How to describe wind blowing through trees


What Is Psithurism? | Wonderopolis

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  • What is psithurism?
  • What language does the word "psithurism" come from?
  • What other interesting words are inspired by nature?
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Today’s Wonder of the Day was inspired by Swara. Swara Wonders, “Why does wind make noise?” Thanks for WONDERing with us, Swara!

Do you look forward to the changing of the seasons? While some people love to enjoy warm weather and sunshine year-round, others prefer to see new leaves sprout, grow, and then fall to the ground as the seasons change.

As summer gives way to fall and fall slowly turns to winter, the leaves on the trees change colors, shrivel, and eventually let go of their branches to make the slow float to the ground below. On windy fall days, the rustling of the leaves seems almost musical.

Fall can be a magical time to hike in the forest. As the wind whistles through the pines and leaves crunch under your feet, your worries disappear for a time as you listen to the melodies of the wind in the trees.

These sounds of wind in the trees and the rustling of leaves have enchanted so many people over time that they invented a word to describe them: psithurism. Like many words that begin with "ps," the "p" at the beginning of psithurism is silent, and the word is pronounced sith-err-iz-um.

Psithurism comes from the Greek word psithuros, which means whispering. That certainly fits with the sound wind often makes when it blows through trees.

Psithurism has inspired many writers and poets over the ages. One tree in particular seems to have been a favorite of many naturalists when it comes to psithurism: the pine. Famous naturalist John Muir wrote that pines "are mighty waving golden-rods, ever in tune, singing and writing wind music all their long century lives."

American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow described psithurism in his poem "A Day of Sunshine":

I hear the wind among the trees

Playing celestial symphonies;

I see the branches downward bent,

Like keys of some great instrument.

Psithurism isn't the only word inspired by nature, however. The English language is full of terms created to try to capture the unique phenomena we experience in the natural world around us.

For example, have you ever gone outside right after it rains and experienced a distinctive, earthy smell? There's a name for that smell: petrichor. First used in 1964 by Australian researchers writing for Nature magazine, petrichor comes from the Greek words petros (stone) and ichor (the blood-like liquid found in the veins of the Greek gods).

If you're a fan of interesting words, there are many more examples to be found. Two more of our favorites are apricity (the warmth of the Sun in winter) and moonglade (the track of moonlight shining on water).

Wonder What's Next?

Join us in Wonderopolis tomorrow for a trip to the Land of the Midnight Sun!

Try It Out

Are you ready to listen to the music of the trees? Grab a friend or family member to help you explore the following activities:

  • Ask a friend or family member to go with you on a hike in a local park or forest. Take your time walking the trails among the trees. Listen for the wind as it moves the leaves and creates its own unique music. How would you describe the sounds you hear? Write down at least five adjectives that describe what you hear.
  • Do different trees result in different types of psithurism? Perform your own research and find out! Spend time listening to the wind through the trees in different areas of a local park or forest. For example, spend some time among pine trees and then switch to a grove of oak or maple trees. What differences do you notice in the sounds you hear? What do you think accounts for the differences in what you hear?
  • Do you enjoy learning new words? If psithurism and petrichor piqued your curiosity, jump online to learn 24 Profoundly Beautiful Words that Describe Nature and Landscapes. Which of the words is your favorite? Are there any interesting nature words that you know based upon your experiences and where you live?

Wonder Sources

  • https://www.awatrees.com/2013/01/06/psithurism-the-sound-of-wind-whispering-through-the-trees/
  • http://theweek.com/articles/442920/10-unusual-nature-words-should-use-more-often

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Mrs. Boles' Class
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The sound of wind whispering through the trees

We can’t see wind, only the things it moves. Likewise, we can’t hear wind unless it’s flowing past something that makes it vibrate; this causes it to adopt various sonic guises depending on what it interacts with. Trees provide some of the most common and admired ways for wind to make itself heard. This sound has been termed psithurism (sith-err-iz-um).

The naturalist author and founding member of the RSPB, W. H. Hudson, suggests in Birds and Man (1901), that psithurism is salubrious. He describes the sound of wind in the trees as “very restorative” – a mysterious voice which the forest speaks to us, and that to lie or sit thus for an hour at a time listening to the wind is an experience worth going far to seek.

The sonic qualities of psithurism seem to smudge the border between music and noise. The American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) described the sound in “A Day of Sunshine”:
“I hear the wind among the trees
Playing celestial symphonies;
I see the branches downward bent,
Like keys of some great instrument. 

The type of leaf, the season and the species of tree all work together to create a unique sound, or as John Muir put it: “Winds are advertisements of what they touch”.  He described how, in the wind, each tree expressed itself in its own way, “singing its own song, and making its own peculiar gestures”.  Of all the tree species the sounds of the pine seems to have captured the imagination of naturalists more than any other. Muir suggests pines are the best interpreters of the winds. “They are mighty waving golden-rods, ever in tune, singing and writing wind music all their long century lives.”  (A Wind Storm in the Forests of the Yuba, 1878).

Thoreau also had an affinity for the wind through the pines: “The white pines in the horizon, either single trees or whole wood, are particularly interesting. The wind is making passes over them, magnetizing and electrifying them…This is the brightening and awakening of the pines…As if in this wind-storm of March a certain electricity was passing from heaven to earth through the pines and calling them to life”. (Journal of Henry David Thoreau 1855-1861).

