How to clean the trunk of a palm tree

How to Trim Palm Tree Trunk In 2022 [7 Pro Steps]

Pruning the palm tree has always been a divisive topic amongst gardeners and experts. While many think pruning is essential for the palm tree's growth, a lot more suggests that the process is not necessary at all. This second group says pruning does nothing but hurt the tree. 

Like other trees, the palm tree needs pruning albeit carefully and at long intervals. There are many reasons why a tree, even the palm tree, should be pruned.

We will be discussing these reasons and more as well as how to trim palm tree trunk like a pro - even if you've never done it before.

Let's get started!

Table of Contents

Why Trim Palm Tree Trunk?

If there is much ado about trimming a palm tree, then there is undoubtedly a reason why. Earlier, gardeners thought trimming a palm tree would make it grow faster. But recent studies have shown that this is not true. So, why trim a palm tree trunk?

The very first reason to trim palm trees is to get rid of dying or dead palm fronds. When you eliminate these dead fronds, you prevent breakage damage. 

The second reason is to eliminate breeding places for pests. Scorpions, rats, and squirrels often nest in these dead fronds and eat away at your plant. Trimming the palm tree ensures they don’t, and this leaves your tree healthier and more robust.

If the palm tree in question is near homes and buildings, you should trim them as too many fronds can be a fire hazard. They are also dangerous in windy times as they may break off and hit something or someone, causing mortal injury.

You have to trim the palm tree to get to the flowers, seeds, and fruit. People trim the palm trees located at walks and driveways so they can see better while driving or taking a walk.

When Should You Trim Palm Tree Trunk?

When is the best time to trim the palm tree trunk? The best time to prune a palm trunk is during spring.

However, there are some things you’d notice on your tree, which are indicators that you need to prune your tree. Here are some of those indicators. If you do not see any of these indicators, do not trim your tree.

  • Dead fronds. These are usually white, yellow, or brown and they hang down looking wilted.
  • Broken fronds.
  • Fruit stalks and palm flowers. They slow tree growth and use energy.

NB: Yellow spots on old palm fronds do not mean your tree needs pruning. It means the tree is lacking potassium. What you do in this case is supply the palm tree with extra potassium.

Wait for one year before pruning. If you prune a potassium deficient palm tree, other fronds will turn yellow and lose nutrients.

Tools for Trimming Palm Tree Trunk

What are the tools needed for trimming a palm tree trunk? The type of tools you need for trimming a palm tree may vary, depending on the palm tree's height.

Here are some of the trees below:

  • Serrated knife: You can use this for fronds with a diameter equal to or less than an inch. You can also use the knife to cut flower stalks.
  • Shears or big clippers: This is for removing fronds with diameters higher than an inch.
  • Hand saw: The hand saw is perfect for medium-sized trees.
  • Chain saw: This saw is for giant trees, and you should be careful when using it. It is safe for you to contact an arborist if your tree needs a chain saw.
  • Disinfectants: For sterilizing the tools to avoid the transfer of diseases.
  • Whetstone/Bench grinder/Oilstone: For sharpening your blades.
  • Ladder/Lifts/Step stools: For climbing the tree.
  • Gloves: For protecting your palm against sharp frond edges.
  • Googles: For protecting your eyes from sharp, small, and flying debris.

>>> Read Also: Essential Gardening Tools

NB: If you are a novice in pruning palm fronds, especially if the tree is huge, please employ the services of a professional-an arborist. 

How to Trim Palm Tree Trunk

How do you trim the palm tree trunk? Follow the steps below.

Step 1: Sterilize the Tools

The first thing to do is to sterilize trimming tools to prevent the spread of diseases. Wipe away debris and dirt from the cutting tools. Then soak the tools in a disinfecting solution.

For this solution, mix three parts of water with a part of bleach. Soak the cutting tools in the solution for five minutes. Rinse with water and air dry.

Step 2: Prepare to Climb the Tree

You must ensure your climbing gear is in order before climbing. Some palm trees are quite tall, and any carelessness or slip could lead to a fall, which can be fatal.

While you are looking out for your safety, ensure the climbing equipment is not damaging the tree trunk. If the tree trunk damages while trimming, your palm may not recover.

