it contains. It can relieve tension from blood vessels. Figs not only relaxes them, but also expands them.

Fig plays a huge role in the fight against hypertension and venous insufficiency.

Due to the enzyme ficin contained in the fruits, blood clotting decreases and vascular thrombi dissolve.

It should be noted that figs have a laxative effect.

Wineberry can relieve a strong heartbeat.

It is considered an excellent remedy for overweight, hangovers, stress coughs. Figs prevent the transformation of sugar into fat. This is especially useful for people who are watching their weight. It has a lot of fiber, but it does not do any harm. She makes sure that food surpluses are not deposited on the figure. Figs will relieve you of hangover symptoms: thirst, dry mouth, disgust for the whole world and nausea. It will also lift your spirits a bit. This is due to the fact that it contains such elements necessary for mental comfort: potassium, magnesium and calcium.

Fig products are very useful. Syrup is ideal for improving appetite, which, in addition, normalizes the functioning of the children's digestive system. He is a wonderful assistant in the treatment of well-known rheumatism. The fig tree is used to treat certain diseases of the female genital organs.

Due to the substances contained in the wine berry, “bad” cholesterol is excreted from the body, which is why it is considered an excellent prophylactic for atherosclerosis.

The dangerous properties of figs

Despite such a huge benefit, there is a rather dangerous side to this product. There are several contraindications for eating figs. It is strictly forbidden to eat it for people with diabetes, gout and acute inflammatory bowel disease. This is due to the fiber and oxalic acid contained in figs, which is contraindicated for some.

Dried figs are contraindicated in pancreatitis and obesity, as it can exacerbate these diseases. It is also important to remember that it has a strong laxative effect and should not be consumed before trips and meetings.

We advise you to cook an unusual dish - deep-fried figs. Surprise your loved ones!

What grows on a fig tree

History with geography

The fruit plant, which will be discussed today, is known in many countries of Central Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus and on the Black Sea coast. Depending on the region, this plant is called differently: fig tree, fig tree, wine berry, fig, and so on.

In most of the above areas, the fig tree is actively and successfully cultivated as a valuable fruit plant. Even before the advent of the new era, figs were grown in Arabia, and later they were brought to Phoenicia, Syria and Egypt. In the 13th century BC. this plant played an important role in the agriculture of the kingdom of Pylos.

Today this plant grows quite widely on the American continent, where it was brought by seafarers towards the end of the 16th century. Where did the "fig tree" come from? Figs were first brought to Russia around the 18th century. Moreover, the name of this fruit (or berry) turned out to be already in a modified form: the word “ficus”, known to everyone, underwent a number of changes, the result of which was the appearance of the word “fig”, and eventually entered the Russian language. Later, the “fig tree” was also formed from the name of the fruit.

How figs grow and how they are eaten

Due to the fact that figs, after all, are ficus, they are not very tall trees or even tree-like shrubs with light gray, smooth bark. The fruits at the beginning of ripening, as usual, are green. As they mature, they acquire a color from yellow to black-blue and pear-shaped. Fig fruits are covered with a thin skin with small hairs. At the top there is a peephole covered with scales.

The fig tree gives a very plentiful harvest: today, up to 20 tons of fig fruits are harvested from one hectare in cultivation areas. The plant, like all ficuses, is unpretentious: it can grow on poor lands, scree, rocks, stone walls. However, powerful trees are also found in river valleys. Figs begin to bear fruit in 2-3 years. The life expectancy of an adult plant is from 30 to 60 years, and sometimes up to 300 years.

Unripe fig fruits are not eaten: they contain caustic milky juice. Ripe fresh figs are very juicy and sweet. As soon as the fruits ripen, they can be safely eaten fresh. In addition, figs are good in dried form and as a canned product: jam or jam is made from fresh fruits. In Central Asia, fig fruits are used to make dushab - condensed fig juice, which is well stored and used for various culinary purposes.

Figs in the service of medicine

The fact that the plant and its very tasty fruits have been well known to mankind for a long time, figs are quite actively used for medical purposes and simply for general health improvement.

