How to care for a birch tree

Birch Tree Care | Birch Tree Pruning, Maintenace, Diseases

The birch tree is popular among homeowners due to its beautiful bark, modest size and graceful branches. Two of the most common birch tree species in the Northeast are the River Birch and White Birch.  The White Birch tree is characterized by its beautiful white bark (when mature) and drooping branches, whereas the River Birch tree has a brownish-red exfoliating bark and pyramidal to rounded crown. These characteristic bark qualities provide interest in the landscape throughout all four seasons.  A birch tree’s leaves are green with sharp edges, which turn yellow in the fall depending on the species.

How to Grow Birch Trees: Due to its shallow root system the birch tree is very sensitive to heat and drought. It needs moist, cool soil, but also sunshine on its leaves to flourish. When planting a birch tree select a site that will shade its roots in the afternoon and still provide sun to canopy for much of the day. Mulching also helps to maintain soil temperature.

Most birch trees grow best in slightly acidic soils, although White Birch trees can grow in alkaline soil. Keep in mind the height of the full grown trees when planting and do not plant under overhead wires. These attractive ornamentals do require a little extra care to ensure a long life-span.

Size of a Birch Tree: 30-65’ high / 15-30 spread depending on species

If you’d like to establish birch trees in your landscape, we can connect you with one of our pre-vetted landscape experts that can help you select, purchase and plant new birch trees.

Birch Tree Care

Birch trees are susceptible to borers as well as other insects and tree diseases. A preventive insect control program is recommended to reduce problems. Keep your birch trees as healthy as possible through regular monitoring, pruning, watering and using birch tree fertilizer.

Newly planted birch trees benefit from ArborKelp®, SavATree’s exclusive seaweed biostimulant which aids in tree establishment, promotes root growth and heightens stress tolerance.

Mature and established trees benefit from fertilizer feedings of organic-based macro and micronutrients for the nutrition necessary to sustain their health.

Pruning Birch Tree Leaves

Birch trees should be trained to grow with a center leader and should be pruned to maintain optimal health and a strong structure; remove lower hanging branches that interfere with walkways or driveways.

Birch tree pruning is recommended to preserve or improve tree structure, vigor and life-span. Pruning can reduce specific defects or structural problems in a tree to greatly lessen the risk of failure.

Broken, diseased, or dead branches are typically removed in order to prevent decay-producing fungi from infecting other areas of the birch tree.

Removal of live branches is occasionally necessary to allow increased exposure to sunlight and circulation of air within the canopy of the birch tree. This assists in reduction of certain tree diseases. We also advocate the removal of branch stubs to promote successful and proper healing of wounds.

Your SavATree certified arborist is equipped with the latest techniques and state-of-the-art equipment to keep your birch trees healthy, beautiful and safe. Contact us today for information on birch tree pruning or any of our other birch tree care services.

Prevent Birch Tree Diseases & Pests

There are several damaging birch tree diseases and pests. Some of the most common are:

Bronze Birch Borer – This potentially lethal pest can be difficult to control in birch trees.  It is an invasive wood-boring beetle whose larvae bore into the layers of the tree and interrupt the flow of sap.  Trees that are weak and already have wounds in the bark are especially susceptible to attack. Indications of a problem with a bronze birch borer infestation include winding galleries just beneath the bark in the trunk and thinning at the top of the crown of the tree. Fortunately pruning and other treatments are available that can help protect your trees.

Birch Leafminer – The larvae of this insect burrow into the birch leaves looking for nutrients. To identify the problem look for small green spots on the leaf surface in May or June. The leaves will then develop brown splotches.  While the birch leafminer usually does not kill the tree, it can disfigure and weaken it, making it more susceptible to a bronze birch borer infestation.

European Birch Aphid and the Common Birch Aphid – Aphids suck the sap out of the birch tree leaves causing them to yellow and twist.  A severe infestation can cause leaf drop and branch dieback. Often the undersides of the leaves seem to be dripping with sap.  This is honeydew secreted by the aphids, which in turn, attract ants.