Step 3: Get Rid of Dead Leaves 

Use your knife or saw to cut off dead fronds, starting at the base of the tree’s foliage. Cut 2 inches from the tree trunk. Remove fronds below the angle 90 lines, even if they are green. Be careful not to cut the tree’s crown. If you do, your palm will die. 

It is unnecessary to trim palm species such as Kentia, Chamadoreas, Jubaea, and King palms. They self-clean as dead fronds drop naturally.

Step 4: Get Rid of Loose Petioles

Pull the loose petioles slowly. If they are stiff and won't come off when you apply little pressure, leave it be.

Step 5: Trim Developing Fruits and Flowers

If the palm is a flowering species, clip off the fruits and flowers as they take nutrients and prevent fast growth.

Step 7: Discard Trimmed Fronds Properly

Fronds have sharp edges, and if you leave them lying around, they might hurt someone. Please put them in an organic waste bin.

Also, pick up flowers and fruits and dispose of them accordingly. If you leave them lying around, you may invite pests.

>>> Read Also:

  • How to Treat Fungus on Palm Trees
  • Types of Palm Trees In Florida
  • Types of Succulents
  • Names of Flowers In Alphabetical Order


How to trim palm tree trunk is what every gardener who has palm trees should know. But if you do not, it is wise to call in experts who can help you do that.

Please do not leave the tree without any fronds, especially the green ones, as they make food for the tree. And if the tree cannot make its food, it will look unhealthy and weak.

Your palm tree does not need you to prune it continually, as this will affect its growth. It is better if you only trim your tree once a year for maximum results.

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How To Trim A Palm Tree in 5 Simple Steps

Palm trees add a tropical look and feel to your home indoors and in outdoor gardens. Overall, palm trees are pretty low maintenance, but there are occasions when you may need to give a palm tree a trim. But, have you ever wondered how to trim a palm tree, what tools you might need, or when to call a professional for assistance? We researched various sources about how to safely and adequately trim a palm tree and signs that your palm tree could use some maintenance.   

Here are the steps you need to take if you want to trim a palm tree -

  1. Look over your palm for brown fronds.
  2. Clean your pruning shears (or an extended pole saw for tall palms).
  3. Remove dead fronds without harming the trunk, avoiding the crown head.

For tall trees, or if you're unsure of how to cut the tree, call a professional.

Indoor palms that are small and more manageable are easy to trim and care for, but larger palms may require hiring a professional. Read on and gain the confidence you need to best care for your palm tree's health and appearance.

Uncover the Needs of Your Palm Tree

Luckily, most palm trees are relatively low-maintenance plants that thrive when grown outdoors or indoors, depending on the species. Although palm trees can live up to a century, they still require routine maintenance to keep them healthy, beautiful, and growing skyward. There are more than a few reasons it may become necessary to give a palm tree a trim.

Old Discolored Fronds

There is no greater eyesore in an outdoor garden than walking or driving past and witnessing a distressed-looking palm tree covered in dead, brown, discolored fronds. It is not only visually unattractive to neglect to prune old fronds that are no longer green and healthy, but they add extra weight to a palm tree, further stressing the plant.

Aesthetic Appeal

It is essential not to over prune a palm tree, as they only need maintenance an average of once or twice a year. However, there are moments when a gardener shouldn't wait any longer to trim that palm. Remember to make sure a palm frond is entirely dead before removing it and be mindful of being overzealous with pruning shears or a saw.

Fire Hazard

Palm trees that have dried leaves hanging around are not only an eyesore, but they can lead to fires. If a palm tree is growing in a place that gets incredibly hot and has high windows, anything that can catch on fire should be removed as soon as possible. A flaming palm tree ignited because of areas that experience fire season or a lightning strike can easily ignite nearby structures, plants, and damage property.


Especially in states like Florida, palm rats can be a severe problem if you love growing palm trees outdoors. An unkempt palm tree that needs a trim may be a haven for rats. Palm trees that are a mass of dead hanging fronds, or have a hollowed-out trunk provide a nest for vermin looking to make a home.

Seasonal Trim

Spring is the best time to prune a palm tree, as fronds should be allowed to hang on a palm tree during the summer and wintertime to protect the tree from extreme temperatures. Unless the fronds of a palm tree are dead, brown, a hazard, or diseased, it is not necessary to prune a palm. Removing the fronds of a palm more than once a year can lead to a weakened plant and retard growth.

How Do I Trim a Palm Tree?