Ripe fruits contain up to 24% sugars, and dried ones - up to 37%, in terms of potassium content they are second only to nuts. The fruits also contain organic acids, tannins, proteins, fats.

Figs have long been known as a fairly effective remedy for respiratory diseases, for this, figs were brewed with boiling water, or hot milk. The pulp of the fruit has a good diaphoretic and antipyretic effect. Unripe fruits in the East reduced warts and birthmarks. To do this, the fruit was cut in half and applied to the right places. In addition, poultices and compresses with fig pulp were actively used for skin diseases, such as boils.

In addition, figs contain more iron than apples, so it was recommended for patients suffering from anemia, as well as for strengthening the cardiovascular system in general. A syrup made from fig fruits is an excellent way to increase the overall tone of the body for children and adults: it improves appetite and digestion.

Figs on the windowsill

If you do not live in the Caucasus or the Crimea, where it is warm and you can grow a lot of things right under the open sky, but you really want to eat fresh figs, try growing them at home. After all, this plant is a relative of the familiar ficus. At room culture, this plant will bear fruit, and the fruits will ripen in late summer or autumn, and sometimes in spring.

Figs can be propagated by winter and summer cuttings. Winter ones are cut from one- or two-year-old shoots and planted in early spring, before the buds have blossomed, in light soil with a sufficiently high sand content. Summer cuttings are planted in late spring - early summer in the sand and kept until rooting in a humid environment under a glass or other shelter. In a warm place, the cuttings take root quickly. After the cuttings take root, they can be safely planted in pots.

In summer, it is better to keep the plants on light windowsills and water them abundantly enough, and in the winter move them to a cool place and reduce watering, but so that the earth does not dry out at all. The first three years, the plant must be replanted annually in the spring, before growth begins. After two or three years, when the plant has already reached a relatively mature age, it is necessary to transplant it into a wide dish with heavier soil.

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Biggest tree in the world. The largest tree in the world. Giant sequoia "General Sherman"

The flora of our planet never ceases to amaze with its diversity. Trees have a special place. They have been growing on Earth since ancient times. Diversity in appearance, shape, habitat, size - all this makes a person examine them with special care. Sometimes you can meet real champions, for example, the tallest tree in the world. This will be discussed in this article.

Champion in height - general information Sequoia is the name of the tallest tree in the world. This is a coniferous tree, found for the most part only in the state of California (USA). It got its name in honor of the Indian leader who invented the Cherokee syllabary and became the founder of a newspaper in this language.

The local population, which is already accustomed to these giants, call this plant simply: "mahogany". Most of these giants are located in the Muir Forest, Redwood reserves and the Sequoia National Park. Among the giants, you can find both "age" and fairly young specimens.

Currently, the title of "The tallest tree in the world" belongs to a sequoia called "Hyperion". It has a height of more than 115 m, a diameter of 11 m and an age of about 800 years.

What is the tallest tree in the world? A bit of history

In ancient times, when the air humidity was higher, the sequoia was also found in today's territories of Japan, France, Svalbard and the New Siberian Islands. Also, the ice age significantly influenced the resettlement.

Until 1848, this tree was not exploited in the forest. This is due to the large size of the plant, since it was difficult to fell it with an ax and even (later) with a saw. The beginning of the extermination of the unique forest is considered to be the "gold rush" that came to these territories in the same 1848. The US authorities took this tree under protection only after about half of these giants were cut down. Then the sequoia was declared public property.


The crown of the plant is conical. Sequoia branches grow mostly horizontally, less often with a slight downward slope. The bark of this giant is quite thick, it can reach 30 cm in width. To the touch it is fibrous and soft, when touched it seems as if the hand is immersed in it, while the sensations are very unusual. When the bark is removed, it is red-brown, but darkens after a while.

The tallest tree in the world changes its appearance with age. In "youth" (up to 100 years), it resembles a dark green pyramid. Branches tightly cover the trunk from the ground to the top.

Over time, the lower part of it becomes exposed, becomes thicker. The leaves are small, reaching a length of 15-25 cm. In a young sequoia, they grow elongated and flat, in centenarians, in the lower crown - with arrows, in the upper - scaly. The cones of these giants are small, no larger than a chicken egg, about 1.5-3.5 cm. They fall to the ground when the cone dries up and opens. It is expected that by 2017 the record holder will change again, and it will be the Helion sequoia, which now reaches 114 meters. This is due to the fact that the tree grows very quickly, which cannot be said about Hyperion with its top damaged by woodpeckers.


