How to care for oleander trees
How to Grow and Care for Oleander
Sienna Mae Heath is a gardening expert with over five years of experience in gardening and landscape design. She grows her own food and flowers in her native Zone 6B. Sienna Mae runs The Quarantined Gardener blog and encourages the Lehigh Valley to develop victory gardens for sustainable, garden-based living. Her work has been featured in The Weeder's Digest, Gardening Know How, GrowIt, and more.
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Updated on 05/02/22
Reviewed by Debra LaGattuta
Debra LaGattuta is a gardening expert with three decades of experience in perennial and flowering plants, container gardening, and raised bed vegetable gardening. She is a Master Gardener and lead gardener in a Plant-A-Row, which is a program that offers thousands of pounds of organically-grown vegetables to local food banks. Debra is a member of The Spruce Gardening and Plant Care Review Board.
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The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
In This Article
Common Pests and Plant Diseases
Frequently Asked Questions
Oleander (Nerium oleander) grows naturally as a mounded, round shrub, or it can be trained as a small single- or multi-trunked tree. The evergreen foliage is dense, leathery, and dark green, offering a privacy screen when planted in groups or borders. Delicately shaped, showy, fragrant flowers tend to be pink, while some varieties produce red, orange, yellow, or white flowers. Blooming for an especially long period, the one- to three-inch flowers appear from spring to summer and sometimes early fall and year-round in warmer climates.
Common nicknames for the plant include Jericho rose and rose laurel. Native to southern Asia and the Mediterranean and beloved since ancient Roman times (possibly earlier), oleander is hardy in USDA hardiness zones 8 through 10.
Click Play to Learn About Oleander Plant Care, Toxicity, and Identification
|Common Name||Oleander, Nerium, Jericho rose, rose laurel|
|Botanical Name||Nerium oleander|
|Plant Type||Broadleaf evergreen|
|Mature Size||Height: up to 19 ft; width: up to 10 ft|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun to part shade|
|Soil Type||Fertile, adaptable|
|Bloom Time||Spring to summer, sometimes early fall and year-round in warmer climates|
|Flower Color||Pure white through pale-yellow, peach, salmon and pink to deep burgundy red|
|Hardiness Zones||8-10, USDA|
|Native Area||Southern Asia and the Mediterranean|
When shopping for an oleander bush, find one that is one or two years old with a strong, straight, central stem. They are fast-growing, with a thick multi-stem, making them perfect for a living screen or hedge.
Oleanders can be allowed to grow in their natural mound form, or they can be trained into a multi-stemmed or single-stemmed tree form. To create a single-stemmed tree, cut off all other stems and any side branches on the main stem to about half their length. Support the plant with a bamboo stake. Push the stake into the ground next to the stem and use plant ties to secure the stem to the stake.
Deadhead spent blooms to prevent seed pods from forming.
All parts of this plant, even the smoke created from burning plant parts, are extremely toxic to humans and pets.
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
Oleander prefers full sun. It will also tolerate partial shade, but its foliage won't be as dense. It is also tolerant of heat, drought, wind, and coastal conditions.
Plant in well-drained soil for best results. Oleander shrubs can adapt to many kinds of soil conditions: poor soil, sandy soil, and a range of soil pH levels. Like many native Mediterranean plants, oleanders prefer alkaline soil, but they will grow in acidic or neutral soil, adapting to pH levels between 5.0 and 8.3. Before planting, test the pH level of the soil. If the soil is overly acidic, mix in ground limestone, oyster shells, or wood ash.
Water whenever the top inch of the soil becomes dry. If transplanting a container-grown oleander from one pot to another, choose a larger container with drainage holes to prevent the plant from becoming root-bound.
Feed poor soil with light dose of a balanced fertilizer during the plant's first spring and a light fertilization yearly thereafter. Moving forward, established oleander is not a heavy feeder.
Temperature and Humidity
Oleander can tolerate light frost and temperatures as low as 20 degrees Fahrenheit. In climates where temperatures reach any lower than that, grow the plant in a container and bring it indoors for winter.
Among many cultivars, consider the following:
- 'Calypso' is very hardy and has single, cherry red flowers
- 'Isle of Capri' has single, light yellow flowers
- 'Sister Agnes' has large single white flowers and is often sold as 'White Oleander'
- 'Compte Barthelemy' has double deep raspberry flowers
- 'Mrs. Roeding', which has double pink flowers
- 'Hawaii' has single salmon-pink flowers with yellow throats
- 'Petite Pink,' 'Petite Salmon' are dwarf varieties three to four feet tall
- Variegata,' and 'Variegatum Plenum' have variegated foliage.
Oleander can be propagated by stem cuttings.
The best time to prune oleanders is during late winter just before new growth occurs (February through March). Oleanders bloom in summer on new growth. Pinch tips of young stems to prevent legginess and encourage branching. Prune out any damaged or diseased limbs.
Bring container-grown oleander inside in colder zones. Before winter weather arrives, cut the bush back generously by about two-thirds. If the plant is established in the ground, gingerly dig around the roots to lift the plant out of the ground. Pot the plant in good potting soil. Place it in an area that is sheltered but still receives full sun such as a porch or a garage with a window.