Other birch tree diseases, problems and pests include:

  • Birch canker
  • Scorch
  • Heart rots

Many of these insect and disease conditions can weaken the tree and lead to tree death if not treated. If you suspect a problem with your trees, call a SavATree certified arborist right away for an evaluation and treatment options. Our birch tree care experts can help protect your trees and keep your landscape beautiful.

Diseased photo: Birch disease 5393596-Bronze Birch Borer by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University,

How to Grow and Care for a Paper Birch Tree


Vanessa Richins Myers

Vanessa Richins Myers

Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, writer, and educator with over 10 years of training and experience as a professional horticulturist and gardener. She has a Bachelor of Science degree in horticulture, with an emphasis in landscape design and urban horticulture. She volunteers as a community garden specialist.

Learn more about The Spruce's Editorial Process

Updated on 06/22/22

Reviewed by

Andrew Hughes

Reviewed by Andrew Hughes

Andrew Hughes is a certified arborist and member of the International Society of Arborists specializing in tree heal care. He founded and runs Urban Loggers, LLC, a company offering residential tree services in the Midwest and Connecticut.

Learn more about The Spruce's Review Board

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

In This Article

  • Care

  • Types

  • Pruning

  • Propagating

  • Growing From Seed

  • Overwintering

  • Common Pests and Diseases

  • Frequently Asked Questions

The paper birch tree (Betula papyrifera) is a fast-growing but short-lived tree that often develops multiple trunks as the plant matures. The most distinctive characteristic of this deciduous tree is the peeling bark, which contrasts sharply against the green leaves that turn bright yellow in fall. The peeling white bark blends well with winter's snowy surroundings. Historically, this was the birch tree used by Native Americans to construct birch-bark canoes—hence the alternative common name, "canoe birch. "

The leaves of this tree grow 2 to 4 inches long with double-toothed margins. The small dry fruit (nutlets) form in clusters on drooping catkins that turn brown upon maturity. The paper birch, being a monoecious tree, bears both male and female catkins. Similar to most other birch trees, the paper birch likes a moist environment, making it the perfect accompaniment to a stream or pond feature in your yard.

Common Names Paper birch, American white birch, canoe birch
Botanical Name Betula papyrifera 
Family Betulaceae
Plant Type Tree
Mature Size 50-70 ft. tall, 25-50 ft. wide
Sun Exposure Partial
Soil Type Sandy, loamy, moist
Soil pH Acidic, neutral
Bloom Time Spring
Flower Color Yellow, brown (male), or green (female)
Hardiness Zones 2-7 (USDA)
Native Area North America

Paper Birch Tree Care

Birches, in general, are well known as water-loving trees and are not very drought resistant. It is best planted in an area that is naturally moist and will require a lot of watering if planted in dry soils or in areas where it must compete with other plants. Do not plant paper birch in compacted soil or in climates that have periods of intense heat.

Paper birch grows best if you can cover the ground beneath its canopy with a thick layer of mulch to keep the soil moist and cool. Rather than planting lawn grass right up to the trunk, a mulch island around the tree is a good idea.

You will need to be on guard for pest problems with this tree, as some can be quite devastating. And be prepared to remove older trees, as this species is not long-lived.

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova


Paper birch prefers the partial shade conditions found along margins where other taller trees are growing, but it can grow acceptably if planted in full sun, especially in cooler climates.


Paper birch grows best in sandy or rocky loam soil that is fairly moist. It naturally favors acidic soil but will do fine in soil with a neutral pH, or even slightly alkaline.


Preferring moist soil, this tree will need to be watered frequently if planted in a lawn location where it must compete with turfgrass. It will require less watering if planted alongside a stream, pond, or bog where conditions are naturally moist.

Temperature and Humidity

This tree grows best in cooler climates and cool soil temperatures. Keeping the soil cool and moist by heavy mulching is a good strategy for trees that can't be planted in a naturally moist location. Near the southern end of the hardiness range (zones 6 and 7), this tree sometimes struggles; it prefers a climate with long winters and coolish summers.