Before you tackle the task of trimming a palm tree, you need to have the right tools for the job first. Small indoor palm trees can be pruned easily with a pair of bypass pruners or loopers. A more massive palm may require calling for professional help if you are short on time or uncomfortable with pruning your palm tree. You may need to don climbing gear or climb a ladder to reach fronds. A clean cutting saw should be used to trim palms that have dead fronds, or diseased and damaged sections, leaving only healthy parts of the tree behind.

Trimming a small indoor palm is pretty straightforward. However, here are the steps to prune a sizeable outdoor palm tree safely.

  1. Make sure your tools are clean and sterilized to prevent transmission of disease to your plant. Use a solution of bleach and water with a 1 to 3 ratio.
  2. Cut or saw fronds close to the trunk without damaging the trunk, and only if the fronds are not at a 90-degree angle.
  3. Use an extension ladder or put on climbing gear to reach high areas of a palm tree over 15 feet.
  4. Looping shears can be used to prune a palm tree, but a linoleum knife helps remove boots on a trunk that do not fall off.
  5. Don't remove yellow fronds and only remove fronds that are brown, dead, and falling downward. Keeping this in mind helps the palm retain nutrients and stay strong and healthy.

Take your time when pruning a palm tree and carefully look over your plant to check for disease, fungus, signs of vermin, or other problems. If you do not feel confident enough to prune a palm do call a professional to provide maintenance services for your plants.

When Should Palm Trees be Trimmed?

A palm tree should be trimmed in the springtime, but also before hurricane or fire season starts. Dead fronds and boots left hanging on a tree can lead to property damage if blown about by strong winds, or if the tree becomes ignited.

What is the Best Tool to Trim Palm Trees?

The best tool to trim a palm tree if it is small is a set of bypass pruning shears. If you are cutting an outdoor palm tree that is over 15 feet tall, you will want to use a pole saw to reach hard to get areas.

Check out this pole saw and chainsaw combo on Amazon.

Check out this set of pruning shears on Amazon.

Should You Trim a Palm Tree on Your Own?

If you wish to trim a palm tree on your own using climbing gear, it is best to avoid using spikes, which can damage the trunk as you shimmy up the tree. It is better to rent a lift or use an extendable ladder to get to high places in a palm tree without causing unnecessary damage or hire a professional to examine and prune your tree.

Check out this tree-climbing set on Amazon.

How Much Does it Cost to Trim a Palm Tree?

The cost of having a palm tree trimmed depends on the tree's height if it is an emergency call, and the condition of your palm. Trees that are taller or are in poor health are more expensive to trim because of the extensive amount of time needed to perform proper maintenance and care. Palms that are 30 feet or smaller may cost as little as $75 and as much as $400 to trim. Trees towering 60 feet or higher may cost between $200 and $1200 for professional maintenance.

Homeowners can prepare to spend between $80 and $1200 to have their palm trees trimmed depending on the number of trees that need attention, accessibility issues, and the height, width, condition, and location of the trees in question. The national average cost to have a tree trimmed or removed is $693.

Should I Cut Off Brown Palm Leaves?

Remove brown palm leaves, especially if they no longer sit on the palm at a 90-degree angle or higher, or they are dried out. Palm leaves that are alive and healthy are vibrant green and become yellow and then brown as they die.

What Happens When You Cut the Top Off a Palm Tree?

It is not advisable to cut off the top of a palm tree or the crown head. The crown head is responsible for the palm tree's growth and continual existence, and a palm tree will soon perish after you remove the top.

Click here to read more fascinating articles about palm trees.

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11 Low-Maintenance Palm Trees That You'll Love

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home care, transplanting and propagation, growing problems


Palm family. Fine representatives of this family are the best representatives of ornamental and deciduous plants for growing indoors, although the best place for a palm tree is in a winter garden. Most palms are native to the tropics and subtropics. At home, palm trees grow to enormous sizes, for example, leaves can reach 15-17 m in length and 2 m in width. Nevertheless, many of the palm trees turned out to be rather unpretentious, and their rather slow growth allows them to be successfully grown in city apartments.

There are several types of so-called house palms - they can be grown as houseplants. Conventionally, according to the shape of the leaves, they can be divided into two groups:

  • pinnate (dipsis, coconut, date, howea, hamedorea)
  • fan leaves (karyota, chamerops, trachycarpus, liviston).