Eastern thinkers also noted the distinctiveness of pines. Shunryu Suzuki (1904-1971), a Zen monk and teacher, describes with typical equity, psithurism and the mind:
“When we hear the sound of the pine trees on a windy day, perhaps the wind is just blowing, and the pine tree is just standing in the wind. That is all that they are doing. But the people who listen to the wind in the tree will write a poem, or will feel something unusual. That is, I think, the way everything is.”

Finally, perhaps the earliest and loveliest writing on the subject of arboricultural acoustics is by Liu Chi (1311-1375), an important scholar under the Yuan and the Ming Dynasties, who wrote that:

“Among plants and trees, those with large leaves have a muffled sound; those with dry leaves have a sorrowful sound; those with frail leaves have a weak and unmelodic sound. For this reason, nothing is better suited to wind than the pine.”

“Now, the pine as a species has a stiff trunk and curled branches, its leaves are thin, and its twigs are long. It is gnarled yet noble, unconstrained and overspreading, entangled and intricate. So when wind passes through it, it is neither obstructed nor agitated. Wind flows through smoothly with a natural sound. Listening to it can relieve anxiety and humiliation, wash away confusion and impurity, expand the spirit and lighten the heart, make one feel peaceful and contemplative, cause one to wander free and easy through the skies and travel along with the force of Creation. It is well suited to gentlemen who seek pleasure in mountains and forests, delighting in them and unable to abandon them….Gazing at the pines soothed my eyes; listening to the pines soothed my ears. I escaped from my duties and with this leisure time wandered free and easy here and there without any worldly concerns to perplex the mind. I can feel happy here and pass the entire day this way.

Working as tree consultants undertaking expert tree surveys, we use Visual Tree Assessment techniques to identify signs and symptoms of ill health and structural failure across a wide range of tree species. We occasionally use ‘micro-drills’ or ‘Sonic Tomographs’ to detect and quantify decay in trees. Yet there also times when simply listening to the sound of wind through the tree – the swaying, bending and creaking and the flow of air through the foliage – can highlight issues about tree health that our eyes did not immediately detect.

Liu Chi (1311-1375), “The Wind-in-the-Pines Pavilion,” in Richard E. Strassberg, Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing from Imperial China(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), p. 281:

Image: Ivan Shishkin (1832-1898) “The tops of the pines”. 

Who shakes the trees? Names of winds

Names of winds.

Wind symbol

Name

Direction

Northern. Strong, dry and cold, blowing from the north or northeast.

Tramontana Greco

North-North-Eastern. Strong, dry and cold, blowing from the north or northeast.

Northeast. Strong wind typical of the Mediterranean.

East-northeast.

Vostochny.

Levante scirocco

East South East.

Southeast. Warm and humid wind blowing from the Mediterranean Sea.

South-south-eastern.

South, dry and warm wind.

South-south-western.

Southwestern. Cold and damp wind.

Ponente libeccio

West-southwest.

Western.

West Northwest.

Northwestern.

Tramontana maestro

North-north-western.

Information taken from the site
Unfortunately, the site no longer exists and the link does not work accordingly.

“Evil winds over Canada”, “Moon over the window. Wind under the window”, “Hey, barguzin, stir the shaft!”, “Night marshmallow streams ether”, “Snowstorm, blizzard”, “Let the storm hit harder!”, As well as “Hostile whirlwinds” and kamikaze, all not mentioned by night , the wind of change, finally (I don’t want to remember about Nord-West at all) - we know all this from songs and poems. I wonder if poetry would gain more if it used all the possible names of the winds, and there are countless of them.


Literary critics, of course, have calculated how many approximately each classic of Russian literature has statements that implement the image of the wind. It turns out a lot - more than fifty. And there is also European literature. What about Chinese poetry? And the Japanese one? The average person gets by with a small set of different definitions of winds. We all know about the blizzard, snowstorm, snowstorm. A HURRICANE came from the language of the Indians (to tell the truth, there is another version about the Turkic origin of the word, but storms and storms in Central America among the Kiche tribes were caused by “Hurakan” - the one-legged god of thunder and thunderstorms,

any bad weather and storms, and this is convincing). The Chinese word dai-feng - big wind - has become the well-known TYPHOON. Those who paid tribute to travel books in childhood cannot help but remember MISTRAL - a strong, gusty, cold and dry wind of northern directions, MUSSONS (very strong seasonal winds) and TRADE WINDS (easterly winds towards the equator).


Oh my dear, my incomparable lady,

My icebreaker is sad, and my navigator is looking south,

And imagine a star from the constellation Cygnus

Looks directly through the copper window of mine.

The wind flies directly into the same window,

Named in different places either monsoon or trade wind.

He flies in and leafs through the letters with an obvious grin,

Unsent because the addressee disappeared. (Vizbor).

How the child's imagination was affected by the description of SAMUMA (poisoned heat) - the fiery wind, the breath of death - a hot, dry storm in the deserts or SIROCKO - a very dusty storm wind blowing from the deserts. And those who read Paustovsky should remember SORANG - according to legend, the legendary hot night wind in Scotland, observed once every several hundred years.

Many people remember from mythology BOREAS - a cold north wind, in many places on the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the deity of the north wind in Greek mythology. Or ZEFIR - warm and humid on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea (Greece, Italy) and the deity of this wind in Greek mythology. And also AQUILON - cold north in Rome and the corresponding deity. Less well known is ARGEST, a dry wind in Greece and, of course, a deity. And the wind is, for example, WHITE. This is a very good wind, probably, many people love it: a dry and warm wind in good weather without precipitation. It has different names in different countries: Tongara Putih, Levant, Maren, Otan, Levkonotos. And on Lake Seliger, either an IDLE or a Married wind blows. There is, it turns out, the Wind of France - Biz, visas - the north wind in the mountainous regions of France, Italy, Switzerland. It plays a significant role in shaping living conditions and is accompanied by a significant cooling.