A spring feeding routine with a slow-release granular fertilizer mixed into the soil beneath a layer of organic mulch will help the paper birch resist bronze birch borers. For the amount to use, follow the product label instructions. Avoid excessive feeding.

Types of Paper Birch Tree

The pure species, Betula papyrifera, is most commonly planted, but there are two cultivars that can be considered:

  • 'Chickadee' has a narrower, pyramidal shape and is somewhat more resistant to the bronze birch borer than the pure species tree.
  • 'Snowy' is an especially fast-growing variety with a dazzling white bark. It also has good resistance to the bronze birch borer.


Paper birch may form one or several trunks. Once a central leader has been identified, you can prune the tree to favor a singular trunk. Other than the occasional shaping, paper birch does not need much pruning. The tree tends to shed smaller branches on its own. Their attachment to the main trunk is so weak, you often don't have to prune off dead limbs—they just fall off when they are ready.

Do not prune in late winter or early spring or your tree will bleed sap in an attempt to heal the wound. While sap bleeding is not necessarily detrimental to the tree's health, it can cause an unsightly mess, and excessive open wounds can make the tree susceptible to pests.

Propagating a Paper Birch Tree

Although the success rate is usually only about 50 percent, birch trees can sometimes be propagated by rooting branch cuttings. Here's how:

  1. Cut a 6- to 8-inch-long green branch tip, making the cut just below a leaf node. Remove all the leaves from the bottom 3 inches of the cutting. Dip the cutting in rooting hormone, then plant it in a small pot filled with standard potting soil.
  2. Cover the planting pot loosely with a clear plastic bag and place it in a bright location but out of direct sunlight. Keep the soil moist but not soggy for about eight weeks, until roots develop.
  3. Transplant the rooted cutting into the desired landscape location, into a hole where the soil has been amended with peat moss and sand. Be careful not to break the young roots as you transplant the cutting into the ground.
  4. Keep the soil moist but not soggy for the next eight weeks. At this point, if the planted cutting is developing new growth, you know that a successful tree is beginning to grow. The growing sapling can now be fed with diluted fertilizer.

How to Grow Paper Birch Trees From Seed

Collect paper birch seeds in the fall, when the catkins start to brown. The seeds are small, with wings that help them fly on the breeze. Place the seeds in a small container filled with compost or humus. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of potting soil and sprinkle them with water.

Place the container in an area where the seeds can stratify, such as in a refrigerator or an unheated garage during winter. They need to be in the cold for six months.

After the six months is over, set the container on a sunny windowsill for light and warmth. The soil should be kept moist. The seeds should sprout within a few weeks. Thin out the seedlings until you have one strong contender. This can be planted in the ground in the spring after all danger of frost has passed.


A good layer of mulch underneath the tree will help it through the winter. Also, keep an eye on the water the tree is getting. Snowfall can often give a tree what it needs during the winter, but if you are facing a period of little to no snow, additional watering can help keep the ground moist.

Common Pests and Plant Diseases

All birches can fall victim to the bronze birch borer, a devastating insect pest. An affected tree will show yellowing leaves that begin to shed, and the tips of the branches will turn brown. These symptoms generally start at the top of the tree and move downward. Paper birch is one of the more resistant of the birch species, but if bronze birch borer does strike your tree, prune off affected limbs as you see them, and use a pesticide designed to control the insects. Badly affected trees will need to be removed and replaced.