Common Pests and Plant Diseases
Oleander leaves contain latex and extracts from the plant make a strong insecticide. For this reason, plants are resistant to deer and rarely have severe issues with diseases or pests. They are especially resistant to verticillium wilt. Even so, keep an eye out for aphids, mealybugs, and scale.
The most damaging pests are oleander caterpillars. Mature caterpillars can move up the walls of adjacent buildings and reproduce near the eaves. Remove cocoons to manage the next generation, which could eat all the plant's foliage in a week or two.
The Spruce uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
Oleander. Clemson Cooperative Extension.
Nerium Oleander. University of Florida.
Nerium oleander. North Carolina State Extension.
Tips For Growing Oleander Bushes and Trees
The Oleander plant (Nerium oleander) is an ornamental shrub with attractive characteristics from flower to stems. The plant is an erect evergreen shrub, also known as adelfa plants, with lovely flower clusters of pink flowers. Each flower has 5 spreading petals.
The oleander tree flower clusters are supported by the plant’s slender stems. Lance-shaped with leathery texture and pointed tips refer to the plant’s leaves.Pin
If the oleander flowers come in clusters, the leaves come in groups of 2 or 3 along the branch.
Oleanders are so well known to both northern and southern gardeners, they need little introduction or description.
They are grown everywhere in the South, and at one time ranked with beautiful hydrangeas as northern house plants.
For some obscure reasons, oleanders (Nerium) faded from popularity some years ago, but they are now making quite a comeback.
Give these plants well-drained soil, full light, and plenty of fresh air.
Oleanders are salt and drought tolerant, thus making it an excellent flowering shrub for coastal areas as well as for xeriscaping.
They also are perfect as a container grown plants. In outdoor spots and landscapes, Nerium flowers make a fabulous accent plant, oleander hedge, and great border plant.
After flowering, cut the plants back and rest them for a few weeks. If cuttings are wanted, take them of mature wood when you cut the plant back sharply; pruning to shape the plant may be done at any time.
Clean up and dispose of all debris after you finish pruning.
Oleander Plant Pest And Diseases
Oleander poisoning occurs when man and animals eat the stems, leaves and flowers of the plant. But on the other side, this poisonous plant are beloved by scale insects and mealy bugs, they have long been popular subjects.
Oleanders can become infested with infested with mealybugs, glassy-winged sharpshooter, soft scale, oleander aphids and white or oleander scale.
To control all these, apply regular applications of sprays containing neem oil insecticide for plants or insecticidal soap spray solution.
The Oleander caterpillar, a pest commonly found in oleander plants, loves to gregariously eat the leaves.
These caterpillars possess immunity against the tree’s poison. It grows to a polka-dot wasp moth which lays eggs on the underside faces of the leaves.
If not controlled, these greedy pests may cause unsightly defoliation. This may not kill the plant but it makes it vulnerable to other pests such as scale insects.
Oleander leaf scorch is a lethal disease that kills oleander shrubs. This condition scorches the leaves of oleander plants and spread quickly.
Experts point out two culprits for oleander scorch: the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and the pest that spreads them, the glassy-winged sharpshooter.
Oleander Bush or Standards
Oleanders may be grown in bush shape or trained as standards (like a tree rose).
In the latter, plants are topped at whatever height is desired, and good crowns will develop the same season.Pin
However, owing to the weight of the large flower heads, which are borne in terminal clusters, it is not advisable to allow the plant to flower the following year, as the branches will not be strong enough to support the blooms.
I have very little room for duplication of indoor plant material, but I am so enamored of oleanders, I have two plants. The larger one is a bush, and has double pink flowers.
From this I have taken innumerable cuttings, which root in plain water.
The other plant I am training as a standard tree form, and already I can see the space-saving advantage of this form.
With this variety of flowers, it will have white blossoms.
Hence why it’s often searched for as “white oleander trees”.
Oleanders have single or double flowers, and in addition to the white, range through shades of pink and rose to an almost-purple color.
The yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana), another poisonous plant, serves as an ornamental plant. Its fragrant flowers bloom all throughout summer and fall.
Don’t be afraid to try trees; when confined to a pot, they will remain a reasonable size for a long, long time.
When To Prune Oleanders & How?
Question: My potted oleander last year grew to four feet in height and developed three new branches – one on the old stem and two from the root. The old branch bloomed all summer.
I want to cut this plant back to a smaller size – would you tell me when and in what way it should be pruned?
Answer: The best time in pruning oleander plants is right after they have finished blooming… and pruned rather severely. Cut back all the tall stems until about half the total foliage has been removed.
For those varieties which bloom well into the fall, they should be trimmed by mid-September.
This will make the plant grow short and bushy rather than tall and spindly. After pruning give the plant good light and when new growth starts, increase both the temperature and water.
Why Does My Oleander Have Lots of Buds But No Blooms?
Question: I have several two-year-old oleanders. In the spring they are placed on the south side of the house where they get plenty of sunshine and left there during the summer.
