How to draw a rain forest tree


10 Amazing and Easy Tutorials!

10 Amazing (and Easy!) Tutorials

Introduction

Drawing a rainforest may seem like a daunting task, but it need not be that difficult. If you do feel intimidated by the idea of drawing rainforests, it’s probably because you don’t know how to approach the drawing. I too have experienced a similar case, which is why I studied a few tutorials on how to draw a rainforest, and honed my drawing skills. Afterwards, drawing a rainforest didn’t feel that difficult to me, and I’m sure you too can have that feeling removed from your mind, once you go through those videos.

The rainforest has two unique elements. The first is the tree, and it needs to be of certain specifications. The next is the density. Rainforests are mostly dense, and your drawing needs to show that. If you want, you can also add a few animals, just to make it look a bit more interesting.

Walking through a Rainforest

In this painting tutorial, we’ll look at the process of painting a forest scene with rainfall. Everything in this artwork is very detailed. From the way it’s sketched, to the drawing itself, everything is very nicely structured, and has accurate details. You can tell just by looking at this, that it’s not a drawing for beginners or amateurs. I recommend you try this out only if you’re skilled with pencil drawing and sketching.

Medium:

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Rainforest Drawing for Kids

This next video tutorial shows you a quick and easy rainforest drawing. It’s a very smooth drawing, but lacks a lot of things, including a proper structure, as well as details. Not to mention, the artist also avoids using shades. All these missing features make it the perfect drawing for kids to work on.

Medium:

Drawing and Sketching

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Beautiful Rainforest Landscape

This scenic drawing portrays a simple rainforest landscape with a small house. I’m assuming it’s sort of a swampy land, or an area with excessive land water. Either way, the drawing is perfect, and looks very professional. That being said, it’s a difficult artwork to work on, and you need to be somewhat experienced with pencil sketches before you can perfectly replicate this one.

Medium:

Drawing and Sketching

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Simple Rainforest Trees

Evergreen trees are very important to the rainforest ecosystem. In fact, you can’t imagine rainforests without them. In this video lesson, the artist will help you draw these simple rainforest trees in an easy way. The whole process is very simple and straightforward. There’s no complexity whatsoever. All you need to do is stay true to the video, and follow the steps accordingly.

Medium:

Drawing and Sketching

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Beautiful Rainforest Trees

In this video tutorial, we once again look at the process of drawing rainforest trees. Compared to the one before, it’s a more vivid drawing, and has a lot of sharpness to it. Plus, there are some dark shades used here as well. This gives the drawing a more realistic look. The process to draw this one is no different than the one before. But this drawing seems much more accurate to me than the previous rainforest tree drawing.

Medium:

Drawing and Sketching

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Serene Sketch of a Rainforest

This beautiful sketch of a rainforest is quite easy to work on. There are no complex steps involved in the creation of this artwork. If you’re familiar with a few basic sketching techniques, you’ll be able to replicate this drawing in no time. It’s a self-explanatory video, so don’t expect much from the artist in terms of explanation.

Medium:

Drawing and Sketching

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Rainforest Drawing Tutorial for Beginners

This amazing rainforest is draw with pen and ink. The use of pen makes for a bolder, and more vivid look. It’s as if you were coloring the drawing with a black marker. If you want, you can ditch the pen and ink, and opt for a pencil instead. But I insist you do this drawing with pen, as intended, otherwise the results may not be as satisfactory as you would want them to be.

Medium:

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Easy Approach to Drawing Rainforest Trees

This rainforest tree drawing tutorial is perfect for beginners. It’s a quick and easy process, and doesn’t require any complex drawing or sketching technique. All you need to know is how to hold a pencil, and that’s it. The tutorial will guide you through the rest of the process. You can use this drawing in your other rainforest artworks. It’s a perfect art piece that can fit anywhere you want it to fit.

Medium:

Drawing and Sketching

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Simple Rainforest Scenery

This landscape scenery of a rainforest is very simple, yet very beautiful to look at. There’s some wildlife in it as well, which goes for a more lively drawing. The whole artwork is very simple and easy to work on. You don’t have to bother with complex shading techniques either. It also has a smooth finish, and an equally smooth texture. Given its simplicity, I think this is a good tutorial for beginners.

Medium:

Drawing and Sketching

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Drawing a Dense Rainforest

This video tutorial will show you the process of drawing a sunny rainforest seen. It’s a dense forest artwork, with sunrays penetrating through the top of the trees, and into the forest. The lighting effects are absolutely amazing here, and so are the shadows. This artwork is perfect in every way, and a bit difficult to work on as well. Hence, I recommend you try this only if you’re somewhat experienced in pencil drawing.

Medium:

Drawing and Sketching

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By Jimena & Iñigo

The Navarro-Rubios

My husband and I are learning how to draw and paint. We wanted to share this learning process with the world and have fun! That's why we created this blog. We'll have drawing contests every week and you'll decide who won that week! Follow along and learn with us!

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Jimena & Iñigo

The Navarro-Rubios

My husband and I are learning how to draw and paint. We wanted to share this learning process with the world and have fun! That's why we created this blog. We'll have drawing contests every week and you'll decide who won that week! Follow along and learn with us!

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How to draw a forest (Part 1) – or seeing the wood for the trees – Paperbark Writer

posted in: Forest portraits, Tales of science, Wildlife illustration, Writing | 18

When forests are drawn from the usual human perspective we often end up with a portrait of decapitated trees (mostly stems and not much canopy). I did this quick pastel sketch at the Blackdown Tablelands, central Queensland.

Look for depictions of forests in art and you won’t find many. Sure, there are plenty of landscapes with trees. But look closer and you’ll notice there are only a few trees, probably to one side of the picture, and the rest is open country. Or it is a parkland, some type of woodland, with scattered trees, not a forest. And in many pictures, the trees are just scenery, just background to the main subject of the painting – be that people, or a building, mountain or water feature. In many paintings the trees are decapitated – you might see the base of the tree, but the canopy is cut off. We would never depict a person like this, if we wanted to paint their portrait. Why is it that trees, and especially forests, get treated this way?