Aphids, birch skeletonizers, and birch leaf miners can also wreak havoc on trees that have become weakened due to drought. Make sure your trees are not competing with your lawn for moisture. Another potential drought problem is birch dieback, where the branches of the birch tree die out over time. Conversely, trees that are watered too much can become prone to fungal problems, including leaf spots and cankers.

planting and care, growing from seeds, species

Every person living from the tundra to the subtropics knows how a birch looks like. Such a tree is found in the wild quite widely, while more than 120 species have been discovered by experts. Most of these species are successfully used in the manufacture of furniture, as well as in the chemical industry. Thanks to the bright white trunk, decorated with black stripes, this tree is one of the most memorable symbols of Russia. Birch can be found in almost any forest in the middle latitudes. And it is also widely used for landscaping city squares, parks and alleys. Also, a birch can often be found in garden plots, as it can become the main decoration of any landscape. 9Ol000

  • 7 Species of birch with photo
    • 7.1 Silver birch (Betula Pendula)
    • 7.2 Downy birch (Betula Pubescens)
  • 8 Application
  • 9 Birch in landscape design
  • Features of birch

    The name of the tree "birch" comes from the Proto-Slavic Berza, which means "shine, turn white". At the same time, its Latin name Betula comes from the Gallic language. This genus is represented by deciduous trees. At the same time, it is considered the most numerous genus in the entire Northern Hemisphere. There are more than 100 species in the genus, and he himself belongs to the Birch family.

    For the Scandinavian, Slavic and Finno-Ugric cultures, this plant has not only important domestic, but also historical and ritual significance.

    Interesting facts about the Birch

    Watch this video on YouTube

    Description of the birch:

    1. Height . In most species, it varies from 30 to 45 meters. You can also meet creeping and dwarf varieties, as well as shrubs.
    2. Shaft grip . It varies from 120 to 150 centimeters.
    3. Root system . It can be superficial or deep, and obliquely going deep into the soil. It depends directly on the type of birch, as well as on the conditions in which it grows. As a rule, the root system is powerful and branched.
    4. Bark . The most common white bark, but it can also have a brown, pink or pale yellow tint. However, in nature, you can also meet species whose bark is colored brown, gray, almost black. The outer layer of the bark peels off easily. At the same time, in old specimens, the lower part of the trunk is covered with thick dark-colored bark, on the surface of which there are many deep cracks. The surface of young stems is usually covered with brownish-red bark, on which there are many small growths.
    5. Leaves . Small leaf plates have a smooth surface and an ovoid-triangular shape. Their edges are serrated. Their width is about 40 mm, and their length is up to 70 mm. They are painted in a rich green hue, which changes to bright yellow with the onset of autumn. Young leaf plates have a sticky coating.
    6. Inflorescences . Scientifically, they are called catkin-shaped thyrsae. The composition of the complex inflorescence includes both female and male flowers. Female flowers bloom at the ends of shortened shoots, and male flowers bloom on long ones. Depending on the type and climatic conditions, birch blooms from March to June. When the female flowers are pollinated, the male flowers drop off.
    7. Fruit . It is a slightly flattened nut with membranous thin wings of small size. Since the fruits are very light, they spread easily with the help of wind. So, a gust of wind can carry them away from the parent tree at a distance of up to one hundred meters.
    8. Lifespan . On average, this figure is from 100 to 300 years. However, there are also species that live longer.


    Birch is an important forest-forming species. It is she who contributes to the creation of a characteristic landscape in the vast territory of North America and Eurasia. Such a plant can be found even beyond the Arctic Circle, in addition, it forms the upper border of mountain forests. Some species grow in the wild even in Southeast Asia and Africa.

    This plant is undemanding to the level of humidity, as well as to the composition of the soil. Such a tree normally grows on sea and river banks, on dry steppes, swamps, and rocky slopes. The only birch is a light-loving plant, but some species grow quite normally in shady areas.

    Planting birch in open ground

    Experts do not recommend growing birch in your garden. The fact is that it contributes to the drying up of the soil, as well as the oppression of crops growing in the immediate vicinity. You should choose a place for planting, which is located away from shrubs and fruit trees. And in order for the birch not to deplete the soil on the site, it must be fed and watered in time.