Black biz (biz noir, biz negro), twilight or brown. And what beautiful wind names the Arabs (sea and desert travelers) have - ZOBAA (in desert Egypt), KASKAZI - off the southeastern coast of Arabia, IRIFI - strong dust storms in the Sahara and Morocco, sometimes bringing clouds of locusts to the Canary Islands. KALEMA - a very strong wind and ocean surf off the western coast of North Africa with waves reaching 6 meters in height. Kalema is also observed in other places of the ocean coasts - California and India. Khababai - on the shores of the Red Sea.


Even sandstorms have more than one name: HABUB, JANI, HAVA JANUBI, the famous KHAMSIN. And the Spaniards, who conquered the seas and oceans? Imberno, Abrego, Criador, Colla, Collada, LOS BRISOTES DE LA SAITA MARIA, TEMPORAL, PAMPERO in the Andes and on the Atlantic coast, PARAMITO in Colombia, ALICIO in the Canary Islands, CORDONASO and CHUBASCO in Mexico. Of course, the masters of the seas of the 18th and 19th centuries could not remain silent, and we know many English names for the winds. But there are also lesser known ones. English learners come across the idiom dog days - dog days - a period of light winds and hot weather, often with thunderstorms. And in the ports of the United States and Canada, workers called the storm with sleet, slush and splashing waves - BARBER (scratched the skin like a bad hairdresser). In Australia, there is a thunderstorm DRINK, or STRAIGHT-EYED BOB.


And it seems not at all poetic in sound, but it is possible that very nice German names: ALLERHEILIGENWIND - a warm wind in the Alps, or MOATZAGOTL (goat's beard) - in the Sudetes. Surely in German poetry sounded BERNSHTEINVIND (amber wind) - the wind from the sea on the Baltic coast of the Kaliningrad region. In Japan, the wind has always been of great importance. The infamous KAMIKAZE is the divine wind in the mythology of Japan. According to legend, in 1281 he sank a squadron of ships of Khubilai, the grandson of Genghis Khan. But there are many other winds in Japan: KOGARASHI - a wind with snow, MATSUKAZE - a small breeze, autumn HIROTO, cloudy YAMASE. And a very good wind in beautiful weather - SUZUKAZE. "The winds sound" in other languages. LU, bow, feces - hot, dry, sultry and very dusty wind from the Himalayas to Delhi. (Lu has been reported to have lethargic sleep leading to memory loss.)


AJINA-SHAMOL - squally damn wind blowing in Tajikistan and uprooting trees. BATTIKALOA KACCHAN - a warm wind on about. Sri Lanka. (He received the nickname of a madman, as it negatively affects the condition of some patients). TAN GA MB I L I - in Equatorial Africa and Zanzibar, which is called violent. AKMAN, tukman - a strong snowstorm in Bashkiria, marking the transition to spring. Indonesian winds TENGGARA and PANAS UTARA, Mexican (Aztec word) - TEHUANTEPEKERO, Yakut SOBURUUNGU TYAL, Afghan BAD-I-SAD-O-BISTROS, Bengali BAISHAK, Nigerian, demolishing the roofs of houses - GADARI, Hawaiian UKIUKIU. Forty-day Shamal of the Persian Gulf. And the winds in Russia? There is so much one blizzard: a blizzard, a veya, a fan, a blizzard, a chicken, a borosho, and together with it - a snowdrift, a drag, a crawl, a poderukha, diarrhea, a drag. SOLODNIK, head - at the mouth of the Kolyma River.


BABIY WIND - weak Kamchatka wind. POLUNOCHNIK - a northeast wind in the north, blowing from high latitudes, on the Yenisei it is called rekostave, frostbite. PADARA - a storm with snow and wind. HVIUS, chius, chiuz, fiyuz - a sharp north wind, accompanied by severe frost. CHISTYAK - a severe snowstorm with a clear sky and severe frost in Western Siberia. SHELONIK - southwest wind.


There are also common names, for example, the famous LEVAN (levant) - the east wind on the Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas (from Gibraltar to the Kuban) or GARBIY - the southern sea wind in Italy, as well as on the Black and Azov seas. In the Yalta Bay, he whips up a high wave and is able to throw a fishing boat ashore.


We can't hide from the winds. Wind I'm over, and you're alive.

And the wind, complaining and crying, Rocks the forest and the dacha.

Not every single pine tree, but all trees

With all the boundless distance, Like sailboats of the body

On the surface of the ship's bay. And it's not out of the blue

Or out of aimless rage, And in order to find words in anguish

To you for a lullaby song.

Boris Pasternak

Literary critics, of course, have calculated how many approximately each classic of Russian literature has statements that realize the image of the wind. It turns out a lot - more than fifty. And there is also European literature. What about Chinese poetry? And the Japanese one?

The average person gets by with a small set of different definitions of winds. We all know about the blizzard, snowstorm, snowstorm. A HURRICANE came from the language of the Indians (to tell the truth, there is another version about the Turkic origin of the word, but storms and storms in Central America among the Quiche tribes were caused by “Hurakan” - the one-legged god of thunder and thunder, all bad weather and storms, and this is convincing) .