Sequoia is not only the tallest tree in the world. It also beats the world records of the fauna of our planet by age. The plant is also called a "living fossil" or mammoth tree. On average, a sequoia lives from two to four thousand years.

The real record holder among representatives of this species is a tree with an age of 4484 years. It was established on the annual rings of a cut sequoia in 1965. In the pre-glacial period, the number of these plants was greater, perhaps even dinosaurs rested under them. Archaeologists have proven that the tree grew back in the Jurassic period.

The secret of these giants' longevity lies in their root system. It is shallow and widely branched. Due to this, when searching for water and other nutrients, it captures a large area. The special bark of the sequoia plays a significant role, it is very thick and contains chemical elements that repel various insects and other pests.

Sequoia National Park

It is located in California and has an area of ​​1683 sq. km. The name was given due to its majestic inhabitants. He was educated in 1890 year to protect these trees. It has a mountainous terrain.

The largest plants are under special protection, fenced and even have their own name. The most popular is the General Sherman tree. You can see him in the Forest of Giants. It is about 2 thousand years old, the plant reaches a height of 81 meters, and its circumference at the base is 32 meters.

The General Sherman Sequoia continues to grow today, with an average diameter of 1.5 cm every year. Its timber would be enough to build a six-room house. Thanks to such amazing characteristics, the tree received the title of "largest".

The tallest tree in the world, the Hyperion sequoia, is located in another national park, Redwood. However, five out of ten record holders among plants for growth grow here. The national park is also known for other attractions. Here you can drive a car through a small tunnel cut in the middle of a sequoia that fell onto the road and blocked further movement. The park is also known for its more than 250 caves.

Living conditions

Sequoia needs high humidity, so it grows near the Pacific coast. The tree can be found at an altitude of 30-750 m above sea level. It grows both on the coast and in the mountain gorge. He loves fogs, from which he receives up to 30% of all the necessary moisture, which allows the tree to become taller and larger.

Despite their small number (only 500 copies left in the world), the tallest trees in the world are very viable. Around the huge stumps left from the cut down giants, you can always see young shoots, they also begin to grow instead of a broken branch or top. Usually the "new generation" is growing very fast.

Interesting facts

It has been proven that the tallest trees in the world - sequoias - have the ability to purify the air from carbon dioxide better than other plants. Forest owners who have not cut down a significant part of them for a hundred years receive special compensation for lost profits. It's called a carbon credit. Fires are not destructive for this tree, its bark does not burn. On the contrary, they are of great importance for its survival.

Fire prepares the forest floor for germination and thins the forest from other plants, allowing sunlight to reach young shoots. The heat also causes the buds to open, causing the seeds to fall down to the ground. Sequoia will grow well in other conditions (some even try to plant it at home), but the process will be long, and it will not reach its majestic size, as in its natural habitat.

The tallest and largest trees in the world

These titles are passed from time to time from one to another creation of nature. Sequoia is the absolute champion among all trees. However, do not ignore other plants. The giant eucalyptus from the dense forests of Tasmania is the tallest deciduous tree in the world. It reaches 101 meters. Experts have established that its age is 400 years, the plant was named "Centurion". He got into the Guinness Book of Records, because it is the tallest tree in the world among flowering.

One more giant should not be ignored - the record holder, but already in terms of the thickness of the trunk. This is a baobab, or adansonia palmate. In height, it grows only 30 m, but its diameter can reach 9 m. This plant does not have growth rings, which makes it difficult to determine its age. However, thanks to special analyzes, it has been proven that a tree with a trunk diameter of 4.5 meters is approximately 5,000 years old. Only the European chestnut can compete with the baobab. A tree with a trunk diameter of 20 m has been known since 1845.