A few years ago I was engaged to write management guidelines for a range of Queensland forests and woodlands (e.g. rainforests, eucalypt woodlands, mulga and brigalow). The guidelines would describe the ecology of each vegetation type and outline how to restore these systems for carbon farming and wildlife conservation. This was part of the CATER project (Carbon Accumulation Through Ecosystem Recovery), back in a more enlightened time when the Federal and State governments took climate change a bit more seriously, and were willing to invest in innovative projects to tackle it.

You may have gathered from this blog that I’m a pretty visual person – I like to express concepts in pictures as well as words. So as I was reviewing the literature, and drafting the guidelines, I also set about looking for images of the forests and woodlands I was writing about. I found very few decent photographs and almost no drawings or paintings of these types of Australian vegetation. And I found this rather curious.

Of course, when we humans, at our pitiful height of 1.5 – 2 m, take pictures of forests, they are almost certainly distorted, with the bases of the trees huge and the canopies either shrunken or simply cut out of the photo. Usually the bases of one or a few trees block most of the picture. And that’s fine if we want a human-perspective view of the forest. But what if we want to capture the forest in its entirety? Or at least a range of trees, not distorted, from base to canopy?

To illustrate the ecology of each forest type I wanted to produce a state-and-transition diagram for each one. This shows the main ‘condition states’ of a forest – different successional stages if you like. Queensland has excellent vegetation mapping, including pre-European vegetation mapping, so for any given site we can determine what native vegetation used to grow there. My task was to describe how you could bring it back to the maximum-carbon and/or maximum biodiversity state (which are almost always the same thing). So I was looking for ways to illustrate these states visually, as well as in words. Co-writing these guides with me was my now good friend and ecologist extraordinare, Don Butler. Which was just as well, because even though I had a thorough grounding in plant ecology and wildlife conservation, I was relatively new to Queensland. Don on the other hand, had spent many years exploring and mapping the vegetation we were writing about, so I would often ask him about a certain fact or theory I found in the literature, for a reality check. Don also understood the carbon-farming side of things a lot better than I did.

I ended up sketching some very simple profile diagrams of the forests and woodlands in felt-tip pen. Here’s one of the diagrams below – probably the simplest and sketchiest of them all – for eucalypt woodlands.

Simple profile drawing of a mature eucalypt grassy woodland – complete with old trees, good grass cover and woody debris.

These pictures were intended to be a guide for the ‘professional artist’ we were going to employ to do the final illustrations. But since the CATER project was axed only halfway through its intended life (when the LNP government came to power in Queensland) this ‘professional artist’ was never employed. My sketchy pictures became the final product, and I am still a bit embarrassed by their simplicity and roughness. But although they could be far more polished, I still think they do a good job at conveying the information, and giving an impression of each forest or woodland type.

The structure of mature mulga (Acacia aneura) open-forest / woodlandMature eucalypt open-forestMature brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) forestThe structure of mature wet sclerophyll forestMature cypress-pine (Callitris) woodland

You can find the finished guidelines through these links:

Eucalypt woodlands, Eucalypt open-forests, Wet sclerophyll forest, Rainforest, Mulga, Brigalow

But I was still left with the question – why don’t people paint forests? And I felt sad that our wonderful forests and woodlands – although many have been beautifully photographed over the years – still mostly end up depicted from the human, distorted perspective. I wanted to see them in their entirety, I wanted to look upon their different structures and textures, and colours and tree types. To compare the way the light passed through them, the way the trees were shaped, the differences in understorey: grassy, shrubby or a mixture of both. Although I could imagine this in my mind from the forests I had walked through, I couldn’t easily compare these differences by looking at the images I had found so far. And if a person had never visited these forests, how could they understand and appreciate their different forms, beauty and variety? So I decided that I would try to paint some forest portraits myself.

This story is continued in How to draw a forest (Part 2) – my first forest portrait.

How to draw a tropical forest. How to draw a forest with a pencil step by step

Every 4 seconds, an area of ​​forest equal to a standard football field is cut down in the world. This is statistics. The fastest rate of deforestation in Southeast Asia. The Chinese are multiplying, but they have nowhere to live. And what to do? We need drawing paper! I want to tell you how to draw a forest with a pencil . It won't restore our fauna, but it's worth a try.

Forest facts:

  • Forest of Aokihara, or Forest of Suicides. The strange place deservedly got its name. It itself is so thick that the light practically does not penetrate there, and the compasses stop working. For some reason, this particular place in Japan has become a favorite for those who want to commit suicide (apparently, some do not have the courage to do hara-kiri).
  • There is a forest in the Kaliningrad region, which the locals called Dancing, or drunk. No, alcoholics and drug addicts do not gather there. The fact is that pine trees grow on 1 square kilometer, which, for an unknown reason, twisted their trunks in a strange way. Some even wrapped themselves in knots. It was as if they were suffering from pain in the stomach.
  • It is generally accepted that tropical forests are full of various sounds and noises. I will disappoint you - in the day the jungle is quieter than a sleeping child. The life of all animals there begins at night, and even then they behave very carefully and quietly.

Trying to draw.

How to draw a forest with a pencil step by step

Step one. Let's start with a simple one: draw a horizon line, and draw a path with two vertical lines.

Step two. On the sides of the invented path we draw tree trunks, large and small.

Step three. Let's draw the trunks higher, and sketch their bottoms with a pencil. We will also add some grass at the foot of the trunks.

Sha fourth. Finally, draw the tops with branches, add shadows.

Step five.




Taiga is a very beautiful and amazing place. It is difficult to convey its beauty, but in this article we will try to do it and demonstrate how to draw a taiga forest. In total, four master classes with different levels of difficulty will be shown. Some examples are suitable for experienced artists, while others are suitable for children.

Forest with a river

Many rivers flow in this area and a large number of animals live. In this paragraph, we will figure out how to draw a taiga forest with a river and deer. Be sure to sharpen your pencils, otherwise the drawing will turn out sloppy. After that, you can start drawing!

