How to care for a nectarine tree


Nectarine tree - growing, pruning, and advice on caring for it

The nectarine tree belongs to the same family as the peach tree, and it is an exceptional fruit tree that calls for a little care before harvesting the nectarines.

A summary of nectarine tree facts

NamePrunus Persica nucipersica
Family – Rosaceae
Type – fruit tree

Height – 6 ½ to 16 feet (2 to 5 meters)
Climate – temperate and warm
Exposure – full sun

Soil – ordinary, well drained
Foliage – deciduous
Harvest – summer

Planting, pruning and care is important to avoid diseases and ensure proper development for your nectarine tree.

Planting a nectarine tree

Our recommendation is to plant your nectarine tree in a sunlit and wind-sheltered spot so that dominant winds don’t sweep through.

Once the spot is chosen, plant your nectarine tree in fall or in spring.

  • Prepare a blend of soil mix and garden soil, which will make the soil lighter and add nutrients that the tree needs to grow well.
  • If your soil is clay and loamy, add about ⅓ sand to your blend of earth and soil mix.
  • Spread mulch to protect it from frost spells in winter, and it also adds organic matter and avoids weed growth.

The nectarine tree is more hardy than one thinks, since it can resist temperatures as cold as 5° to -4°F (-15 to -20°C).

Pruning, and caring for your nectarine tree

Nectarine tends to not have apical dominance, which means that after pruning, it will sprout new shoots from the base rather than from the top.

Every year, it is important to prune your tree at the end of winter just above a well-formed wood bud.

  • Check that the pruning is well balanced and that there is no dominant central stem, but rather a number of evenly-sized branches.

It is important to perform a fruit-inducing pruning to trigger appearance of many beautiful nectarines.

  • The nectarine tree is very vulnerable to peach leaf curl, and, clearly, proper pruning will give your nectarine tree vigor and a make it more resilient.

You can also treat your nectarine tree before the first leaves appear, with organic acaricide (mite killer) or a spray containing Bordeaux mixture.

Learn more about the nectarine tree

Who has never dreamed of standing up after a nice family feast to go fetch a few peaches from the tree in the garden? This dream is within reach, if you simply care for your tree and considered location, pruning and fertilizing.

With an early cute pink blooming, your nectarine tree will produce magnificent fruits for you during the summer.

  • The nectarine, produced by the Prunus persica nucipersica is actually a natural mutation of the peach tree.

The difference between peach and nectarine is mostly on appearance since the peach tree bears a velvety skin whereas the nectarine’s skin is smooth. The nectarine is smooth and shiny.

Diseases and parasites that attack nectarine trees

  • Nectarine leaf curl – leaves curl and swell
  • Aphids – techniques and organic treatments to avoid it
  • Scale insects – how to fight them
  • European brown rot – the nectarines rot on the nectarine tree

Smart tip about the nectarine tree

Learn to use organic products, because nowadays they have become very effective and won’t contaminate the fruits you’re eating…


Credits for images shared to Nature & Garden (all edits by Gaspard Lorthiois):
Fruit on a nectarine tree by Alain Le Clere under © CC BY-SA 2.0
Blossoms on a nectarine tree by Sven Lachmann under Pixabay license
Large nectarine tree by Asha Gupta under © CC BY-ND 2.0
Nectarine harvest by Simone Van Iderstine under © CC BY-SA 2.0

Nectarine Tree: Sweet, Smooth Summer Fruit

Table of Contents

Nectarines are a fantastic addition to the home garden for their sweet tasty fruit with the added benefit of making beautiful trees. Growing a nectarine tree will decorate your garden with lovely fragrant pink blossoms in the spring, provide a mouthwatering scent of ripe nectarines during the summer, and present a fiery display signaling the start of fall. 

A nectarine is a smaller sweeter version of a peach with smooth skin. Like peaches, there are clingstone and freestone varieties. Clingstone means the flesh clings to the center pit. Clingstone varieties are most commonly used for processing and canning. Freestone means the flesh easily separates from the pit. Freestone varieties are most commonly used for consuming fresh and freezing. Nectarines are commonly eaten fresh but can be used in salads, smoothies, ice creams, cobblers, and jams.

Nectarines have been grown for thousands of years, so there are a lot of cultivars available to grow. Cultivars have been developed to grow in zones 5-9. Dwarfing rootstocks make it possible for gardeners with limited space to grow nectarines. They can be planted in the ground or containers.  

Growing a nectarine tree requires a lot of care and maintenance, which may be intimidating for newbie gardeners. The key to successfully growing delicious nectarines is following a maintenance schedule. This guide will take all the guesswork out of growing a nectarine tree making it easy for anyone to grow a healthy plant with an abundance of yummy fruits. When searching for the perfect nectarine tree, head to a local nursery. They will offer cultivars adapted to your local climate. 

Good Products At Amazon For Growing Nectarine Trees:

  • Safer Brand Insect Killing Soap
  • All Seasons Horticultural And Dormant Spray Oil
  • Neem Bliss 100% Cold Pressed Neem Oil
  • Captain Jack’s Dead Bug Brew
  • Southern Ag Liquid Copper Fungicide
  • Bonide Sulfur Fungicide

Quick Care Guide

The nectarine tree might be the perfect addition to your food forest. Source: sand_and_sky
Common Name(s)Nectarine
Scientific NamePrunus persica var. nucipersica
Days to HarvestAnnually June-August
LightFull sun
WaterModerate
SoilWell-drained nutrient-rich
Fertilizer10-10-10
PestsAphids, red spider mite, peachtree borer, scale
DiseasesPeach leaf curl, brown rot, bacterial spot, powdery mildew

All About The Nectarine Tree

Nectarine flowers are gorgeous early in the year. Source: Jason Fiori

Nectarines or Prunus persica var. nucipersica share the same botanical name as peaches but are classified under the variety nucipersica. Both peaches and nectarines originate from China and were discovered over 2,000 years ago. The fuzz-less trait of the nectarine is the result of a genetic mutation seen on peaches. The smooth skin was highly desirable so the genetic mutation was continuously bred leading to numerous cultivars of nectarines available today. The genus, Prunus, includes several other fruits and nuts such as plums, cherries, and almonds. 