The plants are doing well and have had many buds but these never open. What is causing this? Eleana, North Dakota
Answer: To bloom properly, oleander wood should be firm and well-ripened. The latter part of the summer should find the growth fairly well made and from that time on the plants should be kept on the dry side, with no fertilizer added, with all the light and air possible.
The shoots made this season should bloom the next if they are wcll-hardened. I suspect the dropping of buds is caused by drying at the roots, or poor ventilation in the spring before they go outdoors.
Oleander Tree Care Up North
During winter the oleander should be grown quite dry so that it remains in a resting stage. About the first of February place the plant in a warm sunny window and increase the amount of water. Although these plants are drought-tolerant, they appear at their best with proper watering.
About the first of March and again each month until September give the shrub a good liquid feeding. Use something like any liquid water soluble 20-20-20 plant food.
Dissolve the plant food in water at the rate of one heaping tablespoonful to a gallon of water.
When the blooming period is about over, usually by June, prune the plant back rather severely, but keep it growing vigorously until September.
From September on water should be withdrawn sufficiently to permit the oleander plant to remain virtually at a standstill until the following February.
Oleander - features of growing in room conditions. Care. Photo — Botanichka
Luxurious, delicate, romantic, inimitable during flowering oleander is one of the most famous flowering shrubs. True, he has a reputation not only beautiful, but also dangerous - one of the most poisonous plants. In regions with mild winters, especially in the Mediterranean, this plant has become a real classic. But we also love oleanders and grow them as tub and pot plants in gardens and greenhouses. But even in room culture, the oleander still remains a garden star. We will talk about the features of caring for indoor oleander in this article.Oleander - features of growing in room conditions. © HEN-Magonza
Description of the room size oleander
Oleanders are plants so legendary that they are rightly ranked with roses and jasmines. They even got their name in honor of the Nereids from Greek myths. True, they are much more often called pink laurel or oleander, and not the specific name Nerium, even in the West.
Considering our harsh winters, we perceive the oleander as a symbol of a bright vacation on the Mediterranean coast. And it remains one of the most vivid impressions of the local flora, and not a plant that you can easily grow yourself.
The non-frost resistance of oleanders limited their area of distribution to humid and grateful subtropics, but as an ornamental plant it spread throughout the globe. For centuries, oleander has been, along with camellias, one of the main species for any winter garden collection. Its greenhouse status has changed a lot over the past decades: oleanders have become not only garden or greenhouse crops, but also indoor crops.
Oleanders are among the 9 evergreen shrubs0013 family Kutrovye ( Apocynaceae ). There is only one species in the plant genus - common oleander ( Nerium oleander ). Sometimes with age or with proper formation, they develop in the form of trees.
In nature, the height of oleanders is not limited to 5 m, and as a garden plant, bushes usually do not exceed 2 m. But indoor oleanders are compact, formed bushes with an average height of about 50 cm and a maximum height of up to 1.5 m. The size of each particular plant directly depends on its formation: if you let the oleander grow and do not control its shape, it will easily go beyond its limits.
The dense crown of oleanders captivates both with the speed of growth and the ease of branching of its shoots. Upright twigs with their grayish color create dense and massive crowns in combination with linear-lanceolate, strongly pointed leaves at the ends.
Leathery oleander leaves impress with their stiffness and density. The classic lanceolate shape, pointed edge and haze only emphasize how "Mediterranean" - olive-dark green color is characteristic of this shrub.
Petioles are very short, a bright vein is clearly visible on the leaf blades. In length, the leaves can reach 15 cm with a width of only up to 3 cm. They are located either crowded opposite, or in whorls. Oleanders are somewhat reminiscent of rhododendrons in terms of foliage, and in terms of the shape of the leaves, they are similar to laurels, willows and olive trees.The color range of oleanders is very wide - there are white, pink, cream, orange and even red flowers. © Enid Alton
How does an oleander bloom?
Long and very picturesque flowering is the main pride of this plant. Oleanders are able to bloom all summer. To fully appreciate the original shape of oleander flowers - with five almost rectangular petals displaced like propeller blades - is possible only in classic varieties with simple flowers.
Fashionable modern cultivars and hybrids show off rounded, almost interlocking, very original, oval, teardrop-shaped petals or even surprise with their doubleness. But a dense bunch of stamens with fairly large anthers is characteristic of absolutely all oleanders. Oleander flowers are collected in dense capitate shields of inflorescences.
Simple oleander flowers with a characteristic muted shade of pink coloration with a calm, gentle and seemingly nostalgic tone are not so common today. But varietal oleanders with double flowers of white, light orange, cream and yellow, with various two-tone combinations and variegated colors are almost everywhere.
Today the color range of this plant includes all shades of white-yellow-pink-red spectrum. It is better to choose indoor oleanders by carefully studying the recommendations for using the variety (some plants are universal, others are garden, others are indoor, etc.) and guided by your tastes in shades and shapes of flowers.
What does oleander smell like?
Oleanders are fragrant stars. Each variety has its own shade of aromas, which are very easily recognizable, surprising with their sweetish caramel. Some varieties of oleander smell unobtrusively, delicately, others are quite strong.