Working on the background of the picture. To do this, the lower part should turn light blue, a river will flow in this place. Then green is the coast, light blue is the background, and again green is the foliage.

Draw trunks and a bush on the left side.

Now we come to the most interesting stage. In the background we will draw deer and trunks. The farther the tree is from us, the lighter it will be. Thanks to this, we create the effect of space, which is necessary in drawing forests.

We draw the sheet and the drawing is finished.

Be sure to watch the video that demonstrates the process of drawing this example. Seeing how the artist works on this drawing, you will immediately find answers to many questions that you might have.

Mixed forest

In this example, we'll look at how to draw a mixed taiga forest. In such a forest, both coniferous and deciduous trees grow at the same time, which is what we will reflect in our example.

This paragraph will consist of only two stages. The drawing is quite simple, so we do not see the point in describing in detail how to paint on this or that element. If you want to study the drawing process in detail, you can watch the video.

At the first stage we make a sketch. In the distance there will be a horizon to which a long path runs. And along the edges we will depict coniferous and deciduous trees.

Now we take colored pencils and color our sketch. Here, too, there is nothing complicated and you will definitely get a beautiful drawing of the taiga forest!

Easy Example

This is a great drawing example that will show you how to draw a mixed and broad-leaved taiga forest. There are no complex or small elements here, so this drawing technique can be suitable for children of any age.

All that will be shown in the picture is a forest, namely a large number of various trees. At the first stage, we will draw a Christmas tree on the left side, and a little to the right, three more trees of different sizes.

On the right, draw a couple more Christmas trees, and draw small bushes in the lower part.

We decided to make our drawing unusual and paint it in a variety of colors. The taiga forest has become very bright and diverse. If you do not like this option, then you can pick up different shades of green and color your drawing in them.

Complex example

I would like to devote the final paragraph to a realistic and complex drawing technique. This time we will figure out how to draw a taiga forest with a pencil, it will be thick and have a large number of small elements that will definitely need to be drawn!

With an ordinary pencil we make a sketch of our forest. Here we just put some details in their places. In this case, paths, mountains and trees are placed in places. Everything is in your hands and you can add some elements from yourself, for example, depict a bear or walking tourists in the middle of the path.

Colored pencils are used. We will make the earth light green, and color the trunks brown. Also, paint on the sheet. Note that it is not shown as a solid color, being darker in some places and lighter in others.

Color in the mountains and paint on the grass in the foreground. Watch your pencils. In order for the drawing to be beautiful and neat, it must always be sharpened!

Coloring the path brown and working on detailing the background. It will show trees, but since they are very far away and hard to see, you can just make a vertical hatch.

We are finalizing the small details and on this the work on the drawing of the taiga forest is completed!

Every 4 seconds, an area of ​​forest equal to a standard football field is cut down in the world. This is statistics. The fastest rate of deforestation in Southeast Asia. The Chinese are multiplying, but they have nowhere to live. And what to do? We need drawing paper! I want to tell you how to draw a forest with a pencil . It won't restore our fauna, but it's worth a try. Facts about forests:

  • Aokihara Forest, or Suicide Forest. The strange place deservedly got its name. It itself is so thick that the light practically does not penetrate there, and the compasses stop working. For some reason, this particular place in Japan has become a favorite for those who want to commit suicide (apparently, some do not have the courage to do hara-kiri).
  • There is a forest in the Kaliningrad region, which the locals called Dancing, or drunk. No, alcoholics and drug addicts do not gather there. The fact is that pine trees grow on 1 square kilometer, which, for an unknown reason, twisted their trunks in a strange way. Some even wrapped themselves in knots. It was as if they were suffering from pain in the stomach.
  • It is generally accepted that tropical forests are full of various sounds and noises. I will disappoint you - in the day the jungle is quieter than a sleeping child. The life of all animals there begins at night, and even then they behave very carefully and quietly.

Trying to draw.

How to draw a forest with a pencil step by step

Step one. Let's start with a simple one: draw a horizon line, and draw a path with two vertical lines.
Step two. On the sides of the invented path we draw tree trunks, large and small.
Step three. Let's draw the trunks higher, and sketch their bottoms with a pencil. We will also add some grass at the foot of the trunks.
Sha fourth. Finally, draw the tops with branches, add shadows.
Step five.
Step six.
Save the forest - use paper on both sides (but not in the toilet). But it is better to plant new plants. I look forward to your wishes and ideas on this page.

Hello dear friends!

I'm sure that almost all of you are interested in creating landscapes. Landscapes can be very different, showing beautiful and interesting views of different parts of our planet, in many of them you come into contact with the task of depicting trees. How to draw a living, beautiful and natural tree is the topic of our today's lesson.

Trees are easy to draw, but sometimes they come out a little too drawn or flat.

Basic mistakes

The main mistakes in drawing trees are:

Lack of volume

Lack of volume in a drawing (in color or black and white) is achieved by using colors of different tone and intensity. Even on a cloudy day, some part of the crown and trunk will be more shaded, and some less. In the thick of foliage, the colors are always darker. Think of a tree as a ball (crown) and a cylinder (trunk) to understand how shadows form on this complex shape.

The forest can be very different. For example, it may be a small forest in which it is difficult to get lost, or it may be a dense thicket. To better understand how to draw a forest, it is recommended to carefully consider the works of the greatest painters on this subject. For example, the canvases of Shishkin are very interesting, who was unusually good at conveying the atmosphere of a mysterious and enchanting forest in his wonderful works.
You can also draw a forest with a pencil from life. Such a walk, during which you can make a series of sketches from nature, will also be very useful for health. After all, it's not a secret for anyone that the air in the forest is particularly clean and fresh. If it is impossible to go to some forest, then you can learn how to draw a forest using beautiful photographs.
Before you draw a forest step by step, be sure to make sure that all the accessories you need for this, which are listed a little below, are nearby. So, to draw a forest you need:
1). multi-colored pencils;
2). Eraser;
3). Liner;
4). Paper;
5). Pencil.