Mature nectarine trees range in height from 6-30 ft depending on the rootstock used. Prunus persica is a deciduous tree with lanceolate leaves. The flowers are pink and have five petals, similar to cherry blossoms. Nectarines have green skin when developing and turn to a combination of yellow, orange, red, or white when ripe. The flesh is either yellow or white and there is one large brown pit in the center.

Nectarine trees are dormant during the winter. In the spring the tree breaks dormancy with beautiful pink blossoms that cover the canopy of the tree. The leaves emerge shortly after. Nectarines are self-fertile so they do not require pollination but pollination will increase the amount of fruit produced. Fruit develops, ripens, and is harvested in the summer. Nectarine trees lose their foliage in the fall after harvest and prepare for dormancy. Each cultivar has a chill requirement to produce fruit for the following season. Chill hours begin to accumulate when temperatures drop below 45°F.

There are a ton of great varieties available to home gardeners. Varieties have been developed for zones 5-9, so it is important to choose a variety adapted to your climate. Fantasia is a popular yellow freestone cultivar adapted to zones 5-9 with a low chill requirement of 250 hours. Mericrest is another yellow freestone cultivar recognized for its disease resistance to brown rot and leaf spot. It is hardy to zones 5-8 and has a chilling requirement of 800 hours. If you are a fan of white nectarines, Goldmine is a white freestone cultivar adapted to zones 5-9 with a chilling requirement of 400 hours. For those with extremely mild winters, Desert Delight is a great variety to consider. It’s a smaller nectarine tree that produces semi-freestone yellow fruit and will only require 100-200 chill hours. 

Planting

Young trees can be planted in the ground or in containers. Choose a sunny location that receives at least 8 hours of direct sunlight. Avoid planting in an area with high wind. Adequate drainage is essential to growing a healthy tree. If the desired planting location does not provide good drainage, trees can be planted in a raised bed. Raised beds should be 5-6 feet in diameter and 10-12 inches in height. 

Nectarine trees should be planted as dormant trees in the late winter or early spring. Whether planting in the ground or a container, keep the graft union at least 2-3 inches above the soil and mulch. Thin trees may need a tree stake for support. If planting multiple trees, space trees 8-12 feet apart. A great choice for container-grown trees is the 5-gallon or 10-gallon Air Pot we stock in our store.

To plant in the ground, dig a hole twice the size of the rootball. Fill in with loose soil and top with mulch. When planting in a container, use a 15-20 gallon pot and a high-quality potting mix.

Care

A nectarine orchard flowering in the spring. Source: Muffet

Nectarines grow well with an established maintenance routine. Failure to follow a maintenance schedule can result in disease and pest issues as well as poor-quality fruits. 

Sun and Temperature

Nectarine trees require full sun or a minimum of 8 hours of direct sunlight. Nectarines can be grown in zones 5-9. Hot summers and cool winters are ideal for optimal growth. Nectarines require a certain number of chill hours for blooms to develop. Chill hours begin to accumulate when temperatures dip below 45°F. If gardening in an area with mild winters, it’s crucial to choose cultivars with a lower chill requirement.

While dormant, some cultivars can tolerate very low temperatures down to -15°F. Although the tree is very frost tolerant, flower buds are much more sensitive to damage. Fully bloomed flowers can tolerate temperatures down to 28°F before damage occurs. Frost damage to flower blooms will reduce the amount of fruit produced for the season. 

Nectarines are commonly grown in areas with high summer temperatures consistently above 95°F. Sunburn can occur, but the damage is usually mild.

Water and Humidity

In-ground trees should be watered once a week. Keep the soil moist, but not saturated. Irrigate early in the morning to avoid extended wet conditions during the night. High humidity and wet conditions will create an environment favorable to disease development. Use drip irrigation and soaker hoses to avoid wetting the trunk and foliage. Check the soil moisture throughout the winter and rainy season and reduce irrigation as needed.

Soil

Nectarines grow best in well-draining sandy loam soils with a pH between 6.0-7.0. Nectarines are very susceptible to disease and pest issues, so quality soil is essential to growing a healthy plant.

Fertilizing

Fertilize new trees one week after planting with 10-10-10. Trees should be fertilized with 10-10-10 every March, May, and after harvest. Broadcast fertilizer 8-12 inches from the trunk. 

Pruning

Pruning is required annually while the tree is dormant. The goal when pruning is to keep the canopy open, remove weak or damaged limbs, and encourage fruit production. Nectarines should be pruned to keep an open center with 3-4 scaffold branches. Maintaining an open center maximizes sunlight and allows airflow which reduces disease pressure. Fruit thinning is also important to prevent breakage and to produce quality nectarines. 

At Planting

Young nectarine trees should be planted as a single whip and pruned down to about 30 inches. Pruning the top of the tree will promote side branching. 

1st Year

Select 3-4 branches to become scaffold branches. Select scaffold branches that are at least 3-4 inches apart on the main trunk and pointing in different directions. Scaffold branches should never overlap and should have about a 45° angle from the main trunk. Remove all other growth. 

2+ Years

Start by removing all damaged and diseased twigs and branches. If any fruit or leaves are remaining, remove and discard. 

Next, remove branches growing in the center of the tree keeping the center open. Examine each scaffold branch. There will be a lot of newer shoots from the spring and summer that will be next season’s fruiting wood. Fruit develops predominantly on one-year-old wood. One-year-old growth is distinguishable by color. One-year-old twigs do not have a woody exterior like older growth and they are light brown, green, or red. 

When pruning, expect to prune off about 40-50% of the new wood growth to maintain a good shape and to prevent the tree from overproducing fruit. Without pruning, the tree will grow a lot of weak limbs, and breakage will occur as the fruits develop. Select strong branches in an alternate arrangement to the right and left of each scaffold branch. Prune off any branches facing directly inside or outside the tree’s canopy. Prune new shoots to 18-24 inches at an outward-facing bud. 

Fruit Thinning

Fruit thinning is best done about one month after bloom while the fruit is still small. Start by removing the smallest fruit. Then, thin to keep larger fruit 6-8 inches apart. 

Propagation

Nectarines can be propagated by seed, cuttings, and grafting. 