For growing indoors, it is worth checking the individual tolerance of the aroma and the sensations that this plant evokes. But in any case, it is better to dwell on varieties with a light and delicate smell, and not intense, because indoors the smell will increase significantly, and the rich aroma of numerous flowers can cause discomfort.
Beautiful, but poisonous
Despite all its beauty, the poisonousness of the oleander should never be forgotten. This is one of the most dangerous and toxic plants, which has dangerous substances in all parts. Oleanders are strictly forbidden to grow as an indoor crop for those who have pets and small children. When working with a plant (even just when transferring them, not to mention pruning or transplanting), you need to take the whole range of measures to protect the skin and mucous membranes.Oleander can be formed into a tree. © Plantstore
Growing Conditions for Indoor Oleanders
The extreme sun exposure of oleanders severely limits their ability to grow indoors. Lovers of sunshine and fresh air, oleanders are not a crop for everyone. In addition to the place on the southern windowsills, they will have to take care of winter illumination and cool wintering. And if there is no way to ensure the correct regimen, it is not worth buying this plant even for the sake of its luxurious flowering.
Lighting and placement
Oleanders are extremely photophilous plants that not only tolerate, but also love direct sunlight. The light-loving nature of an oleander can only be fully satisfied by placing it on a southern or partially southern window sill, or, in extreme cases, near windows with an eastern orientation. And even then, for the summer it is still worth taking out to fresh air, to open areas.
Possibilities of placing oleanders on windowsills or right next to them depend on the size and age of the plant: old bushes require large heavy containers and are so large that it is very problematic to place them on the windowsill.
You can't do without light correction for winter dormancy. Oleanders need equally bright lighting even when they are stirred into coolness. If there is no opportunity to find a more illuminated place, then it is advisable for the plant to organize additional lighting to preserve the leaves and health.
Temperature and ventilation
Despite its southern origin, oleander does not like excessive heat at all. During the period of active vegetation, the plant does not tolerate temperatures below 20 degrees and prefers to grow while maintaining stable heat - from 22 to 25 degrees. The plant is not afraid of heat, you can not be afraid of overheating in the southern rooms or on closed balconies. But when the temperature rises above +28 degrees, its growth stops.
Oleander, like most Mediterranean cultures, does not change its natural habits when moved into rooms. In winter, this plant needs a full period of rest.
And it is impossible to create it without coolness. The content of oleander throughout the winter in the temperature range from 8 to 13 degrees is the only condition for the flowering of oleander. But higher temperatures affect more than just flowering.
Oleanders that winter at more than 15 degrees Celsius necessarily shed part of the leaves, and sometimes completely bare, most often do not bloom or bloom very poorly. A short-term drop in air temperature and even light frosts are not terrible for oleanders, but only if such maintenance does not last more than 1-2 days.
Any changes in keeping temperature for oleander should be slow and gentle. The plant does not tolerate sudden changes and can partially shed its leaves when moving abruptly to a cool wintering and back.
Summer in the garden, on the terrace, balcony or at the entrance to the house when growing oleanders are considered mandatory. If it is not possible to place plants in the open air, it should be kept near an open window or in rooms with windows constantly ajar. In winter, especially if the temperatures differ from the recommended ones, oleanders also need more frequent ventilation.Oleander - indoor plant only for very sunny places. © obyava
Oleander care at home
It is no accident that oleanders are not considered plants for everyone. Only experienced flower growers can grow them. After all, watering should be special, and you need to respond to plant signals in time. This is one of those flowering shrubs for which pruning is a must.
Irrigation and air humidity
Few tubs react as badly to unstable humidity as oleander. This shrub loves medium constant soil moisture and needs very abundant watering during the period of active growth. In autumn and winter, watering is limited, making sure that the substrate remains slightly moist, but on average reducing moisture compared to summer watering.
Complete drying of the soil must not be allowed even when the plant is transferred to the garden. For oleander, it is often recommended to leave water in pans in summer or even transfer the plant to lower watering. But for indoor plants, this option is quite risky. Oleanders are best watered in the classical way or by immersing and soaking the substrate with water with constant control of the degree of drying, avoiding waterlogging.
Oleanders, like olive trees, do much better with dry air, but not with heating systems and limited access to fresh air. Spraying must be included in the oleander care program, which in summer (and in winter - if the air temperature deviates from the recommended indicators) is best done daily.
Oleanders love not only spraying, but also showering. It is better to wipe the leaves of the plant regularly from dust or wash to keep the leaf plates clean.
Only warm water should be used for watering, washing and spraying oleanders. It must also be soft, because the accumulation of salts and toxins in the soil can destroy luxurious bushes.
In addition to traditional procedures, it is worth including regular loosening of the soil in the oleander care program. It is carried out carefully, without damaging the roots, but restoring the air permeability of the soil and destroying the crust in the upper layer.Well, if indoor oleander spends the summer outside. © Cimino Del Bufalo
Top dressing and fertilizer composition
Many indoor shrubs and trees are sensitive to over dressing, but oleander needs it. Rapid flowering requires fertilizing weekly in spring and summer (not with standard doses recommended by the manufacturer, but with a halved concentration).