Palm tree care at home

Most home grown palm trees require a fairly large space. The living room or hall is best suited. Even if your palm tree is not large, it is still a single plant, and nothing should interfere with it. By the way, if there is a cat in the house, then keep in mind that a palm tree can turn out to be a very tasty green for her. Caring for palm trees is simple: timely watering, annual transplantation, periodic top dressing and rinsing the leaves from dust.


The room where the palm tree will grow should be bright, with good sunlight. Bright diffused light is best, since not all palm trees tolerate direct sun well, most of them require shading in the hottest spring and summer time - from 11 am to 4 pm from the south and west. As a shade in the summer, a light tulle curtain on the window is enough. But this is only in summer, and from August to February, palm trees are not afraid of any sun. In winter in mid-latitudes, shading is not required at all.

Very often people try to decorate the dark corners of a room with palm trees, forgetting that there are no shade-loving indoor plants, only shade-tolerant ones. In addition, the crown of palm trees is spreading and requires uniform lighting from all sides. Therefore, already a meter from the window, it is desirable to organize additional lighting with fluorescent lamps.



Palm trees of tropical origin require maintenance in winter in moderately warm or warm rooms, where from 16 to 24°C. Palm trees, which are native to the subtropics, are best kept in winter only in cool rooms, where the temperature is about 8-12 ° C. All palm trees do not tolerate drafts well. It is especially necessary to be wary of cold air when airing a room in winter through a window and a door. Palm roots are very sensitive to cold, so do not place palm pots directly on a cold window sill or marble floor slabs. So that the root system does not overcool, a pot with a palm tree is placed in another, larger pot, or a wooden tub, and the space between the walls of the containers is covered with expanded clay, filled with sphagnum moss, or peat.

  • Warm indoor palms: areca, coconut, caryota, chamedorea, acanthophenix, phoenix Robelini - require warm content and high humidity.
  • Temperate indoor palms: hovei (Belmora, Forstera), Bonneti coco, geonoma, clinostigma, ropalostylis, rapis.
  • Cool room palms: chamerops, brachea, washingtonia, trachycarpus, etc.


All palms, even those that come from dry areas, are quite moisture-loving, so watering is plentiful in summer, almost every day, and moderate in winter. But this concept of moisture-loving applies only to palm trees planted in loose soil with good drainage. Those. when watering, the earth should have time to dry out in the upper third of the pot. And in the depths (if you touch it with your finger) - be slightly moist all the time, but not damp. The frequency of watering directly depends on the air temperature, for example, when keeping a palm tree in a very cool room in winter (about 5-7 ° C), the plant is watered very rarely (once every 1. 5-2 months), or watering is replaced by light spraying. Caring for palm trees also consists in periodically loosening the topsoil after watering.


Palm trees love moist air, the optimum humidity for them is 40-50%. Therefore, palm trees need regular spraying, especially in summer in the heat and in winter in a heated room. Due to the dryness of the air, palm trees suffer greatly (the ends of the leaves dry) and lose their decorative appeal (see below). The water for spraying should be warm, while spraying the plant on both sides of the leaves. In winter, in apartments, the humidity is on average 20-25%, while spraying only temporarily alleviates the situation, but in no case should watering be increased. Remember that extra watering does not compensate for the lack of humidity! In such cases, hanging the batteries with wet sheets and installing an air humidifier helps, and for small palm trees, placing the pot on a wide tray with wet expanded clay or sphagnum moss.

How to transplant a palm tree


Soil - 2 parts light clay-turf, 2 parts humus-leaf, 1 part peat, 1 part rotted manure, 1 part sand and some charcoal. This is a very nutritious soil. On poorer potting mixes, palm trees will not grow well. Palm trees are transplanted in the spring. Young palms up to 3 years - annually, older than 3 years - after 3-5 years. In general, palm trees do not really like transplantation, but if it is carried out correctly, they tolerate it well. One of the conditions for a correct transplant is the selection of appropriate dishes. To do this, you need to examine the root system of the plant - if the roots have grown in width, closer to the walls of the pot, then take a new pot of larger diameter; if the roots grew predominantly downward, i.e. deep into the pot, then a new pot should be larger than before, but not in diameter, but in height.

If diseased or damaged roots are found during transplantation, they must be removed without damaging healthy tissues.