Seed propagation is predominantly used to propagate rootstocks, but may also be used to propagate fruit trees. Propagating from seed is time-consuming and the characteristics of the tree and fruit are not guaranteed. This method may be acceptable to the patient gardener with space for multiple fruit trees. It will take 2-4 years for a tree grown from seed to produce fruit. To propagate from seed, first, remove the seed from the pit. Seed removed directly from the fruit will be dormant and requires stratification to break dormancy. Place the seed in a container or bag with moist soil and keep it in the refrigerator between 34-40°F. Check regularly for germination. It may take up to 3-4 months for germination. 

Cuttings are generally used to propagate rootstocks that do not produce true-to-type seed, but they can also be used to propagate fruiting varieties. Collect hardwood cuttings from last season’s growth in October-January. Cuttings should be 10-12 inches long. Use a rooting hormone to encourage callous and root development. Stick the cuttings in soil and keep moist until roots develop. Protect the cuttings from direct sunlight. 

Grafting is the preferred method for propagating nectarine trees. With grafting, you can select the most appropriate rootstock and cultivar for your growing area. Rootstocks offer benefits such as height control and nematode resistance. Lovell is currently the most commonly used rootstock because of its cold tolerance and it grows well in a wide range of soil types. Rootstocks are grown from seed or cuttings and are grafted using the chip budding method in May to early June or late July to September.  

Harvesting and Storing

Nectarines are firm and brightly-colored when ripe. Source: Rhian de Kerhiec

A fully mature nectarine tree will produce an abundance of delicious fruit. Below are some handy tips to determine when the nectarines are ready for harvest and how to store extra fruit that isn’t eaten fresh.

Harvesting

Nectarines are ready to harvest between June and August. Some early and late varieties can extend the season from May-September. The first sign of readiness is color. Fruit is harvested ripe when they are showing full color without any green leftover. Fruit should come off the tree easily with a gentle pull or twist. Before harvesting all the fruit at once, it’s best to do a taste test to confirm they are ready. Fruit will be firm and crunchy when first harvested and will soften a few days later. Do not pick up fruit from the ground. They may be bruised and could contaminate the other fruit.

Storing

Store in the fridge for 1-2 weeks. At room temperature, they will store for just a few days. 

There are several options for storing long term. They could be stored frozen, canned, freeze-dried, dehydrated, or used for jams and jellies. 

Troubleshooting

Unripe nectarines range from dark to light green. Source: UnconventionalEmma

Growing a nectarine tree is incredibly rewarding, but they are susceptible to a handful of problems. Luckily, there is a lot of information on growing nectarines so preventing and resolving many of these issues is easy with proper care.

Growing Problems

Poor weather during the bloom season can harm nectarine production. Excess wind can damage blooms or cause premature drop. Late frost may also damage the flower blooms. Although we cannot change the weather, we can still protect plants from unfavorable conditions. Do not plant trees in a windy area. If the wind is a concern, plant in a sunny location near a fence or wall that can provide a barrier from harsh winds. During late frost events, bring the tree indoors or cover it with frost fabric. 

During warmer winters, the chilling requirement may not be met preventing the blooms from fully developing. This will result in little to no nectarine production for the season. It’s essential to choose varieties that have chilling requirements that coincide with your climate to prevent this from becoming a recurring issue.

Excessive nitrogen can cause soft fruit, poor color, reduced shelf life, and increased pest pressure. Do not over-fertilize. If you suspect the tree is over-fertilized, reduce the rate. Zinc deficiency is also common. The most common symptom of zinc deficiency is small new leaves. Incorporate a fertilizer that adds zinc and other essential micronutrients to the blend. 

Pests

Aphids are small soft-bodied insects that feed on the sap of tender growing tips. Feeding damage causes curling and yellowing of the leaves and premature leaf drop in extreme cases. Aphids also produce sugary excrement that leads to sooty mold. Creating an environment that encourages beneficial insects will allow for natural control of the pest. If beneficials are not keeping populations down, early infestations can be removed manually with water from the hose. In severe cases, horticultural oil and insecticidal soaps are effective organic treatments. 

Red spider mites are small arachnids that feed on individual cells in the leaves causing stippling damage. High infestations can lead to leaf drop. Mites are very small so the damage to the tree is typically noticed before the pest. In general, mites are attracted to stressed or over-fertilized trees. Maintaining a healthy tree is the first line of defense against mites. There are naturally occurring predatory insects and mites that keep populations under control. When the balance is disrupted and red spider mites become out of control, horticultural oil and insecticidal soaps can be used to knock down heavy infestations.  

Peachtree borer is a moth with clear wings, a blue-black body, and an orange band across the abdomen. Eggs are laid on the trunk or the crown of the tree. Larvae are a creamy color with a brown head. Larvae bore into the crown and trunk of the tree damaging the cambial layers. One sign of an infestation is gumming on the trunk and base of the tree. Larvae can easily girdle and kill young nectarine and peach trees. It may take several years of untreated infestations to kill mature trees. Moths can be seen from May-September while larvae remain in the tree year-round. It is impossible to treat larvae inside the trunk, so treatments should deter adults from laying eggs and preventing them from hatching. Spray neem oil or spinosad on the trunks to prevent the moths from starting another cycle. Both products will need to be applied every 1-2 weeks between May-September. Pheromone traps can also be used to monitor and trap adults. 

Scales are typically found on twigs and branches of fruit trees. There are several species of scale in a variety of colors such as yellow, green, brown, and black. Damage from scales is usually minimal. However, their excrement causes sooty mold to develop covering the foliage. Sooty mold inhibits photosynthesis and can lead to leaf drop. Scales are usually controlled by natural predators. If treatment is necessary, spray with organic horticultural oil.

Diseases

Peach leaf curl is caused by the pathogen Taphrina deformans. Symptoms include red or yellow thickened, curled leaves. The pathogen favors cool wet conditions so white spores may be noticeable on twigs and buds after it rains. Prevention is key when managing peach leaf curl. Spray organic copper fungicide on December 1st and February 1st to prevent infection. Without treatment, the disease can infect and kill entire branches. 