The Chinese word dai-feng - big wind - has become the well-known TYPHOON. Those who paid tribute to travel books in their childhood cannot but remember MISTRAL - a strong, gusty, cold and dry wind of northern directions, MUSSONS (very strong seasonal winds) and TRADE WINDS (easterly winds towards the equator).

Oh, my dear, my incomparable lady,
My icebreaker is sad, and my navigator is looking south,
And imagine that a star from the constellation Cygnus
Is looking directly into my copper window.
The wind flies directly into the same window,
Called in different places either monsoon or trade wind.
He flies in and leafs through the letters with an obvious grin,
Unsent, because the addressee has disappeared.
(Vizbor).

How the child's imagination was affected by the description of SAMUMA (poisoned heat) - a fiery wind, the breath of death - a hot, dry storm in the deserts, or SIROCKO - a very dusty storm wind blowing from the deserts. And those who read Paustovsky should remember SORANG - according to legend, the legendary hot night wind in Scotland, observed once every several hundred years.

Many people remember from mythology BOREAS - the cold north wind, in many places on the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the deity of the north wind in Greek mythology. Or ZEFIR - warm and humid on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea (Greece, Italy) and the deity of this wind in Greek mythology. And also AQUILON - cold north in Rome and the corresponding deity. Less well known is ARGEST, a dry wind in Greece and, of course, a deity.

And the wind is, for example, WHITE. This is a very good wind, probably, many people love it: a dry and warm wind in good weather without precipitation. It has different names in different countries: Tongara Putih, Levant, Maren, Otan, Levkonotos. And on Lake Seliger, either an IDLE or a Married wind blows.

There is, it turns out, the Wind of France - Biz, visas - the north wind in the mountainous regions of France, Italy, Switzerland. It plays a significant role in shaping living conditions and is accompanied by a significant cooling. There is black biz (biz noir, biz negro), there is twilight or brown.

And what beautiful wind names the Arabs (sea and desert travelers) have - ZOBAA (in desert Egypt), KASKAZI - off the southeastern coast of Arabia, IRIFI - strong dust storms in the Sahara and Morocco, sometimes bringing clouds of locusts to the Canary Islands. KALEMA is a very strong wind and ocean surf off the western coast of North Africa with waves reaching 6 meters in height. Kalema is also observed in other places of the ocean coasts - California and India. Khababai - on the shores of the Red Sea. Even for sandstorms there is more than one name: HABUB, JANI, HAVA JANUBI, the famous KHAMSIN.

And what about the Spaniards, who conquered the seas and oceans? Imberno, Abrego, Criador, Colla, Collada, LOS BRISOTES DE LA SAITA MARIA, TEMPORAL, PAMPERO in the Andes and on the Atlantic coast, PARAMITO in Colombia, ALICIO in the Canary Islands, CORDONASO and CHUBASCO in Mexico.

Of course, the masters of the seas of the 18th and 19th centuries could not remain silent, and we know many English names of the winds. But there are also lesser known ones. English learners come across the idiom dog days - dog days - a period of light winds and hot weather, often with thunderstorms. And in the ports of the United States and Canada, workers called the storm with sleet, slush and splashing waves - BARBER (scratched the skin like a bad hairdresser). In Australia, there is a thunderstorm DRINK, or STRAIGHT-EYED BOB.

And it seems not at all poetic in sound, but it is possible that very glorious German names: ALLERHEILIGENWIND - a warm wind in the Alps, or MOATZAGOTL (goat's beard) - in the Sudetes. Surely, BERNSTEINWIND (amber wind) sounded in German poetry - the wind from the sea on the Baltic coast of the Kaliningrad region.

In Japan, the wind has always been of great importance. The infamous KAMIKAZE is the divine wind in the mythology of Japan. According to legend, in 1281 he sank a squadron of ships of Khubilai, the grandson of Genghis Khan. But there are many other winds in Japan: KOGARASHI - wind with snow, MATSUKAZE - a small breeze, autumn HIROTO, cloudy YAMASE. And a very good wind in fine weather - SUZUKAZE.

"The sound of the winds" in other languages. LU, bow, feces - hot, dry, sultry and very dusty wind from the Himalayas to Delhi. (Lu has been reported to have lethargic sleep leading to memory loss.) ADJINA-SHAMOL - squally damn wind blowing in Tajikistan and uprooting trees. BATTIKALOA KACCHAN - a warm wind on about. Sri Lanka. (He received the nickname of a madman, as it negatively affects the condition of some patients). TAN GA MB I L I - in Equatorial Africa and Zanzibar, which is called violent. AKMAN, tukman - a strong snowstorm in Bashkiria, marking the transition to spring. Indonesian winds TENGGARA and PANAS UTARA, Mexican (Aztec word) - TEHUANTEPEKERO, Yakut SOBURUUNGU TYAL, Afghan BAD-I-SAD-O-BISTROS, Bengali BAISHAK, Nigerian, demolishing the roofs of houses - GADARI, Hawaiian UKIUKIU. Forty-day Shamal of the Persian Gulf.

And what about the winds in Russia? There is so much one blizzard: a blizzard, a veya, a fan, a blizzard, a chicken, a borosho, and together with it - a snowdrift, a drag, a crawl, a poderukha, diarrhea, a drag. SOLODNIK, head - at the mouth of the Kolyma River. BABIY WIND - weak Kamchatka wind. POLUNOCHNIK - a northeast wind in the north, blowing from high latitudes, on the Yenisei it is called rekostave, frostbite. PADARA - a storm with snow and wind. HVIUS, chius, chiuz, fiyuz - a sharp north wind, accompanied by severe frost. CHISTYAK is a severe snowstorm with a clear sky and severe frost in Western Siberia. SHELONIK - southwest wind.