For oleander during the period of active vegetation, complex universal fertilizers are used. If possible, at the beginning of budding and before the first flowers bloom, it is advisable to change the composition of fertilizers to special fertilizers for flowering plants or use special preparations to stimulate flowering several times.
Pruning and shaping oleander
This prone to vigorous growth and rapid growth of the volume of the plant will not be contained without shaping. But since oleander blooms only on young annual shoots, pruning of the plant must be done carefully.
It is advisable to cut oleanders after flowering, but wintering in regions with severe winters rarely does without stretching, dropping leaves and drying out part of the branches, so pruning for indoor oleanders can be postponed until transplantation - late February or early March (this procedure must be carried out before when active growth begins).
Pruning of oleander, in addition to shortening the faded shoots by half, should include a few more procedures:
- obligatory removal of the oldest shoots at the age of 3 years;
- pruning of shoots producing little or no side branches;
- cutting of unproductive and weak shoots;
- pruning of all inward-growing or overly dense branches;
- removal of damaged, dry twigs.
If the oleander is grown in a tree form, then these procedures add the obligatory cutting of the root shoots and stripping the lower part of the trunk from side branches.
Strict formation on oleanders is not carried out, because this plant reveals its beauty only in natural forms, and cutting along the contour leads to the loss of the ability to bloom profusely and picturesquely.
Rejuvenation is carried out on oleanders when there are signs of exposure of the lower part of the bushes, exceeding the allowable size, deterioration of flowering. During rejuvenation, all shoots of oleanders are shortened by half their length or stumps are left about 1/3 of the height of the branches, and branches whose diameter exceeds 1 cm are removed completely. In this case, the plant usually skips one year of flowering.
Withering flowers and inflorescences on oleanders must be removed very carefully. Cutting or plucking dead flowers is not worth it, carefully removing only the petals, because, unlike many other woody ones, oleander buds can re-bud, and any pruning can damage this process.Pruning is a must for oleander. © Tangopaso
Transplanting, containers and substrate
Despite their relatively large size, oleanders are usually transplanted annually due to their very fast growth rate and exceptionally fast substrate depletion. If the plant has not mastered the entire volume of the substrate and develops more slowly, then the transplant is postponed for a year or as long as possible without a transplant, replacing only the top layer of soil.
Oleanders should be transplanted at the end of the dormant period before new leaves and shoots start to grow. Usually the plant is transplanted in late February or early March.
Only large, spacious and deep containers are suitable for oleanders. The plant feels comfortable in tubs and large ceramic pots. Having drainage holes for oleander is very important. Natural container materials and sufficient stability are considered essential for this plant.
Do not increase the size of the container much: the plant grows rapidly and too much free soil can cause active root growth to the detriment of the growth of above-ground parts. But too tight containers will not work for oleanders. It is considered optimal to increase the volume of the pot or tub during transplantation by 5-6 cm.
Garden soil is often used for oleanders, but the plant can develop normally only in a high-quality and balanced nutrient substrate. Looseness, qualitative content of organic matter, slightly acidic or neutral reaction are optimal characteristics. If you mix the soil yourself, then combine humus, peat and soddy soil in equal parts. When buying a ready-made substrate, it is better to stop at special soil mixtures for tubs.
Oleanders are transshipped at a young age, not transplanted. It is undesirable to destroy the root ball and contact with a densely branched and powerful root system, not only because of potentially toxic substances. This plant is very sensitive to damage to the roots and bark, and maintaining the substrate around the roots ensures that they adapt more quickly.
Mature oleanders, after reaching their maximum capacity, require partial root pruning to reduce root ball volume. It is better to lay drainage to the bottom of the tanks in layers, alternating large fragments with sand.
Diseases, pests and growing problems
Oleander pleasantly surprises with its hardiness. This shrub is resistant to almost all diseases and only in a very neglected state and waterlogged soil can it suffer from rot.
Unfortunately, pests love oleanders. Mealybugs, thrips, scale insects in room culture spread very quickly. You need to deal with them immediately, adjusting the conditions, increasing the humidity of the air and applying insecticides from the first days of detection of signs of damage.
Common growing problems:
- drying of leaf tips due to improper watering and drying of the soil;
- growth retardation, discoloration and partial shedding of leaves during sudden changes in temperature;
- shedding of the lower leaves in poor light or in winter in the absence of supplementary light;
- absence or deterioration of flowering with aging, insufficient light, low temperatures or frequent drying of the soil;
- dropping buds when watering with cold water and hypothermia;
- yellowing of leaves due to improper watering or top dressing.
The most popular method of oleander propagation is cuttings. To do this, you can use the tops of the shoots remaining from pruning or specially cut several strong cuttings in spring or summer.
Large cuttings about 15 cm long are cut for oleander. Cuttings are rooted only under a cap, but they can be kept in water or any stably moist soil for an average of 1 month. Plants obtained from cuttings usually bloom in the second year.
It is also possible to create air layers on the oleander. To do this, use the standard method of cutting strong, powerful shoots and wrapping the cut with moss or soil until the roots appear.