Monilinia fruticola, or brown rot, causes blossom and leaf blight. Gumming may also be present at the base of infected flowers. This pathogen overwinters as mummified fruit on the tree and the ground. Remove old fruit and leaves during the fall and winter to prevent future infection. 

Bacterial spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae favors cool, moist conditions and is most prevalent in the spring. Pseudomonas syringae is spread by splashing water. Young nectarine and peach trees are most susceptible to infection. Symptoms of infection include leaf spots, limb dieback, cankers, and a blast of young flowers and leaves. To prevent this disease, follow pruning and fertilizing schedules to maintain a healthy vigorous plant and avoid splashing water. 

Spaerotheca pannosa is commonly known as powdery mildew. Powdery mildew favors cool, moist nights and warm days. The most obvious sign is white powdery fungal growth on the leaves, shoots, and fruit. Infected leaves become misshapen and the fruit is scarred. To prevent powdery mildew, keep the tree as dry as possible going into the night by avoiding wetting the leaves and surrounding soil a few hours before sunset. Spray with an organic sulfur fungicide to treat. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Nectarine blossoms range from white to a rose-pink hue. Source: dsleeter_2000

Q: What time of year do nectarine trees produce fruit?

A: Nectarines are ready to harvest in the summer between June and August. Exact timing varies depending on the cultivar and climate.

Q: Do I need two nectarine trees to produce fruit?

A: No, nectarines are self-fertile. Having two trees will increase the amount of fruit, but it is not necessary.

Q: How tall does a nectarine tree grow?

A: Tree size varies, but nectarine trees can grow up to 30 feet. There are some dwarfing rootstocks available to maintain a height of 6-10 feet. Size management can also be achieved through pruning.

planting and care, pruning, grafting, description of varieties, photos, diseases and pests

Author: Elena N. https://floristics. info/ru/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=19 Category: Fruit and berry plants reprinted: Last amendments:

Content

  • Planting and Care for Nectarin
  • Botanical description
  • Entertainment Nektarin
    • When to plant is a variety of peach with a plum-like smooth skin. Nectarine has been cultivated in China for over 2000 years. In Europe, the first description of nectarine appears in the 14th century, in English sources the name nectarine was first mentioned in 1616, and the plant gained popularity in Europe already in the 20th century, when large-fruited varieties of nectarine appeared. Today, on an industrial scale, nectarines are grown in the Mediterranean - in Italy, Tunisia, Greece, Cyprus and the countries of the former Yugoslavia. Nectarine is more resistant to diseases and harmful insects than peach, and its winter-hardy varieties are suitable for cultivation even in the Volgograd region.

      It is still not clear whether this plant appeared naturally or as a result of selection. There are claims that nectarine fruits sometimes appear on peach trees, and vice versa. In addition, it is suggested that, in addition to peach, apricot, Chinese plum and almonds took part in the appearance of nectarine. In other words, that the nectarine is a complex interspecific hybrid.

      The name of the plant comes from the word "nectar", since the fruits of nectarine are distinguished by a high content of sugar.

      Planting and caring for nectarines

      • Planting: in warm areas - in the fall, in areas with a cool climate - in the spring, before the start of sap flow.
      • Flowering: from the beginning or middle of May, until the leaves appear.
      • Light: bright sunlight: the plant should not be in the shade for more than one and a half to two hours a day.
      • Soil: loamy or sandy loam soils. Clay soil and areas where groundwater is high are not suitable.
      • Watering: early varieties are watered 2-3 times during the season, mid-season and late - 4-6 times. The first time the nectarine is watered when the stone hardens in the fruits, otherwise they will crack. A month before harvesting, abundant watering is carried out, spending on each fruit-bearing tree, depending on its age, from 30 to 60 liters of water per m² of the trunk circle. After harvesting the fruits, during the laying of flower buds, the consumption is increased to 40-70 liters. In October, water-charging irrigation is carried out, as a result of which the soil should get wet at a depth of 60-80 cm.
      • Top dressing: planted fertilizers in the pit are sufficient for 5-6 years, provided that the root area is mulched annually with humus or compost. In the future, organic matter is applied once every 3-4 years, mineral fertilizers - once every two years. In spring, nectarine needs nitrogen, and in summer and autumn - phosphorus and potassium. In spring and autumn, it is better to apply fertilizers to the near-trunk circle; in summer, nectarine is fertilized 2-3 times on the leaves, including solutions of trace elements missing from the tree.
      • Pruning: in the spring (before the start of sap flow), sanitary and formative pruning is carried out. In autumn, if necessary - sanitary.
      • Propagation: seed and vegetative - by grafting.
      • Pests: Oriental and plum codling moths, aphids, scale insects, striped, miner and fruit moths, flower beetles and spider mites.
      • Diseases: clasterosporiasis, leaf curl, powdery mildew, fruit rot, stone fruit moniliosis or gray fruit rot, cytosporosis, verticillosis, coccomycosis, scab, milky sheen and fungal burn.

      Read more about growing nectarine below

      Botanical description

      The height of an adult plant reaches from 4 to 7 m, the diameter of the crown is from 3 to 4 m. a flowering nectarine is very difficult to distinguish from a flowering peach. The nectarine fruit is also similar in shape and size to a peach, but its skin is not fleecy, but smooth and slippery. The color of ripe fruits can be greenish-yellow, light yellow, yellow with red, red with yellow, red or cherry. Nectarine pulp is harder than peach pulp.

      Nectarine fruits take 3 to 5 months to ripen and need heat to ripen, so the crop is grown only in areas with long, warm summers. As for the winter hardiness of the crop, an adult tree is able to survive frost down to -32 ºC, but flower buds die already at -2 ºC.

      Nectarine is related not only to peach, but also to such fruit trees as almond, plum, quince, apple, pear, apricot, shadberry, cherry plum, hawthorn, mountain ash, chokeberry, cotoneaster, wild rose and medlar. Planting and caring for a nectarine is very similar to growing a peach, but there are still differences. We invite you to familiarize yourself with our selection of materials on how to grow nectarine in your garden, how to properly care for nectarine, how and how to process nectarine from diseases and pests, how to graft nectarine on an annual stock, how to feed nectarine so that it grows healthy and gives good harvests.