Now you can learn how to draw a forest with a pencil step by step, and then color it:
1. First draw a horizon line;
2. Draw the outlines of the tree trunks that are in the foreground;
3. The drawing will look more interesting if the trees are different. Therefore, draw the first tree, making it a Christmas tree;
4. Draw the second tree, which half hides the spruce. Let it be a birch;
5. Now draw more clearly the third tree, which is the largest. Let it be oak;
6. In the background, depict the trunks of other trees, without much detail;
7. Draw blades of grass and mushrooms in the foreground;
8. Circle the sketch with a liner;
9. Erase the preliminary pencil drawing with the eraser;
10. Paint the trunks of those trees that are not birches with different shades of brown. Paint over the cones on the spruce with a light brown tone;
11. Shade trunks of birches with light gray and gray pencils;
12. Use blue-green to paint the outline of the forest in the distance. Paint the grass with light green and rich green shades;
13. Color the mushroom caps in different colors;
14. Shade the sky with a blue tone. Color the leaves of the trees in various shades of green.
Now you understand how to draw a forest with a pencil, and then colorize this picture. Of course, the forest will look most impressive if it is painted with paints.

list, types, names, descriptions and photos

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Rainforest - biomes, located approximately 10 degrees north and south of the equator. A biome is a biotic environment with homogeneous characteristics, with its own special plant, animal species and climate. Tropical forests are divided into tropical rainforests and dry deciduous tropical forests (subtropics). They are widely distributed in Asia, Australia, Africa, South and Central America, Mexico and many Pacific islands. Temperatures in these forests range from 20°C to 35°C, with no hot or cold seasons. And the average humidity reaches 77% - 80%. The Amazon rainforest is the most famous of the various rainforests in the world. Moist and warm tropical forests are home to 80% of all animal and plant species on the planet. These forests in the world are called "the world's largest pharmacy" because more than a quarter of modern medicines are made from plants growing in these forests. Undergrowth in the humid tropics is limited in many areas due to lack of sunlight at ground level. This fact makes the rainforests passable for humans and animals.

If the crowns of trees are destroyed or broken for some reason, then it reaches the ground and then everything very quickly becomes overgrown with vines, shrubs and small trees - this is how the jungle appears. They are also called the “lungs of the Earth”, since the humid climate contributes to effective air filtration due to the condensation of moisture on the microparticles of pollution, which generally has a beneficial effect on the atmosphere.

The struggle for existence in these forests led the vegetation to the fact that the forest began to be divided into separate layers. These include:

Emerging or new layer: it is formed from the crowns of trees reaching 30 - 70 meters. They are dome-shaped, umbrella-shaped, which receive the maximum amount of sunlight when they reach the high levels of the rainforest. The trees of this layer are home to a large number of animals and birds, such as eagles, monkeys, and bats.

Upper deck: forms a dense "ceiling" of evergreen trees with broad leaves that grow close together. It is because of this layer that sunlight cannot penetrate into the lower levels and onto the ground. The growth of trees in this region is from 20 to 40 meters. This layer makes up the main life support of the rainforest and is home to most tropical animals - leopards, jaguars and exotic birds.

Lower deck - undergrowth. It is located immediately below the upper tier and consists of tropical plants that grow up to 20 meters. There is little air movement in this layer and the humidity is constantly high. Due to the lack of sunlight, this layer is constantly in the shade, and herbs, shrubs, trees and woody vines grow here.

Lastly, forest floor. She barely gets sunlight. It is unlikely that any vegetation can be found in this layer, but it is rich in microorganisms. This layer is rich in animals and insects. Giant anteaters, beetles, frogs, snakes, lizards and a variety of insects inhabit the forest floor.

How animals and plants survive in such a warm and humid climate typical of these forests. Here are some examples of adaptation:

  • Tropical rainforest trees should not have thick bark to prevent moisture loss. Thus, they have a thin and smooth bark.
  • These forests are characterized by high rainfall and the leaves of the trees have developed "drip runoff" to allow rainwater to run off quickly. These are waxy grooves on the leaves.
  • The leaves of the trees at lower levels are wide and those at higher levels are narrow in order to allow sunlight to pass through to lower levels.
  • There are creepers that climb tree trunks and reach the uppermost layers in search of .
  • There are plants like , which grow right on the trees.
  • Plants in the lower layers of tropical rainforests have spectacular blooms and attract insects for pollination as there is not much wind at these levels.
  • Carnivorous Plants: Many of the tropical plants obtain their nutrition by eating animals and insects.

Other commercially important plants: cashews, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, coffee, cocoa, mangoes, bananas, papaya, peanuts, pineapple, nutmeg, sesame, sugar cane, tamarind, turmeric, vanilla, just to name a few. plants that we have to deal with in everyday life and which grow precisely in tropical rainforests.

Among the houseplants that are often found here are: monstera, spathiphyllum, stromantha, ferns (dendrobium, cattleya, vanda, oncidium, phalaenopsis, paphiopedilum, etc.), anthurium, medinilla, akalifa, selaginella, pineapple, banana, bromeliad, vriesia, heliconia, arrowroot, gloriosa, gusmania, diplatia, dieffenbachia, jacaranda, philodendron, zebrina, xora, calathea, caladium, ctenantha, klerodendrum, episcia, koleria, codiaum, coconut, columna, costus, crossandra, neoregelia, nepenthes, passionflower, pachistachis, plectranthus, poliscias, saintpaulia, synningia, scindapsus, Robelin date, eschinanthus. All of them need high humidity in room conditions.

The flora of the rainforest is extremely diverse. Among the trees that grow on the coasts, you can find a coconut palm. Their fruits - coconuts are very useful, used in cooking and cosmetology.

Here you can find different types of banana plants that people use as fruits and vegetables, depending on the stage of ripening.

Banana plant

One of the tropical plants is the mango, among which the Indian mango is the most famous.

The melon tree, better known as papaya, grows in forests and is of great economic importance.

Melon tree, papaya

Breadfruit is another representative of forests where nutritious fruits are highly valued.

One of the Mulberry family is the marang.

The durian plant can be found in tropical rainforests. Their flowers grow directly on the trunks, and the fruits are protected by thorns.