There are also common names, for example, the famous LEVAN (levant) - the east wind on the Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas (from Gibraltar to the Kuban) or GARBII - the south sea wind in Italy, as well as on the Black and Azov seas. In the Yalta Bay, he whips up a high wave and is able to throw a fishing boat ashore.

We can't hide from the winds.

wind
I am gone, but you are alive.
And the wind, complaining and crying,
Rocks the forest and the dacha.
Not every pine tree separately,
And completely all the trees
With all the boundless distance,
Like sailboats of the body
On the surface of the ship's bay.
And it's not out of daring
Or out of aimless rage,
But in anguish to find words
To you for a lullaby song.
Boris Pasternak

When relaxing in Maly Utrish, you can often hear the names of the winds: sailor, southerly, kerchak, north-east ... what other local names of winds are known on the Black Sea and in the Sea of ​​\u200b\u200bAzov?

“Gradually I got to know all the fish species that lived in the Sea of ​​Azov, their habits, the main underwater roads of fish schools. I learned many signs, all the winds (and there were many of them on the Sea of ​​\u200b\u200bAzov) - tramontane, boron, goryshnyak, girl, downcast, bottom, top, kerchak, levant and others, more rare”.

K. Paustovsky
“On Notebooks and Memory”

… east will be « Lebanese ", since Lebanon is located to the east of Malta.

North East - « grego " or " Grecomantan "- wind from Greece.

North - « tramantan ", since to the north of Malta, from where these names are borrowed, is the Terrenian Sea and this name is pronounced as "Trran" - hence the mantan wind from the Traran Sea. According to other sources, the name comes from the Latin trans montes - through the mountains.

Northwest is " Maistra ", the local name for the strait between Tunisia and Sicily.

West - « Punet "(punnet) - the name of the eastern coast of the Tunisian mountains - Punne.

Southwest - « garbit " or "nizovka" - the wind blowing between two elevations. Regarding Malta, this is the wind from the valley between the two spurs of the Tunisian part of the Atlas Mountains.

South - "sharp" - dry, hot, from Africa. Fish in such a wind, they say, is not caught.

And finally, the southeast - "wide", wide, sirocco . A famous hot wind from the African deserts and the Arabian Peninsula. It rolls across the entire width of the Mediterranean. It rolls from the Red Sea through the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Black Sea and into the Sea of ​​Azov. Energetically very unfavorable: causes deterioration of well-being.

Stanislav Snegiryov,
Genichev wind rose

“The bora is blowing for the third day. Bora - otherwise north-east is a furious mysterious wind that is born somewhere in the bald, shabby mountains near Novorossiysk, falls into a round bay and spreads terrible excitement throughout the Black Sea. Its strength is so great that it overturns loaded freight cars from the rails, knocks down telegraph poles, destroys freshly built brick walls, throws people walking alone to the ground. In the middle of the last century, several warships, caught by the north-east, defended against it in the Novorossiysk Bay: they parted full pairs and went towards the wind at an accelerated speed, without leaning an inch ahead, threw double anchors against the wind, and nevertheless they were torn off from anchors, dragged into the bay and thrown, like chips, on the coastal stones.

This wind is terrible in its unexpectedness: it is impossible to predict it - it is the most capricious wind on the most capricious of the seas. Old fishermen say that the only way to escape from it is to "flee into the open sea." And there are times when a bora carries some four-row launch or a blue Turkish felucca decorated with silver stars across the entire Black Sea, three hundred and fifty miles away, to the Anatolian coast.

The bora is blowing for the third day. New moon. The young month, as always, is born with great torment and labor. Experienced fishermen not only do not think about setting off into the sea, but even pulled their longboats farther and safer on the shore.

[...] These days the cunning old Balaklava listrigons sat in coffee houses, rolled homemade cigarettes, drank strong bean coffee with grounds, played dominoes, complained that the weather was not letting them in, and in cozy warmth, by the light of hanging lamps, recalled ancient legendary cases, the legacy of fathers and grandfathers, about how in such and such a year the sea surf reached hundreds of fathoms and the spray from it reached the very foot of the dilapidated Genoese fortress.

Alexander Kuprin.
Listrigons

“Each wind blows in its own way, each wind has its own character, its own language. There are more than a dozen names of large and small winds. Here are just a few of them that we managed to record during the expedition. “Burai”, “burelam”, “gurikan” - a storm, “burkhailo” - a gusty wind, “girets”, “povetritsa”, “pipe” - a whirlwind, “polovy” - a warm summer breeze, “lower” - a south wind, “plaksun” - a western wind, “ash” - a cold wind in autumn and spring, “dryness” - a dry wind, “dry weather” - dry windy weather, “sharkan” - a strong wind, “shkvyrya” - snow with wind, “khvischa” , “chicken”, “okhiza”, “vihola” - a blizzard.

In several places, the etymology of some wind names was explained to us in a rather original way. So, in the village of Koblevo, not far from Odessa, we heard the following: “If a young woman’s skirt is pulled up, then it will be your lower class, and when a capelyukh knocks off a tall young man, then it’s already a leader or, in our opinion,“ Gorishnyak ”.