Before planting in a pot, be sure to put good drainage and compost (well-rotted manure) is applied on top of it in a layer of 3-8 cm, depending on the age of the plant and the size of the container. Then the plant is placed in a pot and covered with earth, while the soil is slightly compacted. After transplanting palm trees, even sun-loving ones do not put in direct sunlight. Watering the first two weeks after transplantation is moderate.

If the roots of a palm tree protrude strongly from the pot, it is best to cover them with damp moss. Since adult palm trees are transplanted after a few years, and they consume nutrients quickly, despite regular top dressing in spring and summer, it is recommended to annually (if the root system allows) to remove the top layer of the earth (the most depleted), and replace it with fresh nutrient soil (you can compost - it, unlike fresh manure, does not smell).

Palm fertilizer

Apply top dressing in cases where the plant is healthy and is in a period of growth, not dormancy. Fertilize palm trees after 2-3 weeks with fertilizers for decorative and deciduous plants.

Top dressing is carried out only after the earth ball is watered and soaked with water. You can feed with any purchased fertilizers suitable for palm trees, for example, "Ideal", "Uniflor-growth", "Tsniflor-micro", "Giant", etc. Do not feed palm trees in autumn and winter, as well as the first two months after transplanting into fresh earth.


To prevent the attack of thrips, aphids and other pests, periodically wipe the leaves of palm trees with a damp sponge, and small plants can be immersed with leaves in warm water with a solution of Persian chamomile or green soap. After 30 minutes, the plant must be washed with clean warm water. Palm trees are regularly sprayed, taken out in the rain in the summer, or at home for a shower, if the size of the plant allows.

Propagation of palm trees


Palm trees can be propagated by seeds, but this is quite difficult and not everyone succeeds. Palm seeds quickly lose their germination. Palm seeds germinate in an average of 20-30 days (liviston, washingtonia, sabal, trachycarpus), with soil heating, palm seeds stored for 3-4 years germinate in 2-4 months. Therefore, buy only fresh seeds, best in flower shops.

Before sowing, large seeds with a hard shell must be carefully filed so as not to damage the seed itself, small seeds, but also with a hard shell, are soaked for 3-4 days in warm water (30-35 ° C). Sowing seeds is best done in late winter or early spring. Seeds are soaked in warm water for 2-3 days before sowing. Pots for planting seedlings take no more than 15 cm in height, otherwise the roots of the seedlings grow strongly in length. At the bottom of the pot there must be one or more holes for water to drain.

First, a good drainage is placed in the pot from a shard and a mixture of river sand and expanded clay (broken red brick or small pieces of foam plastic can be used), then a soil mixture is poured, consisting of 1 part of soddy soil and 3 parts of coarse sand. Pure river sand is poured over the soil mixture with a layer of 4 cm, into which palm seeds are sown, no deeper than 2-3 cm. The sowing density is 3-3.5 cm between the seeds. To keep the soil moist, cover it with a small layer of moss on top. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 20-22°C for subtropical palms and 28-30°C. Seedlings are watered daily with water, the temperature of which is not lower than room temperature.

When the germinated seedlings grow their first leaf, 8-10 cm in size, they are transplanted into pots 9 cm in diameter in a soil mixture consisting of 3 parts sod, 2 parts humus, 2 parts leafy soil and 1 part sand. Good drainage is also poured into the bottom of the pot. If the seedling has a very long root, then it is folded in a spiral and covered with earth, while it is necessary to save the remainder of the seed, which will provide nutrition for the young plant. The soil is compacted and watered abundantly.

It is even more convenient to sow palm seeds in peat tablets. After the seed germinates and shoots appear, peat tablets, without violating their integrity, are planted in pots.

Put the pot in a warm and bright place, but not in direct sunlight. The first two weeks, seedlings planted are watered moderately, allowing the soil to dry slightly in the upper layers, and then more abundantly, keeping the soil constantly in a slightly moistened state. But remember that palm trees do not tolerate excessive dampness.

Bottle palm - a curious plant for warm gardens

There are some truly impressive palm trees that can leave us open-mouthed with their beauty. One of them is Hyophorbe lagenicaulis . Ideal for small gardens and can live for many years in a pot. It is popularly known as Bottle Palm because its trunk closely resembles bottles.