Morinda citrusleaf grows in South Asia, has edible fruits, which are part of the diet of the population of some Pacific islands.

Pitaya is a vine-like rainforest cactus with sweet and edible fruits.

One of the interesting tropical plants is the rambutan tree. It reaches a height of 25 meters and is evergreen.

Rambutan

Small evergreen guava trees grow in tropical forests.

Fast growing evergreen tropical tree Perseus americana is nothing but an avocado plant found in many forests.

Perseus americana, avocado

Various types of ferns, mosses and lichens, creepers and epiphytes, bamboos, sugarcane, cereals grow in tropical forests.

Rainforest levels 900.21

At the very top, trees grow up to 70 meters. These are evergreen trees. In seasonal forests, they shed their leaves during the drought period. These trees protect the lower levels from wind, rain and cold. Then the crown layer (canopy) begins at the level of 30-40 meters. Here the leaves and branches are very close to each other. It is very difficult for people to reach this height in order to explore the world of flora and fauna of the canopy. They use special techniques and aircraft. The middle level of the forest is the undergrowth. A kind of living world has formed here. Then comes the padding. These are various herbal plants.

Tropical forest flora is very diverse. Scientists have not studied these forests yet, because they are very difficult to pass. In the future, new plant species will be discovered in tropical forests.

Julia Sokolova, Natalia Timofeeva

Research work

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MOU "Morkinskaya secondary (full)

Research work on the topic

Rainforest

Completed by 2nd grade students

Secondary school No. 6 "

Julia Sokolova

Timofeeva Natalia

Head:

Primary school teacher

MOU "Morkinskaya average (full)

Secondary school No. 6 "

Kirillova Olga Erikivna

2013

Introduction

Main body

  1. Rainforest zone
  1. Rainforest location
  2. Rainforest plants
  3. Rainforest animals

2. Man and rainforest

Conclusion

List of sources used

Introduction

I really enjoy learning new things at school that I haven't heard about yet. It is especially interesting when you need to conduct a search, draw some conclusions and then tell your classmates about everything. In the lessons of the world around us, we got acquainted with different natural areas: their features, animals and plants. I had the opportunity to prepare a presentation on the topic "Rainforest".

Grade 2 students were asked the following questions:

22 students took part in the survey. The results are presented in the table.

Number of positive answers to questions

question no.

2nd grade students

total

1. Where are tropical forests located?

0 of 22

2. Why are they called that?

0 of 22

3. What rainforest plants do you know?

0 of 22

4. What rainforest animals do you know?

0 of 22

5. How do humans affect tropical forests?

0 of 22

Purpose of work: get to know the rainforest zone and its inhabitants

Tasks:

1. Study the literature on the topic.

2. Consider the diversity of animals and plants in tropical forests.

3. Learn about human impact on rainforests.

4. Tell Year 2 students about the rainforest zone.

Practical significance. The data of my work can be used in the lessons of the world around.

Main body

1. Rainforest zone

1.1 Location of tropical forests

Tropical forests grow near the equator, on both sides of it, between the northern and southern tropics. Tropical forests occupy large areas in America, Africa, in the southern and southeastern parts of Asia and on the islands adjacent to it. The largest massifs of the humid tropics are the Amazonian forests in South America. It's very hot and humid here. The annual amount of precipitation reaches 10 thousand mm in some places. This is 20 times more than in temperate forests. The abundance of heat and moisture is the main reason for the fabulous richness and diversity of plants and animals in the tropical rainforest.

The weather here is remarkably consistent. Before sunrise, the forest is rather cool and quiet, the sky is cloudless. The sun is rising and the temperature is starting to rise. By noon, the heat sets in, the air becomes suffocating. Two or three hours later, clouds appear in the sky, lightning flashes, deafening peals of thunder shake the air, and a downpour begins. Water flows like a continuous stream. Under its weight, branches of trees break and collapse. Rivers overflow their banks. The rain usually lasts no more than an hour. Before sunset, the sky clears, the wind subsides, and soon the forest plunges into the darkness of the night, which comes quickly, almost without twilight. With the sunrise, everything repeats itself from the beginning.

1.2 Rainforest plants

In the tropical forests, the seasons do not differ from each other, and eternal summer reigns with frequent showers. Such conditions are very favorable for the growth and life of plants, so tropical forests are lush, impenetrable thickets.

Vegetation in the tropical forest is arranged in tiers. The first tier consists of single perennial giant trees up to 60 m high with a wide crown and a smooth, branchless trunk. The second tier is formed by trees up to 20 - 30 m high. The third tier is represented by 10 - 20-meter trees, mainly palm trees of various types. And finally, the fourth tier is a low undergrowth of bamboo, shrub and herbaceous forms, ferns and club mosses.

Scientists count up to 400 different tree species in some tropical forests. Rainforest trees are similar in general appearance to our forest trees, but mostly have large leathery leaves. Such durable leathery leaves serve the trees for two or three years, and sometimes for a longer time. In addition, the leaves are not shed all at once, as happens in our forests in autumn, but one by one, at different times. Therefore, tropical rainforests are always green and never stand without leaves. . Can be found in tropical forests teak , a coffee tree , breadfruit , sausage tree . In tropical forests are dominated by evergreen deciduous trees, although there are also conifers, for example araucaria .

In Oceania, along with the coconut palm, which gives milk and butter, grows breadfruit . It bears fruit in "loaves" weighing up to 12 kg! In the pulp of oval fruits, starch accumulates, which, as it ripens, turns into ... dough. And if ripe fruits with a yellow-brown shell are baked, then their taste resembles sweetish wheat bread.

On one such tree, 700-800 "loaves" ripen annually. And three or four trees are enough to "feed" a person during the year. In addition, the breadfruit bears fruit for 70-75 years - just the average duration of human life.

Sausage tree , or kigelia pinnate reaches a height of 15m and has pinnate dissected leaves that look like walnut leaves. Kigelia grows in the East of Tropical Africa, where it is an excellent shade former in the dry and hot season. The flowers of the sausage tree are of a very exotic look, lilac bells bloom at night, and begin to exude a peculiar aroma. Bats flock to this fragrance and pollinate Kigelia.