Steppe and highlander perceive winds differently and give them different names. “Azovets” is a dry wind in the Sea of ​​\u200b\u200bAzov, “gorishnyak” is a riding mountain wind in the Carpathians and in the Crimea, “kimlach” is a strong wind in the Dniester basin, “kimbur” is an east wind on the Black Sea coast in the Odessa region, “slaughter” is Polessky wind with snow that clogs all the cracks. “The bunation has pressed,” say the Azov and Black Sea fishermen, when the sea is completely calm. No less surprising sound on the Ukrainian sea coast and the names of the winds. “The Levant turns,” they throw about the east wind. “Garbiy drives a wave,” they are talking about the southern lowland. “The Ponent is setting,” they say about the wind that begins to blow from the west. “Trimuntan has broken,” one is alarmed when the cold north wind blows.

Wind spells in Western Pomorie

Wind in the traditional outlook of Pomors is one of the personified natural elements. Folk ideas about the winds in the culture of Pomorie, signs and beliefs associated with them, rituals and spells were recorded by ethnographers, folklorists, local historians, travelers, writers and publicists in the 19th-20th centuries.

In connection with the dominant in the economic activity of Pomorie, sea fishing (sea and coastal fishing, animal hunting), a system of names of winds and ideas about winds of various directions (rhumbs) has developed in the local culture. Winds could favorably or negatively affect the course of fishing, contribute to a successful sea crossing, or lead to the death of industrialists in a storm.

The name of the winds in Pomorie is often determined by their direction and daily activity. Winds are determined by the cardinal points: north, letnik (south), west, runoff or east (east), as well as mezhnik - southeast wind. They are also named after the time when they blow most often. The northeast wind blowing at night is called the midnighter, the southeast wind that appears in the middle of the day is called the midday wind.

The same wind, depending on the direction in which it blows - from land to sea and vice versa - can be called differently. So, the northwest wind blowing from the sea is called the coast or the sea, and if it blows from the mainland - the mountain. It should be noted that the structuring of space into a “mountain” (continent) and the sea is one of the main ones in the formation of the cultural landscape and spatial symbolism of Pomorie.

The name of the southwest wind - shelonnik, sholonnik - researchers are raising to the name of the Shelon River in the Novgorod region. Novgorodians, who had experience in lake fishing, settled the territory of Pomorye in the XIV-XVII centuries, brought fishing practices and special vocabulary with them. In particular, the name of the wind that blew in relation to Lake Ladoga and Lake Ilmen from the southwest, from the side of the Shelon River, was fixed in Pomorye.

Some characteristics of cultural landscape objects were also associated with the orientation along the winds in Pomorye. So, the cross-beams, placed in memory of the dead comrades on the crosses, in the local culture served as beacons on the coast and near the fishing huts. The crosses themselves became part of the sacral complex for worship "according to a vow", and the crossbars became a kind of compasses, as they were installed "from the night to the summer" (that is, in accordance with the names of the winds, from north to south).

In the culture of Pomorie, there were many meteorological signs and beliefs associated with winds. Pomor signs noted the connection between wind and other weather phenomena: “After a gusty wind, wait for rain”; claimed the connection between the behavior of animals and the appearance of winds: "In which direction the cows lie with their backs, wait for the wind from that side." It was believed that the winds of directions from the southwest to the northern points (shelonnik, coastal, west and north) are good for cod fishing; a sailor (north or north-west winds, depending on the point of the coast) makes noise on the sea, which attracts salmon (“salmon goes to the noise”), but scares away herring (“herring goes deeper”).

Ethnographers of the 19th century — S.V. Maksimov, P.S. Efimenko and N.N. Kharuzin, - described guessing about the future harvest and catch by the appearance or absence of wind on certain calendar dates. Quiet Christmas time without winds and a lot of buzzing (snow and hoarfrost) foreshadowed a grain-growing year and abundant fisheries for cod, herring, navaga. If on Epiphany (January 6, O.S.) during the consecration of water in the hole (Jordan), a mountain wind (wind from the mainland) blows, then this marks a fertile year, and if the wind is from the sea, one should expect abundant marine fisheries.

A.A. Kamenev, a member of the Society for the Study of the Russian North, a correspondent for a number of publications in the northern provinces, who ended up in exile on the Pomeranian coast, and at the end of it remained to live in Sumsky Posad, published his impressions of the culture of the Pomors. The researcher noted the belief of local residents in the divine origin of the winds: “The people are convinced that the winds come from the breath of God and they are the Holy Spirit. They live in heaven and obey their Elder — God.” S.P. Korablev wrote down legends in Pomorie about the punishment of those traveling by sea with strong headwinds (opposite) and storms for disrespectful attitude to local shrines. Most often, such iconic places were the Onega Cross Monastery, founded by Patriarch Nikon in 1656, and the Kiysky Worship Cross established by him on Kiy Island in Onega Bay. Pilgrimage pilgrims heading from Onega to Solovki had to serve a prayer service in the monastery.

In the mythological representations of the Pomors, the winds were endowed with names and signs of gender. Basically, as in other northern Russian traditions, these were male characters: for example, the north wind was called “Moisiy wind” or “Luk wind”. In addition, the Pomors believed that the winds had wives, and often their family relationships determined the individual properties of the “character” of the wind. He could be kind, harmless or evil, wayward, dangerous. For example, in the village of Pongoma, it was believed that “the shalonnik wind is the hottest, the strongest; he has a beautiful wife, so he gets jealous, gets excited, as if not there, and then at night she comes, he subsides. In the village of Kalgalaksha they added: "The wind is a swindler - on the mori the robber." Residents of the Winter Coast of the White Sea, according to R.S. According to Lipets, they explained the "character" of the winds by the fact that the western wind has a beautiful wife, and the hermit has an ugly wife: leaves her at night (pulls more at night).