The tallest tree in Russia

Our country also has its own giants. These are Siberian firs. They grow up to 60-100 meters. The straight trunk of the tree is densely covered with branches, which makes it seem that the crown starts from the ground itself. In the Krasnodar Territory, the Nordmann fir is known, which, under favorable conditions, reaches 80 m in height. Even the common spruce, which grows throughout Russia, can stretch up to 60 meters. There is another tall tree - this is an 18-meter Siberian cedar, the girth of its trunk is 3 m, the age is 250 years. This evergreen coniferous tree is considered to be one of the most beautiful in the region. The maximum Siberian cedar can reach a height of 40 meters, since it grows up to 500 years.

Gorgeous and unique. There are really incredible specimens that amaze with their age, size, extraordinary appearance and legendary fate. It is very difficult to choose just ten of the most amazing trees in the world, but, unfortunately, we are limited by the scope of this article. Silent witnesses of global tragedies, rises and falls of entire civilizations, wars, climate change remained among the plants. These wise huge creatures - the largest and oldest trees - have been reaching for the sun for thousands of years and quietly contemplating the restless world around.

Giant trees can be found on almost all continents. They impress and amaze with their size. Being next to such an unusual plant is a real miracle, reminding people of how small their role is compared to the vast world.

Pando Tree

Pando, nicknamed the Trembling Giant, is amazing in terms of area, age and weight... Indeed, this is the largest tree in the world! Pando Grove is a colossal forest of fifty thousand aspen poplar trunks, which, surprisingly, is one plant with a single root system. All trees are parts of a gigantic living organism that weighs 6,600 tons and covers an area of ​​43 hectares. The age of the Giant Pando is estimated by researchers at 80 thousand years. This unique forest tree grows in the USA, not far from the Colorado Plateau, Utah.

Sequoia General Sherman

Sequoia General Sherman - the largest single tree in the world in terms of volume, its age is 2000 years. The girth of the trunk of the ancient giant is almost 25 meters, and the crown is 33 meters. In height, this sequoia has already reached almost 85 meters, and it still continues to grow. One can only guess what it will be like in, say, a thousand years. A giant sequoia grows in the Sierra Nevada, USA.

Tule tree

Thule is the largest tree in the world in terms of trunk girth. There is a curiosity in the immediate vicinity of the city of Oaxaca, Mexico. The circumference of the giant plant is 58 meters at the foot, and the age is from one and a half to six thousand years. It was once thought that these were as many as three trees, but recent DNA analysis has disproved this assumption.


In the Redwoods area (USA, California) grows the largest tree in the world in height, which already reaches 115 meters. They named him Hyperion. The location of the giant is carefully hidden. Scientists fear that frequent visits could destroy the ecosystem around and damage the health of the plant, which, according to very modest assumptions, is already 800 years old.

Great banyan tree

Great banyan tree is a tree that consists of many interlacing trunks and has the largest crown in the world (its circumference is about 350 meters). It grows in India, the city of Howrah. The age of the Great Banyan is estimated at 250 years. This plant of the species Ficus benghalensis (Bengal ficus) is more like a small grove, and all because of the huge number of roots protruding from the ground, and clones that have separated from the main trunk.


The name of the biblical prophet was given to one very ancient tree of the long-lived pine species, according to other sources - spiny intermontane. The long-lived plant is almost 5 thousand years old. Outwardly, it is practically unremarkable, but scientists believe that this is the oldest tree in the world. To protect the rarity from vandals, I had to hide its exact location. It is only known that this is the Inyo National Forest, USA, California.

Hundred horse chestnut

The oldest chestnut tree that grows on the slope of Etna is about 3 thousand years old. Among its "relatives" it is considered the largest. This plant is even associated with a beautiful legend about Giovanna of Aragon, the Queen of Naples, who, together with a hundred knights guarding her and their fighting horses, was able to wait out the rain under a spreading thick crown.

Dragon Tree

On the island of Tenerife there is a Dragon Tree that is unique in its appearance. Scientists still cannot accurately determine its age, because this miracle of nature does not have a trunk as such. The tree is held together by the finest interweaving of many stems, which firmly cling to each other and form something like a column. Above this makeshift trunk there is a dense canopy of leaves. The plant releases a resinous sap when the leaves and bark are cut from it, which the locals call dragon's blood. The tree is considered healing and is actively used in folk medicine.