    In order for a seedling to be planted successfully, certain rules must be followed:

    1. The beginning of spring is the best time for planting seedlings in open ground. At this time, the seedling experiences minimal stress from planting. If you wish, you can plant it in the autumn, but in this case, the tree should have a voluminous clod of earth on the roots, and its age should not be more than three years. If the seedling is more than three years old, then it can be planted in open ground even in winter, since at this time the clod of earth is frozen and does not crumble.
    2. When preparing the soil on the site for planting birch, it is necessary to take into account on which soil a particular species grows in natural conditions. However, most species are distinguished by their unpretentiousness, they will grow normally in any soil. As for the acidity of the soil, it can also be different. At the bottom of the landing pit, a drainage layer is laid out, the thickness of which should be about 15 centimeters. To make a suitable soil mixture, you need to combine 1 part of peat and 2 parts of sand and earth.
    3. The pit for planting should be large enough to completely fit the soil clod of the seedling. After the plant is placed in the hole, it should be covered with soil mixture so that the earth slightly covers the root collar. Remember that if the root system is excessively deepened, this can cause a slowdown in plant growth, and in some cases this leads to its death. The fact is that when the roots are deepened, the mycorrhiza fungus that lives on their surface dies.
    4. If you plant several seedlings at once, then the minimum distance between them should be from 3 to 4 meters.
    5. A tree that has just been planted needs to be watered abundantly. Also, the soil in the near-trunk circle is moistened for several more days.

    A young tree with slow growth. After he is 4 years old, it begins to grow much faster. The average growth rate of a tree is 100 cm per year. Planting a birch, WE HAVE A PINE

    Watch this video on YouTube

    Birch care

    Birch is easy to care for. Do not forget to systematically moisten the soil in the near-trunk circle in the summer, while making sure that it does not dry out. In addition, it is necessary from time to time to loosen the surface of the soil mixture in the near-stem circle, while the maximum loosening depth should be 30–50 mm, which will not injure the root system. Also, do not forget to cover the surface of the trunk circle with a layer of mulch about 10 centimeters thick, for this you can use peat, sawdust or compost.

    It is recommended to feed the plant in early spring, when there are no leaves on the branches yet. You can use a nutrient mixture consisting of 10 liters of water, 10 g of urea, 1 kg of manure and 15 g of ammonium nitrate. Re-feeding, if necessary, can be carried out in the last weeks of spring. The amount of dressing depends on the age of the plant: if it is 10–20 years old, 3 buckets of solution will be enough, and an older specimen will need 5 buckets.

    Seedlings after planting in the first 6 months need to be tied to a peg that will protect them from the wind. The plant does not need formative pruning, but in the spring it needs to cut off broken and dried stems.

    Propagation methods

    Growing from seeds

    Birch reproduces well by self-sowing. Sowing seeds is carried out in autumn and spring, in the latter case they are stratified for about 8 weeks at a temperature of 0 to 5 degrees. The longer the seed material is stored, the worse it germinates.

    How to grow a birch. Sowing seeds. Part 6.

    Watch this video on YouTube


    This tree is rarely propagated by cuttings. The fact is that only about 10 percent of the cuttings take root.

    Diseases and pests

    The most common pests on the birch are:

    1. Silkworm caterpillar . Eats leaves, leaving only veins. Shake off the pests and treat with an insecticidal preparation.
    2. Pipe Beetle . Damages foliage and young branches. Cut off the damaged parts and destroy with fire. Next, dig the trunk circle and spray with an insecticidal agent.

    Such a tree is often affected by fungal diseases. For example, a tinder fungus can settle on it, which contributes to the destruction of wood. Cut off all growths and treat the affected areas with a fungicide.

    Types of birches with photo

    The genus Birch belongs to the Birch family and unites 119 species. The common birch (Betula Alba), or white birch, is distinguished by the fact that it has become widespread throughout the European territory. There are 2 types of white birch:

    Hanging birch (Betula Pendula)

    People call this species warty birch, silver, weeping, hanging (drooping), and also white European. In height, such a tree can reach about 30 meters. While the plant is young, its bark is brown. When a tree is 10 years old, its bark begins to turn white. On the surface of the branches there is a large number of growths, which is why the plant is called "warty". The stems sag, which is a characteristic feature of this species. This species is resistant to frost and drought, while it is distinguished by its photophilous nature.