Then the fruits begin to ripen. These are such huge sausages up to half a meter long, gray in color, which hang on huge, up to several meters, stalks. The weight of such a "sausage" can reach several kilograms. During fruit ripening, it is dangerous under the kigelia. The fruit consists of a very hard peel, inside there is some pulp with large seeds.

Even the local population does not eat the fruits; only elephants and rhinoceroses can gnaw them. But the bark and root of the sausage tree is used as a medicine. They are treated for constipation, pressure and many other diseases. Jewelry, dishes and amulets are made from the fruits of the sausage tree.

The grasses in the rainforest survive only if they settle directly on the trunks of trees, obtaining nutrients from rainwater. So orchids bloom their outlandish flowers on tree branches. Their beautiful flowers attract insects and small birds that drink nectar and carry pollen from one flower to another.

Other plants - creepers - cling to trees, braid their trunks, trying to climb as high as possible towards the light. Lianas can spread to neighboring trees and reach a length of 100 m. Light almost does not reach the ground. It is easy to guess why there are almost no herbaceous plants in such a forest.

One such plant is the giant rafflesia. Its flower with a diameter of more than a meter is the largest in the world. It resembles spoiled meat, has a corresponding smell and is pollinated by flies. It receives the necessary nutrients from the roots of the trees on which it settles.

The largest carnivorous plant capable of digesting the largest prey nepenthes . Frogs, birds and even rats fall into its traps and are digested with the help of enzymes. Grows in the tropical forests of Asia, on about. Borneo and Indonesia.

  1. Rainforest animals

Life is literally teeming in this exuberant vegetable kingdom, many animals have found refuge here. First of all, these are birds - colorful parrots, hummingbirds, toucans (almost half of all birds known to scientists live in the tropical forests of the Amazon basin in South America).

The population of tree tops is invisible to man - it is far, high. Animals in the forest are not only not seen, but also not heard. A deep silence reigns in the forest during the day. Birds, even noisy parrots, sit silently on the branches of tree tops and feed on fruits.

You walk through the forest and it seems that there is no one in it. But it is worth making a noise, for example, shooting, as an abundance of animals is immediately revealed: the parrots, taking off in a flock from nowhere, will scream sharply, the monkeys will rustle. But soon silence reigns again. No singing, no chirping, no calling sounds, no cries of fright can be heard in the branches.

Almost all species of large mammals (elephants, rhinos, hippos, buffaloes, lions, tigers, cougars, panthers, jaguars) and amphibians (crocodiles) can be found in tropical forests.

Lemurs are relatives of monkeys. They live only on the island of Madagascar and the neighboring Comoros, which broke away from Africa about 100 million years ago. Madagascar is home to over 50 species of lemurs and two-thirds of all chameleons living on the planet.

Armadillos and anteaters live in the forests of South America. The body of the armadillo is covered with a shell, a bit reminiscent of a turtle shield. The shell consists of two layers: inside it is bony, outside it is horny - and is divided into belts, movably connected to each other. The anteater is very interesting - tamandua, with a tenacious tail. He is great at running up sloping trunks and climbing trees, looking for ants and other insects.

Slow sloths hang upside down on branches all their lives: it is more convenient to eat leaves. Predators - such as the jaguar and panther are not inferior in dexterity to their victims.

Warm and humid impenetrable thickets - a real paradise for reptiles and insects. There are a great many of them here: poisonous snakes, huge boas, tarantulas, giant ants.

Frogs, lizards, snakes also live in trees. Lizards are helped to climb by tenacious suckers on their fingers. Tree frogs have adapted to lay eggs in water, which accumulates after rain at the base of large leaves.

Some birds and butterflies are painted in fantastic colors. Tropical butterflies reach a size of 20 cm.

You can't confuse a toucan with any other bird because of the huge motley beak, which in toucans is sometimes longer than the whole body. Toucans nest in the recesses of tree poles, but often they occupy hollows left by woodpecker families.

Hummingbird is a tiny bird (size 5.7 to 21.6 cm; weight 1.6 to 20 grams) with a long curved beak capable of flapping its wings so frequently that it manages to hang almost motionless in the air while sucking nectar from a flower . It is the only bird in the world that can fly backwards.

An unusually predatory piranha fish, 30 cm long, lives in many rivers of South America. In her strong jaws sit sharp, like knives, teeth. If a piece of meat is lowered into the river, piranhas immediately appear from the depths and instantly tear it apart. Piranhas feed on fish, attack ducks and domestic animals that inadvertently entered the river. Even such large animals as tapirs suffer from piranha. Fish damage the lips of water-drinking animals. Piranhas are also dangerous to humans.

  1. Man and tropical forests.

Tropical forests are disappearing very quickly. It is estimated that between 500 and 1000 species of plants and animals die out in these forests alone every year. People destroy forests for many reasons. The main ones are:

1. . Fire cutting . People need more and more space and food. Therefore, they try to populate the spaces occupied by the forest. The settlers first felled the trees and then set them on fire. The fire releases the nutrients contained in the giant trunks. Cultivated plants are planted on the fertile ashes, but after one or two harvests, the soil ceases to give birth, since all of its already meager supply of nutrients is exhausted, and the natural cycle is disrupted. Settlers move on and uproot new plots. They, too, soon turn into barren deserts that will no longer be overgrown with forest.

2. Agriculture and animal husbandry . People have destroyed vast areas of tropical forests, primarily in South America, and planted in their place plantations of bananas, pineapples, oil palms, soybeans and other crops and started livestock farms.

3. Mineral exploration . A number of governments are planning to mine minerals and have already embarked on major projects that will lead to the destruction of vast areas of forests. Dams will be built to provide electricity to industrial enterprises for the processing of minerals. At the same time, the forest, where many Indian tribes live, will be flooded or cut down.