      Planting nectarines

      When to plant

      The further south you live, the more reason you have to plant nectarines in the fall. In areas with cold winters, spring planting of nectarine is preferable. In the south of Ukraine and in the Crimea, nectarine can be planted in spring, or in autumn. The optimal soil for nectarines is loamy and sandy soils, and the worst option for it is heavy clay soils. Not suitable for nectarine are areas where groundwater lies too close to the surface, as well as those on which nightshade or melons, alfalfa, clover and strawberries have recently been grown - the risk of verticillium infection of nectarine is too high.

      The best place for nectarine is a south-facing area, where buildings and other trees will not obscure it from the sun - nectarine should not be in the shade for more than 1.5-2 hours a day. The neighborhood with a peach is also undesirable, since the likelihood of nectarine infection with fungal diseases increases, even those that may not cause much harm to a peach.

      Planting in autumn

      Before planting a peach in autumn, two to three weeks before planting, dig a hole measuring 70x70x70, drive a stake about 1.5 m high into the center of the bottom, mix the top layer of folded soil with 10 kg of rotted compost and 150 g of superphosphate, mix thoroughly and pour half of this soil mixture into a slide in the center of the pit.

      • Climbing roses: planting, care, cultivation

      When buying planting material, give preference to annual seedlings of varieties that are adapted to your area. You must make sure that the tree is healthy: the bark of the nectarine should be green on the inside, the root system should be free of dry or rotten roots, and the grafting site should be free of sagging.

      Place the seedling on the mound placed in the center of the hole, spread its roots carefully and fill the hole with fertile mixture. When planting, nectarine seedlings should be positioned in such a way that the grafting site is 3-4 cm above the surface level. After planting, compact the soil from the edges of the pit to the center, pour the tree with 4-5 buckets of water, wait until the soil settles and the grafting site is level with the surface of the site, then tie the seedling to a peg, spud the nectarine trunk with dry earth to a height of 20-30 cm and mulch trunk circle for the winter with a layer of compost 8-10 cm thick.

      How to plant in the spring

      If you plant a nectarine in the spring, it is still best to prepare a hole for it the previous autumn. The procedure for preparing the pit is the same as for the autumn planting, and the planting procedure itself is no different. The only thing you don't have to do in the spring is hill up the trunk of the nectarine.

      Nectarine care

      Spring care

      In mid-April, nectarines in the garden are treated for swollen buds from pests with Karbofos. In the green cone phase (when the tip of the leaf is shown from the bud), the nectarine is treated with a three percent solution of Bordeaux mixture, and when buds appear on the tree, the nectarine is formed by pruning.

      At the same time, it is necessary to treat nectarine simultaneously from fungi and pests, but Bordeaux liquid, like other copper-containing preparations, cannot be used during the period of active growth. Instead, drugs such as Polycarbacin, Kuprozan or Benlat can be used against fungi, combining them with pest control drugs such as Fozalon or Karbofos. After flowering, the treatment of nectarine with such a mixed composition should be repeated.

      When the excess ovary falls off, normalize the load of fruits: for every 10-15 cm of the shoot, one fruit is left, and the rest of the ovaries are plucked, otherwise the tree may not withstand the weight of the fruits after they have been filled.

      Nectarine care in summer

      Nectarine needs watering in summer. The number of irrigations and water consumption directly depend on weather conditions. In order to combat leaf curl, nectarine is treated two or three times with Delan's solution or other preparations of a similar effect during the summer period.

      • Photo of nephrolepis

      In the growth phase of fruits, in order to increase their sugar content and increase the intensity of color, the nectarine is fed several times over the leaves with a solution of potash fertilizer, and a month before the fruit is harvested, the tree is watered abundantly - in this way it is possible to increase the size of the fruit by a third, provided that before the very harvest no more watering.

      Autumn care

      Since the winter hardiness of flower buds directly depends on the amount of water in the soil at the time of their laying, nectarine must be watered in August or September - immediately after you have harvested the entire crop.

      In order to prevent fungal diseases in early October, before the leaves begin to change color, the nectarine is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture.

      After leaf fall, in late October or early November, the area around the tree is cleaned, removing fallen leaves and other plant debris from it, in which pests settle for the winter, after which water-charging watering of the nectarine is carried out. After watering, nectarine is treated for fungal diseases with copper sulfate, and then with Nitrafen from pests wintering in the bark of a tree or in the soil under it.

      Watering the nectarine

      The first watering of the nectarine should be carried out only when the stone in the fruit hardens, otherwise the fruit will crack. In total, during the growing season, early varieties of nectarine are watered 2-3 times before harvesting, and mid-season and late - 4-6 times.

      A month before harvesting, in order to increase the sugar content of the fruit, nectarine is watered at the rate of 30-60 liters of water per 1 m² of the tree circle, depending on the age and size of the tree. After harvesting, at the time of laying flower buds, the water consumption per m² of the near-stem circle is increased to 40-70.

      Water recharge irrigation is carried out in order to saturate the soil with moisture to a depth of 60-80 cm, where the lower roots of the tree are located.

      • How to prune grapes - an instruction for beginners and those who do it for the first time

      Top dressing

      If you treat nectarine with a 7% urea solution in spring, you will kill two birds with one stone: feed the tree with nitrogen fertilizers, which it needs most at this time, and carry out prophylaxis against pathogens and insects wintering in the trunk and in the upper soil layer - pests. However, before treating the nectarine with urea, make sure that the buds are not swollen yet, otherwise you risk burning them. If you are late, and the sap flow has already begun, then postpone the processing of nectarine with urea until the fall - you will have time for this after leaf fall.

      During the growing season, it is necessary to carry out 2-3 foliar top dressings of nectarine. How to feed nectarine leaves? The following composition gives good results: 100-150 g of an aqueous extract of superphosphate, 50-80 g of ammonium sulfate (or the same amount of ammonium nitrate, or 30-50 g of urea), 30-60 g of potassium chloride (or 50-70 g of potassium sulfate ), 10 g of borax and 15 g of manganese are dissolved in 10 liters of water. If you are fertilizing already at the fruit ripening stage, exclude nitrogen and borax from the solution.