Piranji tree

In the vicinity of the city of Natal (Brazil) you can find an unusual cashew tree, which, as a result of an old mutation, has grown by as much as 2 hectares in 127 years of life. As soon as a branch that has bent to the ground touches the soil, it takes root and turns into another trunk of this single forest. Farmers claim that this magnificent tree produces more than 80,000 fruits every year.

Tree of Life

In the very center of the desert of Bahrain, in the midst of the hot sands without any signs of vegetation, for 400 years now, a lone acacia has been rising, which is called the Tree of Life. No one can say for sure how this plant can exist for several centuries without visible sources of life-giving moisture and normal soil. Some argue that this acacia comes from the mythical Eden and has a special power.

All the largest trees in the world listed in our article deserve to be included in the Guinness Book of Records. Each of them has something to brag about: some amaze with their height, others with their age or wondrous beauty, others with incredible stamina and desire to survive. But all of them are united by one common quality - these giants support in people the ability to be surprised at the wonders of our incomparable planet.

There are many tall trees around the world whose extraordinary height has been exaggerated and disputed. However, with the help of the latest measurement tools, such as laser rangefinders and tape fall measurements, it was possible to find out the true height of giant trees. Here are ten tallest trees in the world , which stay the same as the world changes around them.

Almost all of the presented trees are so tall that it is simply impossible to photograph them completely. Dense vegetation also interferes with this.

The height of the tree is 112.20 m.

Located in Montgomery Woods (a natural reserve in the USA), Mendocino held the title of the world's tallest tree from 1996 to 2000. Other sequoias grow near Mendocino, but if you look at them from above, the giant towers over his fellows in the same way that Arnold Schwarzenegger towers over the kids in the movie Kindergarten Cop.

Height - 112.56 m.

The tree, located in the forest of John Davison Rockefeller in Humboldt (USA), was considered the tallest tree on the planet until number ten in our rating, that is, from 1995 to 1996. In terms of trunk diameter, it is inferior to Mendocino (3.9 meters versus 4.19 meters). And it was very difficult for researchers and just curious to find it, since there were no photographs or coordinates of the Paradox at that time. Of all the giant trees known today, the Paradox stands out for its beauty.

Height - 112.6 m.

Paradox's Neighbor, also native to California's Humboldt Redwood National Park and the eighth longest tree on Earth. Named after the billionaire, famous not only for his fortune, but also for the number of years he lived. The long, slender "body" of Rockefeller invariably delights those who are lucky enough to see him. And this is not easy to do, since the exact coordinates of most of the tallest trees are kept secret (it’s easier than protecting them from vandal tourists around the clock), and it’s not so easy to distinguish Rockefeller from other sequoias from below. Its trunk diameter has not yet been measured.

Height - 112. 62 m.

And again, the "inhabitant" of the Humboldt park got into the top 10 giant trees. It was discovered by Paul Zinke and Al Strangenburger. Like other redwoods, Lauralin is a whole ecosystem, birds nest in it, insects live, lichens and other representatives of the local flora sprout. It is noteworthy that the location of Lauralin is not hidden from the public.

Height - 112.63 m.

One of the tallest trees in California's Redwood National Park Finding Orion is an almost impossible task because the tree giant sits right next to two other giant sequoias, though twice their size when viewed from above. Orion is about 1500 years old.

Height - 112.71 m.

A giant with a long name, belonging to the redwoods, was discovered in 1994. At that time, he was considered the largest known tree in the world and held this title for a year. The tree is located near Redwood Creek, but its exact location is kept secret. In terms of trunk diameter, it is larger than Mendocino and Paradox (4. 39 meters).

Altitude at the time of detection - 112.34 m

This worthy representative of the tallest trees was found in 2000 in the Humboldt National Park. Then the tree was 112.34 meters high, but continues to grow. In 2010, it reached a height of 113.11 meters. Like all the other numbers on our hit parade, the Stratospheric Giant belongs to the redwoods and is fenced in by many trees that are almost as tall. The tree's exact location is being hidden to prevent it from being damaged by overly active citizens.