The winds were perceived by the Pomors as demonological beings, and ideas about the negative impact on people were associated with them. So, the unexpected appearance of a strong wind in Pomorye was sometimes explained by the magical actions of sorcerers who had the ability to control natural phenomena and elements - rain, hail, wind. As in other regions of Russia, in the Pomeranian villages they believed that with the help of the wind, damage could be sent. In the healing conspiracies recorded in p. Gridino, the sorceress lists hernias that could come to a person with winds of various directions: “Do not gnaw, hernia, waste, do not gnaw, midday, summer, shelonnichna, western, coastal . ..”.

The idea of ​​the wind as a demonic being was reflected in the Pomeranian fishing magic: the rituals of summoning a fair wind and conjuring the wind during a storm in the course of sea or coastal fishing, as well as influencing the winds of industrialists' relatives. It should be noted that the spell of the wind is typical not only for Pomerania. So, in the North-Western regions of Russia, the wind was called by those who burned the trees - in the undercut - preparing a new field for sowing.

Wind spells (according to folk terminology - call the wind, scream the wind, whistle the sailor) were based on the use of elements of its acoustic "language", onomatopoeia of its "voice" (whistling, drawn-out howl, meow) and invocations to the winds in order to influence them strength and direction.

The most common way to call out the wind was a whistle imitating the "voice" of the wind and directed towards the wind or into the sail. The movements of the sail visualized the presence of the wind. The men and old men who steered the ships made the women, young girls and boys whistle and shout out: “Wind, wind, blow, inflate the sailboat!”, “Wind, wind, blow!” or “Blow, breeze!” The girls also scraped the sail and plaintively, imitating the howling of the wind, called: "Winds, winds, winds ...". Men addressed the wind as a male being, using the appeals inherent in gender and status and the intonation-signal phonemes "e", "hey": "Hey, come on, pull it!". At the same time, women still let their hair down, throwing it over their faces: “Girls, whistle, yes, girls, let your hair down so that the wind falls ...” Every wind is beckoning ”(wind, wind, wind - a fair wind). On the one hand, in this way, women visually became like demonological creatures, which were characterized by long flowing hair, wool, and acquired a ritual status in which it was possible to communicate with the wind. On the other hand, loose, flowing hair was a symbol of the presence of the wind.

In the village of Kalgalaksha and s. Gridino after the whistle shouted "Zayushka, catch up, catch up!" or “You can’t catch up with a hare, you can’t catch up, you can’t catch up with a gray one!”, And thus they symbolically imitated the competition of the fastest running animal - a hare - with a fair wind. At the same time, in the village of Kalgalaksha, they began to call on the wind, passing by Mogilny Island, on which the old cemetery is located. The place on the island, next to which the wind was called, was called akol myatey. The meaning of this name is not quite clear and can be understood as "near the pits", that is, near a conspicuous place. It is possible that this expression goes back to the Karelian word kalma - death, otherworldly power. Taking into account the fact that in the form of a hare, an evil spirit often appeared, calling for a “hare”, the Kalgalaksh people turned to deceased ancestors or spirits that could influence the wind.

Similar incantations of the wind, which was addressed as an animal with white paws (possibly a hare), were also recorded by A. A. Kamenev: “There is a “calling of the wind” among the people, which takes place as follows: when they ride in a karbas in calm weather, then one of those in the karbas gets to his feet and begins to pinch (scratch) the mast on which the sail is located, saying: “ Squirrel, pup, white-paw, white-paw...” Others whistle at this time, also saying: “Come on, breeze, we don’t have a boat! ..””

Female squirrels, taking advantage of the wind's family troubles, as well as its increased sexual energy, which is generally inherent in many demonological characters, could summon the wind by pulling up the hem of a sundress and tapping their crotch.

In Western Pomerania, other magical verbal formulas of wind incantations were also recorded: from an appeal to God - "Lord, give you sailors!" - to changed Pushkin's lines: "The wind is powerful, you drive flocks of clouds, you excite the blue sea, walk in the open!".

The success of the sea passage could be influenced not only by the members of the fishing artel, but also by their family members who were on the shore. As a wish to relatives for well-being and protection from bad people, in Pomorye they said: “The heretic is in the teeth for the barker (rower at the stern), but it’s windy for my children, it’s easier to row in the wind.” During the entire period of Sretun - the meeting of industrialists from summer sea fishing, which lasted from Ivanov Post (August 29, old style) to Pokrov (1.10 old style), on the Pomeranian coast of the White Sea at the end of the 19th century, rituals were performed called asking for povéter and pray to the wind. They were aimed at ensuring the successful return of fishermen home with the help of a fair wind. These rituals were described in detail by the ethnographer and local historian I.M. Durov.

The ritual of praying for the wind was performed by elderly women. They went to the seashore, asked the north wind not to be angry with the Pomors returning from the Murmansk fishery. The women washed the boilers, and then beat the weather vane with a log so that it showed the wind. N.I. Tolstoy, describing the rituals of making rain in Polissya, noted that the sacred acts of beating (beating) a well in these rituals are associated with the idea of ​​mutual communication of earthly and heavenly moisture (earthly well water and heavenly rain water). The impact on the earth's moisture through the beating of the spring, as well as with the help of the sacrifice, was reflected on the heavenly moisture, as a result of which it began to rain. Apparently, in the rituals of beating the weather vane in Pomorie, we are faced with a similar form of influence on the heavenly winds - by beating the weather vane, the participants in the ritual made it change the direction of the wind to a favorable one. Note that weathercocks were an obligatory attribute of the Pomeranian courts. Ethnographer and publicist S.P. After visiting the city of Onega, Korablev described with admiration the colorful, multi-colored weathercocks, located on high poles near the houses of poor Onenezhans, made of bird feathers arranged in fans.