When propagated by seed, oleander does not retain varietal characteristics and is used only for natural plant forms. Seeds germinate poorly and unevenly, but plants often bloom in their second year. They can germinate only at 30 degrees Celsius, with bottom heating, under a film and after treatment in fungicides and growth stimulants.
care and cultivation at home, reproduction, photo
Oleander plant (Nerium) is a shrub from the Kutrov family. Its homeland is the Mediterranean tropics, as well as Morocco. Oleander is related to gigantic tropical trees, as well as parasitic vines. In the natural environment, the bushes of this plant can also reach very large (up to 5 m in height) sizes.
The evergreen bush has only one species - the common oleander, known as Nerium oleander. This plant is often used for landscaping in warm coastal regions where there are no harsh winters. In more northern latitudes, oleander can only be grown in greenhouses or at home. Due to the impressive size of the bush, capable of exceeding 2 m, its growth will have to be restrained by periodic pruning. The annual growth of green mass of oleander is about 30 cm per year. With constant formation, you can maintain its size at 50 cm or higher.
With proper care, a home specimen can live for more than 15 years. The flowering of the bush lasts from mid-summer to October. During this period, beautiful bright flowers of various colors are formed on it, collected in corymbose inflorescences. Choosing a certain variety from the modern selection variety should be based on the location of the future placement of the bush. Along with universal varieties, there are varieties specially designed for home or garden cultivation.
1 Oleander features
2 Brief Rules for growing Oleandra
3 Oleander Care at home
3.5 Selection of capacity9000 3.7 top dressing 9000 3.8 transparen
3.11 Dormant period
4 Oleander propagation methods
4.1 Growing from seed
4.2 Reproduction with cuttings
5 Pests and diseases
6 Therapeutic properties of Oleandra
7 types and varieties of Oleandra with photos and names
7. 1 Oleander ordinary (Nerium Oleander)
Oleander features with a chure of Oleandra should not be kept in a home with children or pets. All parts of this plant contain a strong poison. Due to the high toxicity, it is advisable to carry out all work with the flower, including the simple transfer of the pot, with gloves, and then wash your hands thoroughly. In addition, you should not put a bush in the bedroom - the sweet smell of the flowers of this plant can sometimes cause a headache. At the same time, different varieties of oleander can have a smell of different intensity - from light and pleasant to strong and rich. That is why for the home you should select varieties with a more subtle and unobtrusive aroma.
The main reason for growing oleander is the high decorativeness of the bush. The appearance of a flowering plant helps to overcome the autumn depression caused by a lack of sun. Bright flowering shrubs are also used by landscape designers. In addition to attractiveness, oleander is able to purify the air by releasing phytoncides. Its essential oils are even used in perfumery.
Oleander. Reproduction, planting, care features
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Brief rules for growing oleander
The table contains brief rules for caring for oleander at home.
|Light level||Bright light is preferred, but the bush is slightly shaded on the south side.|
|Keeping temperature||The temperature in winter can be cool (from 5 degrees), but the plant should not be kept near batteries. In summer, oleander is kept at 18-28 degrees.|
|Watering Schedule||In summer the soil should not dry out, in winter it is possible to slightly dry the soil between waterings. One watering per decade will suffice. To do this, use warm and soft water.|
|Air humidity||The humidity level should be above average. If the room is kept above 20 degrees, it is necessary to humidify the air next to the flower more often, using sprayers or a tray with wet pebbles.|
|Soil||The optimal soil is a mixture of peat, turf, humus and sand in equal proportions. If necessary, use any nutrient soil with a good level of drainage.|
|Top dressings||From the end of spring to the beginning of autumn, liquid complex formulations are applied twice a month, reducing their dosage by half.|
|Transplantation||Young plants - as they develop, adults - once every 3 years. The pot should be large enough.|
|Pruning||Pruning is used to adjust the size of the bush, as well as crown formation.|
|Flowering||Flowering from mid-summer to late September.|
|Dormant period||Dormant period begins after flowering - from mid-autumn to early spring.|
|Propagation||Seeds. Also in the spring or in August, you can cut the apical cuttings from the bush.|
|Pests||Spider mites, mealybugs, aphids and scale insects.|
|Diseases||Errors in care lead to the weakening of the plant, as well as the development of diseases.|
Growing oleander at home, you should be prepared for the regular formation of its crown. At the end of summer or at the end of flowering, the branches of the bush are shortened by half, and the side stems by about 10 cm. All work with oleander is carried out only with gloves.
The bush is very fond of fresh air, so the room with it should be regularly ventilated, or take the plant outside or a balcony, choosing a place for it, sheltered from drafts.
Oleander care at home
Taking care of your oleander at home can be tricky. A tropical handsome man is quite demanding and requires a lot of knowledge and patience from the owner. The health and rate of development of the oleander largely depend on compliance with its requirements for lighting, moisture and temperature.
The abundance of future oleander blooms largely depends on the level of illumination. Lack of light will lead to a lack of buds, and sometimes to dropping foliage.
Houses for the bush choose a brightly lit place - this is how it should be both in summer and in winter. It is desirable to place adult plants on the east or south side with light shading in the afternoon. At the same time, such large plants most often do not fit on the windowsill, so you have to choose other places for them. The northern rooms will require the use of backlighting. In summer, you can take the pot of oleander outside or onto the balcony, choosing a place sheltered from the wind for it.