      Strictly speaking, the fertilizers that you put into the soil when planting nectarine should last the tree for 5-6 years, especially if you annually mulch the tree trunks with compost or humus. But if there is a need for fertilizers, then we remind you: organic matter is applied to the soil once every few years, in spring the plants need nitrogen, and in summer and autumn they need phosphorus and potassium. Based on this, and plan top dressing.

      Treatment

      In order to maintain the health of the nectarine, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments of the tree from pests and pathogens. We wrote about the treatment of nectarine with urea for still sleeping buds. In the green cone phase, it is advisable to spray the nectarine with a 3% Bordeaux liquid.

      In the rosebud phase, nectarine is treated against fungal diseases and pests with a combined solution in 10 liters of water of Kolicarbacin (40 g) or Cuprosan (40 g) with the addition of colloidal sulfur (150 g) or Karbofos (30 g). After flowering, the nectarine can be treated with the described composition several more times if you notice signs of leaf curl, powdery mildew or the presence of pests on it, but the last time you can do this no later than two weeks before the fruit ripens.

      After leaf fall, nectarine is sprayed against pathogens of fungal diseases wintering in the bark of a tree or in the soil of the near-stem circle with a three percent solution of Bordeaux mixture, and then treated against insects settled for the winter with a three percent solution of Nitrafen. Although you can replace both of these nectarine treatments with one - a seven percent solution of urea.

      Wintering of nectarine

      After all the autumn activities - cleaning the site, water-charging irrigation, fertilizing and processing - as soon as stable frosts set in, mulch the nectarine tree trunks with pre-prepared mulch. It can be straw, tops, peat, sawdust or dry foliage. Do not install mulch in wet weather, as root collar rot can begin underneath. The trunk and base of the skeletal branches of nectarine for the winter are preferably treated with lime.

      Seedlings planted in the ground in autumn must be protected from the cold: stick two longer slats on both sides of the seedling and put on them, and at the same time on the seedling, a bag of sugar, the lower part of which is sprinkled with earth so that it is not torn off by a strong wind.

      In the northern regions of Ukraine, it is necessary to cover both two- and three-year-old trees for the winter. Three long slats are driven in around each tree, tied in the upper part with wire, and with the onset of frost, they cover this frame with spruce branches or corn stalks, and then wrap it with agrofiber. To prevent the shelter from being torn off by the wind, the agrofibre is tied with twine from above. Trees cover only when frosts come.

      Pruning a nectarine

      When to prune

      Growing a nectarine requires the formation of its crown. Since fruiting in nectarines, like in peach, occurs on annual growths, the main task of its annual pruning, in addition to maintaining tree hygiene, is to ensure a strong growth of annual shoots while preventing fruiting from shifting to the edge of the crown. That is why it is necessary to thin out and shorten nectarine branches every year.

      Nectarine planted in autumn is cut for the first time only next spring, before sap flow begins. At the same time, sanitary and formative pruning of young nectarines is carried out. In autumn, if necessary, sanitary pruning of trees is carried out.

      How to prune a nectarine

      The crown of the nectarine is shaped into a bowl (or vase) - this shape gives it strength, and it will be easier for you to care for the tree and harvest from it. The formation of the crown is carried out in the spring during the first four to five years. Formation begins with the laying of skeletal branches.

      In the first year, select 2-3 skeletal branches with a wide angle of origin, shorten them to 10 cm on the outer buds, and remove the remaining branches. Each subsequent year, add 2-3 more skeletal branches located at the right angle. On last year's skeletal branches, form branches of the first order, on the year before last - of the second, and so on.

      While the crown is forming, the conductor should be 20-25 cm higher than the uppermost skeletal branches, but when the crown of the nectarine is formed, the conductor is cut to their level. The recommended stem height is 50-60 cm. The shoots that form in the trunk area are broken out until they are woody. Some gardeners prefer a stemless form, in which skeletal branches can move away from the trunk almost at the very ground - this form allows you to restrain the growth of the tree for a long time, as well as harvest and care for nectarines without a ladder. The rational height of a nectarine is 2.5-3 m.

      Spring pruning

      In April, in addition to the nectarine forming pruning, a rose bud is sanitary, removing broken, dry, diseased and frostbitten branches. At the same time, the nectarine is cut for fruiting: on the skeletal branch, two correct, developed shoots growing side by side are selected. The one that grows closer to the end of the branch is cut into 8-10 buds and left to bear fruit, and the one that grows closer to the trunk is cut almost completely, leaving only 2 buds on it - a shoot will grow from this replacement knot that will bear fruit in next year.

      What does "correct escape" mean? This is a shoot that has both growth (giving leaves) and fruit buds. The next year, a new fruit link is formed from the replacement knot. Such pruning of nectarine is carried out annually in the spring, which allows you to get stable and full-fledged crops.

      When the nectarine has faded and shed excess ovaries, adjust the crop load: the nectarine branch should have one fruit for every 10-15 cm of length, the remaining ovaries should be plucked.

      Summer nectarine pruning

      Fruiting nectarines are not pruned in summer. Instead, unnecessary shoots are broken out or pinched to stimulate the formation of branching and the formation of fruit twigs.

      Pruning in autumn

      After the end of leaf fall, if necessary, carry out sanitary pruning of nectarine - remove weak, broken, dry and diseased shoots.

      Nectarine propagation

      Propagation methods

      Nectarine is propagated in two ways: by seed and by grafting. A more reliable method is considered to be the budding of a nectarine scion on a peach or almond rootstock. When growing nectarine on heavy, moist soils with a close occurrence of groundwater, it is better to use seedlings of domestic plum or cherry plum as a stock. As for the seed propagation of nectarine, this process is simple, but the fruits of trees grown from the stone are not of high quality.

      Growing from seeds

      Try to get seed from those trees that grow successfully in your area: during fruiting, raid the neighboring plots and ask the owners of the nectarines you like for seeds. Soak them for three days in water, changing the water twice a day, then dry them in the shade, carefully remove the seeds from them and plant them in a sunny area away from trees and buildings: make a trench in the bed, fill it with fertile soil, bury the seeds in it on 5-6 cm, keeping a distance of 20-25 cm between them, seal the trench and water abundantly.