In the Pomeranian ritual, ask for the wind, which, as noted by T.A. Bernshtam, was a kind of disguise and was reminiscent in structure of calendar Christmas and Christmas rounds of houses, children and women (girls) participated. During the day, the boys went from house to house, where they were waiting for the arrival of industrialists from the sea, and wished "a fair wind to the ship." For this well-wishes, they were presented with rolls, gingerbread, nuts. Then the boys climbed onto the bell tower and, if they saw sails in the distance, shouted out special calls - chaban. This ritual and cries were recorded by I.M. Durov on the Pomeranian coast of the White Sea:

Mother lodeyka,

Tsyab-tsyab-tsyab, tsyabars are flying!

Our boat mothers

Have a good time!

In the evening of the same day, women and girls went around the house. They stood up in the wall of the house and, trying to be unrecognized, like beggars, they asked in altered voices: “Give it to the wind, hostess!” They were presented with shangi, rolls, fish in a special hole in the tulku - a window for alms.

K. Konichev cites the text of the wind or diaper spell (fair wind blowing in the back) for husbands-hunters, which smoots sang while standing on the seashore in a storm and bad weather. In these spells, the names of the winds of unfavorable directions are alternately called out and asked to stop blowing, threatening to beat with a vice (a twisted trunk of a young tree used to bind parts of wooden ships is called a vice). Then they shout out the names of the winds of favorable rhumbs. They are called to blow and promise a treat for this. Treating porridge and pancakes was a form of ritual sacrifice - feeding the hosts and spirits of the elements (frost, water, forest, etc.), which is very common in the traditions of the peoples of the European North:

East and lunch,

It's time to pull.

West and shalonnik,

It's time to stop...

To the West with a shalon

I will bare my back

In the village of Pongoma, the wind incantation ritual in the middle of the 20th century had a specific form and was called whitefish cooking. In the summer, during haymaking, the women and the children who were with them, secretly from everyone, stood on their hands upside down (this was how the lower part of their bodies was exposed) and whistled, calling for the wind.

If it seemed easy to call the wind, sometimes it was enough just to whistle, then it is not so easy to stop or turn the wind in the other direction. A.V. Bogdanova from the village of Kanostrov (Kalgalaksha) noted: “It is written in books how Christ stopped the wind-from, and we are no longer gods.” In Pomorie, they often say: “Whoever has not been to the sea, he did not pray to God out of desire”, “And relatives, and acquaintances, and gods - you will remember everyone.” Those in distress in a storm at sea, as it was believed in Pomorie, could be helped by the saints: Saint Nicholas, Varlamy Keretsky, John and Loggin Yarengsky. Pomeranian legends and traditions tell how fishermen escaped from death in the ensuing elements or from a sea monster thanks to a miraculous holy helper who turned out to be nearby in the guise of an unknown member of the fishing artel: a feeder, a plover boy.

To calm the wind, seafarers took actions opposite to those used when calling it: hiding hair under a scarf, braiding braids by women. In order not to cause unwanted wind, it was forbidden to whistle (both in the sea and on a rural street). During the sea passage, in order for the storm to subside, coins were thrown into the waves, thus making a sacrifice to the wind and the sea king.

The continuation of the ritual of praying to the wind on the Pomeranian coast was a kind of magical effect on a fair wind, described by I.M. Durov. The women went to the seashore and along the way they remembered a certain number (three times nine, forty) of bald people in the village, pronouncing their names and marking each with a cross on the splinter. Bald heads in this case acted as a sign of the absence of wind, a symbolic opposition to loose hair. Having pronounced the name of the last bald man, they cut a cross on the torches and threw them back over the shoulder on the outskirts of the village, noticing in which direction they would fall. At the same time, they shouted out a spell text:

East and dinner, east and dinner

Time to pull! I’ll cook porridge

West yes shalonik, And baked pancakes;

Time to leave! And to the west-shalonik

Far away bald patches —                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ​

All counted,

0005

Recalculated; The wife is good,

Vostok's bald patch

I went ahead. The wife is dead!

Splinters fell, indicating the direction of the wind or the direction from which the industrialists should be expected. If the torches lay unfavorably, the women continued to influence the wind. They performed magical actions in which a cockroach was used. They put the insect on a sliver, let it float on the water and said: “Come, cockroach, on the water, lift it, cockroach, north!”. The magical ritual of calming the wind by listing forty bald people is known to the inhabitants of the Pomeranian villages today.

The intonational-rhythmic formulas of wind spells in Western Pomerania are varied. Spells could be rhythmically evenly chanted without a chant or intoned in a sing-song voice at the same pitch with rises in tone on the accented syllables of words and falls in the voice in the final part of the verbal period. A number of tunes to which texts of wind spells were sung are intonationally close to children's calls of rain, rainbows, insects, forest vocal signals-shouts and signals of beckoning domestic animals, both in the local tradition and more widely - in a number of northwestern traditions. As a rule, these are short formula chants-exclamations based on anhemitonic or diatonic 3-5-step scales.

Thus, at the level of the sound "language" of communication, the wind is included by the Pomors in the group of natural objects, natural phenomena, elements and animals, for communication with which certain intonation-rhythmic models are provided for in the tradition.


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