If the oleander has been bought recently, immediately after the purchase, it is not worth putting it on a brightly lit window sill. Such a plant is gradually accustomed to a new lighting regime.
Oleander belongs to heat-loving plants, but reacts sharply to temperature changes in the room, shedding some of the foliage. In winter, it can be kept cool, but it should not be colder than 5 degrees in the room. In summer, the flower will feel good both in moderately warm (18 degrees) and in fairly hot (27 degrees) weather. But in extreme heat, the plant slows down its growth rate. The main thing in its content is to avoid sudden temperature changes, as well as periodically ventilate the room even in the cold season.
Oleander loves moisture, but overflow can be fatal for him. In the warm season, it is watered when the upper part of the soil begins to dry out. For this, warm and well-settled water is used. The need for moisture can be partly compensated by increasing the humidity level. In winter and autumn, watering is carried out much less frequently - about once a decade. Mulching will help keep the moisture reserves in the soil. If the bush is kept in a cool place, the water in the pan should not remain.
The hotter the room gets, the higher the humidity level should rise. To make the oleander feel more comfortable, in the heat, its foliage should be regularly sprayed with warm and always soft water. The same measures are taken in winter, when heating is turned on in the apartments. The flower should be kept away from the batteries. The rest of the time, you can moisten the foliage of the oleander only periodically. You can put the flower on a pallet filled with wet pebbles. Leaf blades are periodically washed to remove dust.
Oleander needs the right pot for full growth and abundant flowering. It is selected based on the age of the plant. Small oleanders can be planted in medium-sized containers. It is not worth using a voluminous pot right away - the bush will begin to grow roots to the detriment of the aerial part. Too small pots will also not work - the roots in them begin to deform.
The need for repotting can be judged by looking at the drainage holes in the pot. If roots begin to be seen in them, the container needs to be changed. The new pot should completely accommodate the roots of the plant and leave some room for fresh soil. In addition, an adult oleander bush weighs a lot, so the selected pot should easily support its weight and not roll over. Particularly large oleanders are eventually moved to tubs.
Neutral or slightly alkaline soil (pH 7-8) is suitable for growing oleander. You can use both ready-made soils, and mix humus, turf, peat and sand or perlite on your own.
Oleander needs rich soil and a good drainage layer. As soon as the soil begins to deplete and cake, it must be updated. In addition, periodically the soil in the pot must be slightly loosened, breaking the resulting crust, but without touching the roots.
Fertilizers are needed to maintain normal oleander growth, but too much can disrupt its internal clock and delay flowering.
During the period of more active development, from the beginning of spring and all summer, the bush is fed twice a month, using liquid solutions for home flowers. The dosage should be halved. Cloudy days or evening hours are best suited for this procedure. At the beginning of the budding process, you can use compositions to stimulate flowering.
In winter, no top dressing is carried out - at this time the plant rests and gains strength before the new season.
Young, more actively growing oleanders are repotted annually. Adults - as needed, about once every 3 years. Transplantation is carried out before budding begins - in spring or summer, if the roots of the plant have already fully mastered the soil lump. The oleander is carefully pulled out of the pot and its roots are examined. The tangled ones must be straightened, and the affected or damaged ones must be removed and treated with crushed coal.
A thick drainage layer of pebbles, expanded clay or brick fragments is poured onto the bottom of the planting tank. A little soil is poured on top of it, and then the bush itself is moved. The soil level should be at least 1.5 cm below the edge of the pot. This will make watering and fertilizing easier. After transplanting, the oleander bush is watered, the top of the soil is covered with mulch and kept in the shade for several days to acclimatize. The first feeding is carried out only after 2 weeks.
When the oleander becomes too large for transplanting, simply replace the topsoil in the pot. Sometimes the roots of these plants are trimmed a little so that they continue to fit in the pot.
Oleander trimmings are used to adjust the size of the bush and keep the crown neat. In addition, flowers are formed only on fresh shoots, so regular shearing will contribute to the splendor of flowering. In the spring, before the start of growth, or in the fall, at the end of flowering, the main shoots of the bush are shortened by half. At the same time, the side branches are cut to 10 cm. The oldest, weakest or growing shoots inside the bush should be removed. On the young shoots formed after shearing, flowers will appear later. But the branches that form under the flower buds are usually cut off - they will slow down the development of the plant.
Sometimes a bush can be turned into a kind of tree, but most often the plant is left in its free natural form. Contour haircuts are contraindicated for him, because. they have a bad effect on the abundance of flowering.
Old bushes with exposed lower branches can be rejuvenated. At this time, only half or a third of all the branches of the bush can be left. The plant may not bloom next year, but then it will look neater.
Oleander must be cut annually. This contributes to its growth and full flowering. But if pruning is not carried out in a timely manner, flowering can not wait. The shoots left from the shearing can be used as cuttings.
Withered flowers should not be completely removed from the bush - only their petals should be removed. New buds may appear on the inflorescences later, and pruning or pinching can prevent this.