      When water is absorbed, cover the bed with grass, leaves or sawdust.

      You can plant seeds in spring, summer and autumn - when planting in winter, the seeds will undergo natural stratification in the cold season, and in the spring, when you remove the shelter from the bed, they will quickly and amicably grow.

      During the period of active growth of seedlings, keep the soil loose and slightly moist, feed the seedlings with a solution of humus and treat pests and diseases with Thiovit or Ridomil solutions.

      Nectarine grafting

      Nectarine cuttings are grafted onto peach or almond rootstocks by budding. The advantage of this quick and easy method is that any well-formed bud can produce a new plant with all the characteristics of a mother variety. However, for successful grafting, certain conditions must be met:

      • the thickness of the rootstock should not be thinner than a pencil, and the bark at the grafting site should be thin, smooth and elastic;
      • graft nectarine at the time of active sap flow, when the bark is easily separated from the wood;
      • Scion buds must be well developed;
      • budding is carried out only with sharply ground and sterile instruments.

      Scion cuttings are harvested in the morning when the shoots are saturated with moisture. The length of the cutting should be no shorter than 30 cm, and the leaves on it should be well developed. Leaves with stipules are removed from the cutting, leaving only a piece of the petiole 1 cm long, after which the cutting is lowered into the water with the lower cut.

      On the bottom of the rootstock, remove all lateral growths, wipe the bole from the root collar 20 cm upwards with a clean, damp cloth to remove dirt and dust. After that, make a T-shaped cut in the bark on the cleaned section of the stock, being careful not to damage the wood: the cross cut should be 1.5 cm long, and then a perpendicular cut 2.5-3 cm long should go down from its middle. At the junction of the two incisions, carefully unscrew the corners of the cortex by the width of the transverse incision.

      Holding the cutting with the apex facing you with your left hand, make a 12-13 mm long transverse incision in its bark below the kidney you are about to transplant. Make the same transverse cut at the same distance above this kidney and from it begin to smoothly cut off the bark with the kidney to the lower cut. The cut shield about 2.5 cm long should be flexible, and the kidney should be intact.

      Grasping the shield with your index finger and thumb by the remainder of the petiole, insert it under the folded bark of the T-shaped section of the rootstock. If the shield is longer than necessary, cut off the excess along the border of the cross section on the rootstock. Strongly press the bark with your thumbs along the longitudinal section to the shield inserted under the bark, tie the grafting site with plastic tape round by round from top to bottom.

      If after two weeks the remainder of the stalk separates and falls off with a light touch, the inoculation has been successful.

      Diseases of nectarine and their treatment

      Diseases and pests of nectarine and peach are the same. Most often, the culture suffers from diseases such as clasterosporiosis, leaf curl, powdery mildew, fruit rot, stone fruit moniliosis, or gray fruit rot, cytosporosis, verticillosis, coccomycosis, scab, milky sheen and mushroom burn.

      Pests and diseases of peach

      If you take good care of your trees and take preventive measures regularly, it is likely that you will never know what the symptoms of these diseases look like, and you will not have to watch the nectarine wither and die. But if your nectarine gets sick, find the article “Peach - planting and care, pruning and grafting” on our website and read the “Peach Diseases” section. We only recall that Topsin M, Horus, Topaz, Vectra, Strobi, Skor have proven themselves well in the fight against fungal diseases, and the treatment of nectarine for viral or mycoplasmal diseases will not lead to anything - a diseased tree will have to be destroyed to avoid infection of other plants.

      Pests of nectarine and their control

      In the same article you can read the section "Pests of peach", which describes insects dangerous for peach and nectarine: eastern and plum codling moths, aphids, scale insects, striped, mining and fruit moths, weevils - flower beetles and ticks.

      The best insecticides today are Chlorophos, Zolon, Karbofos, Aktara, Mospilan, Aktellik, Intavir, Bankol, Metaphos and Durban.

      Nectarine varieties

      Early varieties

      Among the varieties of early ripening nectarines, the most famous are:

      • Fleming Fury is an ultra-early variety of American selection with large fruits, almost completely covered with a red blush. The pulp of the fruits of this variety is tender, yellow;
      • Big Top is a high-yielding and unpretentious ultra-early American variety with round fruits weighing up to 200 g, rich cherry-violet color with yellow firm and juicy pulp, which turns red closer to the stone. The taste of the fruit is sweet with a slight sourness and honey flavor. The stone is poorly separated from the pulp;
      • Ruby 4 is a fruitful early-growing variety of Ukrainian selection with oval large fruits weighing up to 200 g with shiny skin and yellow with a reddish tint soft-fibrous juicy pulp of sweet taste with barely perceptible sourness. The stone is separated from the pulp poorly. The variety tolerates transportation well;
      • Rebus 028 is a productive, early-growing, winter-hardy and disease-resistant variety of Italian breeding with round, slightly elongated large fruits weighing up to 200 g, yellow with a bright red blush covering almost the entire surface of the fruit. The pulp is yellow, dense, juicy, fragrant and sweet in taste;
      • Caldesi is a high yielding Italian variety with spherical large greenish-yellow fruits with a bright red marble blush covering almost the entire surface. The pulp is white, dense, juicy, the stone is semi-separable.

      Mid-ripening

      Mid-ripening nectarines are represented by the following varieties:

      • Stark Red Gold is a high-yielding variety of American selection with carmine-red fruits of regular shape, large size, reaching a mass of 240 g or more. The pulp is bright yellow, dense, slightly fibrous, acquires a red tint around the stone. The stone is easily separated from the pulp;
      • Vang-3 – disease-resistant, high-yielding, early-growing and winter-hardy variety of American selection with round, bright red fruits with yellowish fragments, weighing up to 220 g. The flesh is yellow, cartilaginous, of high palatability;
      • Alitop is a high-yielding variety of Italian selection with round-oblong large fruits weighing up to 250 g with a bright red blush, which occupies almost the entire surface of the fruit. The pulp is yellow with red veins, dense, juicy and fragrant, excellent taste;
      • Harko is a disease-resistant, winter-hardy, high-yielding variety of Canadian selection with greenish-yellow medium-sized rounded fruits, almost completely covered with a red-violet blush. The pulp is yellow, juicy, fleshy, sweet with a barely noticeable sourness. The stone easily moves away from the pulp;
      • Ishunsky is a variety of Ukrainian selection with small (weighing up to 150 g) yellow fruits with a carmine blush. The flesh is yellow with red veins, fibrous, tender and juicy. The stone is easily separated from the pulp.