Height - 113.14 m.

In third place on the longest tree chart is the redwood discovered by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor in Redwood Park, California. Icarus got his name for the dead, sun-bleached "crown". However, there are enough other trees in Redwood, with dead tops, so it will be intentionally difficult to find Icarus, and the public is not told exactly where he is.

Height - 114.58 m.

Another tall sequoia found in the Redwood park area by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor in July 2006. It is not much shorter than the competitor, which occupies the first line of the rating.

1. Hyperion - 115.61 m

Leading the top 10 tallest trees in the world is a sequoia from Northern California, bearing the proud name of Hyperion. The volume of its trunk is 502 m³, and its age is estimated at 700-800 years. Tireless naturalists Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor have discovered a tree in Redwood National Park and believe that Hyperion's height could have been higher if not for woodpeckers. They damaged the trunk of a titanic tree at its very top. The last measurement of Hyperion was carried out in 2015.

Video version

Sequoias, also known as redwoods, are the tallest tree species on Earth. They could compete with representatives of the species "pretty fir" (aka Douglas fir) and eucalyptus trees in Australia, but the largest of these trees were ruthlessly cut. By the way, the same fate awaited Hyperion, but fortunately for him, the Redwood Valley in the 70s of the last century became the Redwood National Park and cutting down trees was prohibited there. There are currently hundreds of sequoias exceeding 100 m in height and there are no living trees of other species exceeding this height.

Although the Hyperion is unsurpassed in trunk length, it is inferior in volume, mass and age to the sequoia called General Sherman. The height of General Sherman is modest, compared to other representatives of the rating of the highest trees - 83.8 m, but the weight is a record 1900 tons, the trunk volume is 1487 m³, and the age reaches from 2300 to 2700 years.

The tallest tree in the world - Hyperion

Until August 2006 the title " the tallest tree in the world" "belonged to a giant 112.7-meter sequoia, nicknamed the" stratospheric giant ". It is located in the Humboldt National Park in California. To give you some idea of ​​the massive size of this tree, let's say it's twice the height of the Statue of Liberty, minus the foundation.

But the giant lost its status when two naturalists, Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor, stumbled across a cluster of trees in California's Redwood National Park that were taller than any they had seen before. They made preliminary measurements using professional laser equipment, and found not one, not two, but three trees that were taller than the "stratospheric giant."

Hyperion means "very high"

The height of the tallest tree, called Hyperion, is 115 meters . If you have no idea how big Hyperion is, then imagine: the height of Big Ben in London is 96.3 m, that is, it is pretty much lower than this tree.

This gigantic redwood (sequoia) would have been even taller if not for the woodpeckers that damaged the very top of the trunk. This slowed down Hyperion's upward movement.

When Atkins and Taylor announced their discovery, a team of scientists led by environmentalist Steve Sillett of Humboldt State University arrived at the park to measure the find.

This was done in the most precise way: Sillett climbed to the top of the tree to lower the tape from there directly to the ground. The descent of this tape was filmed for National Geographic.

Hyperion was very lucky: in the 70s of the 20th century, just a few hundred kilometers from it, there was a clear felling of trees. About two weeks before a man with a saw would approach Hyperion, Redwood Valley had become Redwood National Park. Lumber companies feared this would happen and worked 24/7 harvesting valuable mahogany and ruthlessly destroying old growth forests that were there long before humans entered the valley. Most redwoods, from which the tallest trees grow, were less fortunate than Hyperion. To date, only 4% of mahogany forests have survived in America.

By redwood standards, Hyperion is quite young and still growing. Sillett thinks the tree was 'only' 600 years old by , which is about 20 years in human terms.

Hyperion's exact location is kept secret by park rangers to avoid the tourist crowd near the tree. This can upset the delicate balance of the forest ecosystem and harm the tree. After all, tourists can not only admire the huge tree, but also chip off part of the bark “for memory” or scratch something on it in the style of “Jack and Sally were here.

As Sillett puts it, trees can't outrun the paparazzi like people do, and history teaches us that bad things happen to trees that become too popular.

It is not at all clear whether Hyperion is the tallest of the redwoods or simply the largest sequoia known to us. After all, 96% of redwood forests have become victims of lumberjacks.