Oleander flowering is very impressive. From mid-summer to the end of September, elegant inflorescences-brushes or shields are formed at the ends of its shoots. Their bright color is emphasized by the muted green foliage. Oleander flowers are quite large. Their color palette includes white, pink, yellow, pale lilac or red. The structure can be simple (only 5 petals), but there are also terry varieties. The buds look like roses. Due to the fact that the inflorescences do not open at the same time, the flowering period becomes longer. After flowering, fruit-boxes appear in their place.
Proper pruning helps oleander bloom luxuriantly. The number of buds also depends on the summer illumination.
Oleander begins to rest as soon as it has finished flowering - from mid-autumn to early spring. The bush should be provided with a cooler place where it keeps about +10 degrees, without depriving it of bright light. Lack of lighting can lead to leaf fall and lack of flower buds. Watering at this time is required to be reduced, and top dressing should be stopped. Only in such conditions will the bush be able to fully restore its strength.
If a flower hibernates in a warm room at a temperature of 15 degrees and above, it will begin to shed its leaves. Sometimes such a bush completely exposes the stems, and then blooms very poorly or does not bloom at all.
Oleander propagation methods
Oleander seeds and cuttings are used to propagate oleander.
Growing from seeds
Oleander seeds lose their viability quickly, so this propagation method should be practiced immediately after harvesting. The resulting inoculum is kept in a solution of manganese. It will take several hours to process. After that, they are superficially sown in moist soil. Crops are covered with a film with small holes. The temperature for germination is about 21 degrees. Periodically ventilate the container. Shoots will begin to appear in about 10 days. When the sprouts form true leaves, they can be dived into individual pots.
The seed method of obtaining new plants requires more time for the development of the oleander bush, in addition, the seedling may not have maternal varietal characteristics.
Propagation by cuttings
Propagation of oleander is a fairly simple process. The best time for this breeding method is spring or autumn. A shoot up to 20 cm long is separated from the bush. It must have several buds and at least 3 leaves. Slices are treated with crushed coal. The resulting stalk is planted in wet sand or perlite, where coal and brick fragments have been added. Adding sand near the root collar will help prevent rotting of the seedling.
At a temperature of about 20 degrees and in the light, the cutting will form roots for about a month. You can not plant it in the substrate, but keep it in water, where fine charcoal has been added. After the seedling takes root and grows, you can transplant it into its own pot. Flowering will come in the same year.
💗Oleander reproduction, planting a rooted cutting
Watch this video on YouTube
Pests and diseases
Mistakes in caring for oleander often lead to weakening of the plant, as well as the development of diseases and pests. The requirements of a flower can be judged by external signs:
- No flowering - lack of light or heat, insufficient watering or fertilizing, untimely or too much pruning, lack of air movement. Bush care needs to be adjusted.
- The buds remain closed - the oleander is cold, the bush needs to be rearranged in a warm place.
- Dropping buds - the bush is watered too cold or it freezes.
- Falling leaves - lack of light in the cold season, or the bush freezes. To adjust, use additional lighting or move the bush to a more suitable place. If the foliage dries up at the same time, too little watering may be the reason.
- Foliage has become spotty - a sign of a fungal disease. Such diseases spread very quickly, in order to prevent the death of the plant, it must be treated with a fungicide as soon as possible, after removing the affected leaf plates.
- Yellowing leaves - wrong choice of fertilizer or overflow.
- Black spots on the foliage are a sign of a fungal disease, a fungicide treatment is needed.
- Foliage turns pale and small, flowers do not bloom or look bad - lack of lighting, the bush needs more sun or the use of lamps.
- Drying of the tips of the leaf blades - dry air, the bush should be sprayed or apply other methods of moistening.
It is the dryness of the air that often becomes one of the causes of pests. In combination with overflow and lack of light, the flower can become a victim of spider mites, mealybugs, aphids or scale insects. It is quite difficult to remove them, so it is easier to prevent the appearance of insects with appropriate care.
Medicinal properties of oleander
Although oleander is considered a poisonous plant, it can be used for medicinal purposes. Its foliage contains valuable glycosides that can help in the treatment of certain heart diseases. Leaf infusions are used in folk medicine as a remedy for migraines, nervous exhaustion, insomnia and heart rhythm disturbances. Oleander also helps veterinarians: products based on it are used to treat diseases of the stomach or heart in animals. But in no case should you self-medicate.
Types and varieties of oleander with photos and names
Common oleander (Nerium oleander)
Varieties of common oleander, also known as fragrant or Indian oleander, are successfully grown at home. Its forms differ in different colors of inflorescences and their size.
Pink double oleander
Forms a neat bush no more than a meter in height. The elongated foliage is painted green and resembles willow. On one bush, up to several dozen flowers can bloom at the same time. They have a terry structure and a white-pink color. Flowering continues until November.
This oleander is sensitive to light and requires frequent airing of the room.
Unpretentious and often found in work areas and offices. The bush can reach a height of 2 meters, but easily tolerates pruning. The foliage is leathery, dark green, lighter on the wrong side. The flowers are white, they can be simple or slightly double and have a pleasant smell.