4. Logging . Mahogany, teak, black, white, brown, red and green ebony, and many other types of wood of exceptional beauty in pattern and color come from the tropics to the world market. In the tropics, during logging, lumberjacks do not cut down a section of the forest, but cut down only individual trees of especially valuable species. Unfortunately, people do not know how to cut down even selective trees with a sparing method. To take out huge trunks, you need to pave a clearing to the road, along which they will be delivered by trucks to sawmills or ports. When only one trunk is removed, up to 75% of the trees growing around the fallen one are damaged. On the roads where the tractors passed, settlers penetrate into the forest. They continue to destroy forests. Lumberjacks, having cut down all valuable trees, go further and lay new clearings in the forest that has not yet been touched. After two or three harvests, the soil is leached by rains, washed away by heavy rains, and becomes a barren wasteland.

Such changes in geographical areas reduce the natural wealth of our planet. The transformation of nature must be reasonable. We must not impoverish her, but make her even richer and more beautiful.

Conclusion

Summing up my work, I can say that: I have achieved my goal. I learned a lot of new and interesting things. In addition, I was able to tell my peers about it.

Tropical forests grow near the equator, on both sides of it, between the northern and southern tropics. That is why they are called tropical.

Favorable natural conditions, the absence of long dormant periods contribute to the rapid development and growth of plants. The evergreen vegetation of tropical forests is multi-tiered. The first tier consists of single perennial giant trees up to 60 m high with a wide crown and a smooth, branchless trunk. The second tier is formed by trees up to 20 - 30 m high. The third tier is represented by 10 - 20-meter trees, mainly palm trees of various types. And finally, the fourth tier is a low undergrowth of bamboo, shrub and herbaceous forms, ferns and club mosses.

Almost all species of large mammals (elephants, rhinos, hippos, buffaloes, lions, tigers, cougars, panthers, jaguars) and amphibians (crocodiles) can be found in tropical forests. The rainforest abounds with various snakes. The world of insects is also infinitely diverse.

Rainforests are home to 80% of all animal and plant species on the planet. Therefore, it is necessary to fight for the safety of forests and their inhabitants.

References

  1. Vakhrushev A.A., Bursky O.V., Rautian A.S. The world. Grade 2 ("Our Planet Earth"). Tutorial in 2 parts. Part 2. - 3rd ed. revised – M.: Balass; School house, 2012. - 128 cm., ill. (Educational system "School 2100")
  2. New Children's Encyclopedia. Per. from English Pokidaeva T. - M .: "Azbuka-Atticus" 2011. - 230 pp.: ill.
  3. Tsekhanskaya A.F., Strelkov D.G. Complete Encyclopedia of Animals. - M.: CJSC "ROSMEN-PRESS", 2010. - 256 p.: ill.
  4. Encyclopedia "Planet Earth" trans. from English Head of A.M. – M.: CJSC "ROSMEN-PRESS", 2010. - 143 p.: ill.
  5. http://edu.zelenogorsk.ru/projs/eko/tur/tropik.html
  6. http://kids.wosir.ua/ru/article/view/1663
  7. http://www.junior.ru/students/chugreeva/ludi.htm

Hello, dear readers of the site "Me and the World"! Today we will talk about the so-called lungs of our planet - tropical forests. We will tell you: where they grow, what animals and plants can be seen in these forests, why they are called the lungs of the planet.

What is it?

What is a tropical forest? This is a vast territory in the tropical, equatorial and subequatorial zones, overgrown with evergreen trees, where only their own special plants and animals are found. The green belt of these forests stretches across Asia, Australia, Africa, Central and South America and through many islands of the Pacific Ocean. Quite mild climate without hot and cold weather with temperatures ranging from 20 to 35 degrees.


Tropical areas

Among all tropical forests, there are humid (rain) and seasonal. The former are characterized by a large amount of precipitation per year, while the latter grow where, despite moisture, there are periods of drought. The tropical rainforests of Atsinanana, growing in the east of the island of Madagascar, stand out separately.


These are ancient relict plants formed about 60 million years ago, but now they are under the threat of destruction. Unique places with more than 12,000 plant species and 78 wingless mammals.


In one of the Chinese resorts of Yalunvan, tropical forests are presented in a huge Botanical Garden. More than 1,200 species of plants grow on its territory, some of which are difficult to find in wildlife.


Another tropical jungle area in China is Yanoda, covering 123 square meters. km. Madly beautiful orchids, huge trees, exotic birds.



The park is located on the island of Hainan, 35 km from the city of Sanya, from which you can get both by regular bus and tourist bus. Here you can also relax on the beach in Dadonghai.


In one of the tribes of Latin America, local sorcerers daily pray that heaven will send rain to the earth. It would seem, well, why constantly water the already waterlogged soil. There is only one answer: there will be no showers - huge forests will disappear, and without them all of humanity will disappear, because it is not for nothing that the tropics are considered the lungs of the planet.


Flora and fauna

Many types of local vegetation grow only here, and the abundance of insects and snakes is a distinctive feature of these places. Animals mainly live in trees - these are mainly marmosets and cebids. There are quite a few ungulates: baker pigs and undersized pointed deer. Lots of reptiles and amphibians.



is a tropical vegetation zone of 6,700,000 sq. km, which is located along the river. The jungle is represented by a huge variety of flora and fauna. 40,000 plant species, 1300 birds, 5500 fish, 430 mammals and 1400 amphibians and reptiles.

The world's largest rodent, the capybara, lives in the Amazon, as well as the Brazilian otter, giant anteater, spider-like monkeys, howler monkeys, Amazonian dolphins, and many other animals, including titan lumberjacks, the planet's largest beetles. , dangerous to humans, because with their ticks they can easily break a pencil.


Barriers to growth

In the Amazon, there is a problem of cutting down trees - since the end of the last century, more than 750,000 square meters have been destroyed here. km. Environmental problems associated with the disappearance of the tropics around the world are shown in feature and documentary films, as well as in cartoons for kids. We recommend watching one of these cartoons, Fern Valley, which is like a manifesto against corporations cutting down ancient trees.


The rainforest of India is a valuable tree species of more than 20,000 species. And if on other continents slowly, but the vegetation disappears, then India restores its wealth.