      Late varieties of nectarine

      The most popular varieties of late ripening nectarines are:

      • Poseidon – a domestic variety with universal rounded fruits of average weight of about 80 g of yellow color with a slight carmine blush in the form of strokes. The flesh is yellow with slight red streaks, fibrous and juicy. The stone is easily separated from the pulp;
      • Harblaze is a dessert variety with oval yellow fruits, almost completely covered with a bright red blush. The pulp is yellow, sour-sweet, very juicy. The bone separates easily;
      • Sweet Lady is a disease-resistant productive variety of Italian breeding. The fruits are large, yellow with a bright red blush, weighing up to 300 g or more. Pulp of excellent taste, yellow color, dense and firm. The stone departs well from the pulp;
      • September Queen – late maturing variety with light green fruits with a dark red blush, dense and fragrant sweet and sour cream-colored flesh and excellent taste, with a loose stone;
      • Yevpatoriya is a self-fertile variety bred in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden and recommended for cultivation in Transcaucasia, Ukraine, Moldova and the Krasnodar Territory. The fruits are yellow with a carmine blush covering from a quarter to a half of the fruit. The flesh is yellow with red veins, fibrous and juicy, acquiring a pink hue in the area of ​​​​the stone. The bone separates well.

      In addition to those described, such varieties of nectarine as Nikitsky 85, NIC 19 are also popular, Flavor Top, Kolonovidny, Krimzon Gold, Krymchanin and others.

      Literature

      1. Read related topics on Wikipedia
      2. Peculiarities and other plants of the Rosaceae family
      3. List of all species on The Plant List
      4. More information on World Flora Online


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      Nectarine: planting and care | PLOD.

      UA

      Nectarine is a variety of peach and has been grown in many Mediterranean countries for hundreds of years. In our country, the cultivation of the crop became possible thanks to the work of breeders, during which varieties were created that can withstand winter frosts down to -32 degrees and have high immunity against diseases and pests.

      Plant description

      After planting in the garden, the nectarine seedling forms a tree, 3 to 7 meters high with a spherical crown. Sheet plates have a dense surface, serrate edges.

      During the flowering period, the plant can be confused with a peach. After flowering, fruits are formed, weighing up to 200 grams, subject to the implementation of proper agricultural technology. They are formed on annual shoots, which must be taken into account when pruning.

      It takes up to 5 months for the fruit to fully ripen, depending on the variety, the color of the skin can be:

      • light yellow;
      • yellow with red stripes or blush;
      • cherry.

      Inside, like a peach, there is an oval, with a ribbed surface, a stone. The fruit is valued for its sweet taste, juicy pulp of bright orange color. Unlike its closest relative, the peach, the nectarine has a smooth, hairless skin (see photo).

      Growing nectarine is not difficult for experienced gardeners. Agricultural technology is in many ways similar to the rules for growing peach. And for beginners, the following recommendations will be useful.

      Nectarine planting and care

      Planting time

      Landing times vary by region. In the southern regions, nectarine is planted in the fall, a month before frost. In the northern and eastern regions, planting is carried out in early spring, so that the seedling has time to take root and grow before frost.

      Site selection

      Nectarine is a sun-loving plant, for planting choose a site on the south side, protected from the wind, away from the house and other trees. The peculiarity of the culture is that even slight shading during the day negatively affects the yield and ripening time of the fruit.

      You should not plant a nectarine near a peach, due to the high susceptibility of the latter to fungal diseases.

      The best soil for a plant:

      • loamy or sandy loam;
      • moderately fertile;
      • with deep groundwater.

      You should not choose a site on which they grew before planting: strawberries, watermelons, melons, peppers, tomatoes, eggplants.

      Landing

      Two to three weeks before planting, a landing hole 70 * 70 cm in size is prepared. A strong, supporting peg is installed in it, a drainage layer is created, a nutrient mixture containing equal parts is poured on top:

      • high ground;
      • humus;
      • compost;
      • superphosphate (up to 200 grams).

      The nutrient mixture is prepared for the future, so that when planting it is enough to fill the entire volume of the hole.

      The root system of the seedling is set on a mound of nutrient mixture. The roots are evenly distributed and carefully covered with earth. In this case, the root neck should remain 5 cm above the ground.

      The trunk is fixed to the support peg, watering is carried out, the surface is mulched with a layer of at least 10 cm.

      Nectarine care

      The subsequent agricultural technology of nectarine includes standard activities:

      • watering;
      • top dressing;
      • pest control;
      • pruning.

      Watering

      Seedlings after planting, watering is carried out twice a week. During the summer heat, if the surface dries up quickly, watering is increased.

      An adult plant is watered during the formation of fruits. Early varieties are watered twice during the season, late varieties 3-4 times.

      In a dry summer, to increase the mass of fruits, abundant watering is performed a month before they ripen, after which irrigation is stopped.

      After harvesting, it is recommended to carry out water charging watering, using up to 70 liters of water per square meter of the trunk circle.

      Top dressing

      If, when planting, a nutrient mixture was added to the hole and mulching with compost or humus is used, then no fertilizing is applied in the first five years.

      Further mineral complexes are used:

      • with nitrogen - in early spring;
      • with phosphorus and potassium - in summer and autumn.

      Organics can be used once every three years.

      Pest control

      To prevent disease and pest damage:

      • in early spring when the buds swell and the first leaves appear, Bordeaux liquid is used;
      • during the formation of flower buds, complex chemicals are used against pests and fungus;
      • perform two anti-curl treatments during the summer;
      • in the middle of autumn, after harvesting, they are treated with Bordeaux liquid.

      Cutting

      Formative pruning is performed in early spring, while the branches that thicken the crown are removed. Nectarine fruits are formed on annual shoots, so last year's shoots are shortened by a third.


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