But What do they care about? Can you resist the cold? If you want to know everything about this magnificent palm tree, then we will reveal all its secrets so that you know how to keep it healthy.


  • 1 Origin and characteristics of the bottle palm
  • 2 What care do you need?
    • 2.1 ubicación
    • 2.2 irrigation
    • 2.3 Earth
    • 2.4 Subscriber
    • 2.5 POS
    • 2.6 Planting or transplantation
    • 2.7 Plague
    • 2.8 Crossbow
bottle palm characteristics

Image - Flickr / Scott Zona

Our protagonist is a unicaule palm (that is, with one trunk) and an evergreen plant, the scientific name of which is Hyophorbe lagenicaulis . This is an endemic species of Round Island, an island that belongs to the Republic of Mauritius, not far from Madagascar.

It is characterized by a fairly swollen trunk, about 40-50 cm thick at its widest point. It has four to six dark green pinnate leaves and reaches a height of about 4-5 meters. . As we can see, it is ideal for any gardens, small, medium or large. Its growth rate is medium-slow, it can be sped up a bit by adding special fertilizers for palms or guano.

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This species is at high risk of extinction due to habitat loss. Even if is used as an ornamental garden plant, survival is more than guaranteed. as Easily propagated by seeds. and is highly prized by palm collectors.

What care do you need?

Image - Wikimedia / Lord Koxinga

If you dare to get a copy, we recommend that you take care of it as follows:


The bottle palm is a plant that likes bright exposure but does not like direct sunlight . This means that it needs a lot of natural light, but if it is directly exposed to the rays of the star king, its leaves will light up.

Only in a humid tropical climate could one get used to direct light.


In summer it needs to be watered 2-3 times a week, and in the rest of the year 1-2 every seven to 10 days. . If you have it indoors, let the soil dry out before watering again.

It is important to water at sunset as this ensures that the bottle palm will use more and more water. If possible, use rainwater or lime-free water; Otherwise, dilute the liquid of half a lemon in a liter of water, or one to two tablespoons of vinegar in 5 liters of water. Check with a pH strip that it does not drop too much, because if it falls below 4, the bottle palm will be damaged (spots on the leaves due to lack of calcium).


  • Flower Pot : Fill with a mixture of 60% mixed universal substrate + 30% perlite + 10% volcanic clay so that the drainage is perfect. The pot can be made of plastic or clay, but it is imperative that there are holes in its base through which water can escape during watering.
  • orchard : grows in soil rich in organic matter, light and with good drainage. It is desirable that the pH be slightly acidic, but this is not necessary. If you see leaves turning yellow, add liquid iron (sold here) to water and irrigate.


Image - Flickr / Forest and Kim Starr

Early spring to late summer It is recommended to apply this with special palm fertilizer, guano, or alternate both (one month one and the other the next month).

Other natural fertilizers you can use besides guano are mulch, compost or herbivore manure, but we recommend using the latter only if the plant is on dry land, otherwise the substrate will not drain well. And quickly water.


You don't need it. Only dry leaves need to be trimmed as soon as they turn completely brown.

Pickup or transfer time

En spring . If it's in a pot, repot every two years when you see roots coming out of the drainage holes, or if it's been more than three years since the last change.

Plagues and diseases

In general it is quite resistant, but can be attacked mealybugs , and to a lesser extent (probably because it is not yet very common in Spain) Red weevil y paisandisia, which are the two main and most dangerous exotic pests that palm trees in this country can have.

When watering is excessive and/or if the soil or substrate cannot drain water quickly and well, fungi such as Phytophthora They will start to do their work, first rotting the roots and then killing the rest of the plant.

Depending on the problem, treat one way or another:

  • Mealybugs : Treat with mealybug insecticide or diatomaceous earth. You can also clean the leaves with mild soap and water.
  • Weevil and paisandizia : alternative insecticides whose active ingredient is chlorpyrifos with nematodes. It is interesting to choose non-toxic products, such as pheromone traps (only if the garden area is about 400 square meters or more), or with beneficial bacteria for the palm. More information here.
  • Mushrooms : fungi are treated with fungicides.


Image - Wikimedia / Forest and Kim Starr

Bottle Palm is propagated by seeds in spring or summer , which are preferably pre-sown in a transparent plastic bag with pre-moistened vermiculite and placed next to a heat source.

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