The diversity of the animal world is enormous. The inhabitants of only one of the islands of Kalimantan are 7 times more than in the whole of Europe. What are the names of all representatives of the flora and fauna of this beautiful country is difficult to list in one article.


The tropics on the world map are located between 25°N. and 30 ° S, as if encircling the planet with a green ribbon. The names and classification of forests are presented in the description and in the photo.


Video for children

For most people in our country, the change of seasons seems to be quite a natural phenomenon. Indeed, how could it be otherwise. But in tropical rainforests, very little is known about this. And all because here the difference between summer and winter, spring and autumn is not felt at all. But here they know firsthand what rains and downpours are. And it is no coincidence that tropical forests are called humid.

Where are these tropical forests located?

Of course, their main habitat is the equatorial zone. On both sides, forests occupy a fairly large area. They take over South America, Africa and Southeast Asia. But most of all, all the inhabitants of the planet know the forests in the Amazon basin.

Amazon forests are recognized as reference. But there are also larger arrays. Tropical rainforests are found in Asian countries such as Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia and further extend into areas of Northern Australia. The African continent is replete with such forests.

There is no doubt that the rainforest, when viewed from above, resembles a green carpet. Sometimes it seems endless, as it often stretches from horizon to horizon. You can see winding rivers and even lakes there. But tropical plants often live on them too. The comparison with the sea comes to mind. It also sways and has the same mystery and power in it.

It is generally accepted that the climate is hot in the equatorial regions. However, on average, the temperature ranges from 24 - 20 to 33 - 36 degrees with a plus sign. Precipitation falls regularly, almost daily. Perhaps there is even some kind of "celestial timetable" when the day begins with clear skies and bright sun. By noon, clouds are gathering, and rain and thunderstorms are pouring. But the rains are short and soon the bright sun shines again against the background of a clear sky. This scenario may repeat itself several times during the day. Sunrise always occurs around six in the morning, but after six in the evening you can watch a rapid sunset. This mystery lasts every day, every month and for many, many years and millennia in a row.

Experts say that these amazing forests grow on the most ancient soils that can be found on the planet today. Their formation is attributed in time to the Tertiary period. All this time, the parent rocks were destroyed by tree roots, wind and water. Animals also played a significant role in this, scratching and tearing the rock with their claws.

It is the destroyed and ground rocks that make up the layer, the thickness of which reaches twenty meters. There is a large amount of iron oxides in the soil and all because heavy rainfalls wash out most of the chemicals. Therefore, the color of the soil has a reddish tint. They are also called ferralitic soils or silica, that is, rich in iron.

At first glance it may seem that in these heavenly places the soil is exceptionally fertile. Such abundant vegetation should create a lot of humus. But not everything is so simple. The most necessary substances, such as phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen, can be seen little. They are mostly found in the plants themselves. When they die, their substances do not even have time to get into the soil, as they are immediately "captured" by the roots of living plants. And so the eternal cycle goes on.

The first thing that comes to mind is that the rainforest is impenetrable. That is, it is so densely populated with various plants that it will not be possible to immediately find a piece of free space. But in reality, everything turns out to be exactly the opposite. Once in a tropical rainforest, you can find that there is not just enough free space, but a lot. And all because the trees, reaching for the sun and having large crowns, are literally intertwined with each other. This can be compared to a giant umbrella through which sunlight passes extremely poorly. He stays up there. Therefore, the soil around the trees does not dry out and it is always dark or twilight there. In such conditions, few plants will agree to live. This is the main reason for the large amount of free space. Although there are some plants that are ready to endure the deprivation of sunlight. But they often grow in such a way that their roots do not cling to the soil.

Imagine that when you are standing in the same place watching a tropical forest, you will not see two identical trees. It really is. On one hectare of tropical forest, up to one hundred species of plants can simultaneously exist. But even if you count only fifty, it is also not a little. Forests in the Congo Basin and Indonesia are often cited as examples.

Forest hierarchy

When people say the word forest, they most often think of trees. This is true for the rainforest as well. It is the trees that make up 70% of the basis of the forest. But this whole community is divided into three stages:

  • lower, rarely seen, about 10 meters high;
  • medium, these are trees 20 - 30 meters high;
  • top, these are giants, reaching up to 50 - 60 meters in height.

A huge multi-level green carpet is complemented by shrubs and various herbs. All of them have passed the test and are able to survive in conditions of constant shade. But they still have a subordinate position.

Lianas can be observed near the rivers. There are many of them and flexible trunks of creepers cover trees. So they grow and, descending from a height, form a real green curtain. Lianas grow mainly in tropical forests. Of all the plants, they are the most amazing. They exist on the trunks of tall trees, covering them with their flexible trunks. But if they are straightened, then the length of their creepers will surpass the largest giants. So they live a tree for a long time, until someday it falls.

In order to survive in difficult tropical conditions, some plants have come up with an ingenious way to retain moisture and nutrients. Existing on trees, sometimes their roots are not even able to reach the soil. Often they don't need it anymore. Indeed, in order to accumulate the necessary resources, they created special cavities in the stems. You can often see leaves as storage, they are like real reservoirs for rainwater. Roots that have not reached the soil are able to absorb the necessary substances directly from the air.

Breadfruit will feed everyone

Among the exotic trees growing in humid and warm climates, there are those that allow the local inhabitants not to die of hunger. They are called "edible" trees. The inhabitants of Oceania highly value coke palms. Thanks to them, they are provided not only with milk, but also with butter. There are also breadfruit trees. For residents of the northern regions, this may seem like a fantasy. However, the dough from which something similar to bread is baked grows on a tree. A person receives it already in finished form. These are trees of the mulberry family. Each fruit, from which bread can be baked, can reach a weight of 12 kg. It is tempting to plant such a tree and not know the need for this product for 70-75 years. It is estimated that only one tree during the year will bear up to 800 fruits. But breadfruit can give not only bread. Fruits that are not ripe are used to make drinks.

The inhabitants of the African continent and the island of Madagascar are also familiar with breadfruit.


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