Tallest tree ever measured

The tallest tree in the world that was measured in the 19th century is not a sequoia, but a mountain ash.

  • In 1872, the report of the Australian inspector of state forests William Ferguson mentions a fallen and charred eucalyptus regal (aka Eucalyptus regnans, aka mountain ash), which during its lifetime had a height of at least 132 meters .
  • Around the same time, several specimens 140 m tall were recorded. Alas, we cannot verify these measurements: all these trees have been cut down. Rowan has been and is an important building material in Australia.

The tallest living eucalyptus can be found in Tasmania. The height of the eucalyptus bearing the proud nickname "Centurion" is about 100 meters. It is the tallest living deciduous tree on Earth . It was discovered in October 2008 by an aircraft-mounted laser that measured terrain height, forest height and forest biomass.

How tall can a tree be?

In an article entitled 'Investigation of the limits of maximum tree growth', Jonathan Amos of the BBC science department states that the maximum the height of the tree can be about 130 meters .

As the tree reaches this point, it will pump less and less water and nutrients. They simply won't be enough for new growth.

There is no living tree in the world that would grow up to 130 meters.

This is the definition of this tree on Wikipedia: General Sherman is a specimen of the giant sequoiadendron (Sequoiadendron giganteum) growing in the "Giant Forest" of the Sequoia National Park in California, USA. In terms of volume, it is the largest tree on Earth. The height of the General Sherman tree is 83.8 m, the volume of the trunk is estimated at 1487 m³, the weight is 1900 tons, and age - in 2300-2700 years.

The General Sherman tree is the largest and heaviest living organism on our planet. However, it is neither the tallest sequoia (this record belongs to the Hyperion tree, which belongs to the evergreen sequoia species), nor the tallest representative of sequoiadendrons (95 m high specimens are known, but they have a smaller volume). It is also known that the Crannell Creek Giant, an evergreen sequoia tree cut down in the mid-1940s, growing near the city of Trinidad, had about 15-25% more volume than General Sherman

Let's take a closer look at it...

Photo 2.

In the nineteenth century, the area where the famous tree grows was called "Giant Forest" by explorer John Muir when he discovered giant sequoias. The name of this part of the park, "Giant Forest", remains to this day. Many tourists describe the General Sherman tree, striking in its size, as a red-orange "stone", the top of which cannot be seen.

Tourists come to the park specifically to see the General Sherman tree, named after Civil War hero General William Sherman, and to take pictures. Next to the sequoia, they seem so fragile and small.

Photo 3.

For a long time it was believed that General Sherman's tree was over three thousand years old, but recent studies have determined its exact age - exactly two thousand years. So it's not the oldest tree in the world.

The oldest tree in the world, a special species of California pine, was 4484 years old when it was cut down in 1965. Sequoias were also cut down, the age of which reached about 3000 years. It is believed that 5,000 trees still exist on Earth.

In the winter of 2006 General Sherman's tree lost part of its crown, the largest branch of the tree fell off, which was about two meters in diameter and about 30 meters long.

Photo 4.

Scientists are worried, is the tree really dying? However, they came to the conclusion that this incident does not indicate any problems in the condition of the tree, but can only be a natural defense mechanism against adverse weather conditions.

When the branches fell to the ground, the fence around the tree and the road leading to it were destroyed. Even after this, General Sherman's tree did not lose its status as the largest tree on the planet.

A special path leads to General Sherman's tree, and even people with disabilities can see this miracle. At the end of the path, brick tiles are laid out, which show where the roots of the tree reach.

Photo 5 or a six-room house.

One of the secrets to the longevity of giant sequoias is their thick, tough, fire-resistant bark. But sometimes, during the frequent fires in southern California, the tree burns through.

Photo 7.

No one can say how long a sequoia can live (and in a scientific way - a giant sequoia), but researchers meet here trees whose age is estimated at 3 thousand years! (About this period in Eurasia, mankind learned to process copper and bronze).

Photo 8.

Have you ever wondered how much oxygen such a tree can produce? About 120 kg per year - this will be enough for a family of three to four people!

Photo 9.

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