    Downy birch (Betula Pubescens)

    This species is also called downy birch, or curly (downy). Its height is about 25 meters. The trunk of young trees is covered with brownish-red bark, which after a while becomes snow-white. Branches growing upwards form a wide and spreading crown. This species is frost-resistant, and it also grows normally in shaded or wetlands.

    Today, the name "white birch" is used extremely rarely, as it often caused confusion.

    Also related to this species:

    1. Flat birch . It is also called Asian or Japanese white. It grows in Siberia, as well as in cold and temperate Asian regions (Japan, China and Korea). Such a plant is quite often used for cities, and it is also often grown in local areas. The most common varieties of this species are: Whitespire, Fargo, Szechuanica.
    2. American white birch, or Canoic, or paper . Under natural conditions, it is common in Canada and the United States, and in culture it is quite successfully grown in European countries. The species is distinguished by its unpretentiousness, it is drought-resistant, and also grows normally in wetlands. The wood of such a birch is especially valued, which has a pale red color and is easily polished. The most popular varieties are: Renaissane Reflection, Vancouver, St. Gerge.

    Also, among the many types of birch, the following stand out:

    1. Red birch, or sweet, or cherry, or viscous . The species grows in North America. Its bark is painted almost black or brownish-red. The plant reaches a height of about 25 meters, while the crown of a young plant has a pyramidal shape. After some time, the crown takes the form of a ball, while the branches become sagging. There are clearly visible cracks on the surface of the cherry-colored bark. It is characterized by medium resistance to frost, the variety can be used for cultivation in regions with a mild warm climate.
    2. Erman birch, or stone birch . This stunted tree reaches a height of about 15 meters. The species is most widely distributed in the Far East. The surface of the curved trunk is covered with a dark bark, which after a while cracks heavily. Such a tree is a long-liver (up to 400 years), and it is also distinguished by its unpretentiousness.
    3. Black birch . The species has a thick trunk, a height of about 30 meters, while it is characterized by thermophilicity. The crown is openwork, the shape of the leaf plates is oval.
    4. Dwarf . In nature, it is found only in the tundra, while it prefers mountainous terrain. The species has an external resemblance to a strongly branching shrub.
    5. Karelian . In height, a stunted tree reaches about 8 meters, while it can look like a tall shrub. The species has very valuable wood.

    Himalayan and Canadian birches have snow-white bark. The fact is that she needs to reflect a very large amount of ultraviolet sunlight.

    Most birch species are frost resistant. All heat-loving species come from the southern regions.

    Birches in the "Savvateev Nursery"

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    It has long been known that birch is a very useful plant. The leaves and buds have beneficial properties such as disinfectant and diuretic. Birch sap is used to prevent diseases of the circulatory system. The juice collected at the beginning of the spring period is especially useful. The chaga mushroom grown on the trunk is used for headaches and to make a tonic tea.

    Birch tar was previously used to lubricate the wheels of carts, and is now widely used in the manufacture of cosmetics.

    Birch brooms are widely known, and the tree is also used for making firewood. Wood is widely used in the chemical industry, as well as in furniture production. Crafts, household items and products made of birch are durable, lightweight and spectacular.

    Birch in landscaping

    Birch is often planted in a personal plot or used for landscaping the city. It looks great in both solo and group planting. And the tree goes well with other deciduous trees, for example: with alder, willow, maple, mountain ash or bird cherry. Birch is characterized by unpretentiousness and resistance to gas contamination of large cities. Often near busy roads you can see birch alleys that act as protective strips.

    Since this tree is deciduous, when planting alone, it will be necessary to systematically clean the area from flying leaves.

    This highly ornamental plant has richly colored foliage (color changes during the growing season), spectacular bark coloration and a dense openwork crown. In rock gardens and Japanese gardens, undersized and dwarf species are often used.

    BIRCH in landscape design. Unusual gazebo made of hanging birch.

    Watch this video on YouTube

    Planting a birch on the site, caring for the tree, collecting seeds

    White slender birch has always been considered a symbol of Russia, the personification of the Russian soul. It is demanding of itself and growing conditions. Many years will pass until a birch sapling turns into a beautiful tree, its height reaches from 15 to 30 m. A large spreading crown draws a lot of moisture from the soil, so it is recommended to plant seedlings of forest beauties in spacious areas.

    If you have a small household plot, you should not refuse to plant a birch. Dwarf varieties will come to the rescue here, the height of which reaches a maximum of 8-10 m.

    When choosing a place for planting a birch, pay attention:

    — from the wall of any building to a tree there should be at least 5 m;

    - distance to communications and drainage system at least 3 m;

    - the distance to fruit and berry bushes and trees is 3-5 m;

    - during the flowering period, birch "earrings" emit pollen containing allergens;

    - when planting several birches, the distance between seedlings is 4-5 m;

    - if a landing site is chosen near a fence bordering neighbors, then this issue should be discussed with them so that there are no conflicts later;

    - on the northern side, the birch crown creates a shadow. This must be taken into account when planting vegetables.

    Buying a birch sapling is not possible for everyone, but digging a tree in the forest is the place to be. Therefore, you need to choose a strong, healthy-looking, white-trunk tree no more than 1 m high. The most suitable time for this is early spring, when the leaves have not yet blossomed.

    When you find the right specimen, dig around it with a shovel at a distance of 30-40 cm from the trunk, trying to touch the roots as little as possible. Carefully remove from the ground and, together with an earthen clod, place in a bucket or plastic bag, tied with a rope. You can not leave the root system in the open air for a long time, moisture evaporates quickly.

    Birch from the forest will grow tall (up to 20 m), if such a nuance scares, then it is better to go to the nursery and buy the dwarf variety "Youngii", which is popular with summer residents. It has beautiful leaves and a bright white trunk.

    Choosing a place and soil for birch planting

    Drought negatively affects the development of birch, so an open sunny meadow is not suitable for it. In the shade, there will be a lack of lighting for the green mass. Based on such restrictions, we choose a site on the north or east side, partial shade. In the south and west, the soil is dried out by the sun.

    Birches grow in damp and cool soils. An adult tree can “drink” up to 20 buckets of water per day, so watering must be taken care of in advance so that later other crops do not lack moisture from dehydration of the earth.

    Planting a birch

    In early spring, when the temperature outside is +10°C, the soil is still damp and the sun is not so hot, the best time to plant a birch. Dig a planting hole the size of an earthen ball. Add peat, sand, humus and leafy soil to it in equal amounts. Install a seedling in the center, fill it with soil from above, compact and tie it to a support. Since the tree has not yet taken root and is fragile to the wind, the support will help to stand upright, not to lean or fall. Water after planting. 9Birch Care

    Watered on hot days at the rate of 1 bucket of water per 1 sq. m. crowns.

    Birch is treated with a fungicide every spring to prevent diseases and pests. And after the end of the sap flow period, damaged and dry branches are removed from the birch. Occasionally, gum disease is observed.

    If necessary, the height of the birch is shortened by cutting off too long branches.

    A mature tree has a lot of healing properties, in early spring you can collect birch sap, make preparations from birch buds and leaves. And in July, when the leaves grow up, birch brooms are made for the bath.

    How to collect birch seeds

    First, the seeds are checked for maturity, rubbed in the hand and if they crumble, then they are ready for collection. Twigs are tied into a bundle and hung in a dry place protected from the wind. A cloth is spread at the bottom so that in case of shedding of seeds, they can be collected. After 7 days, the dried seeds are shaken off on a cloth, cleaned of debris and left to dry for another 7 days.

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