How to graft calamansi tree


How to Graft Citrus Trees Easily and Successfully

This step-by-step tutorial on grafting citrus trees shows how to graft citrus successfully using the cleft graft. The grafting of a multi-variety citrus cocktail tree is shown. A scion of a Sarawak Pummelo is grafted onto a mature Oroblanco tree.

This step-by-step tutorial shows how to graft citrus trees using the cleft graft.

The cleft graft is useful for grafting citrus trees of any kind including: oranges, mandarins, lemons, limes, grapefruit, pummelos, and kumquats. In addition to citrus trees, the cleft graft is also useful for grafting fruit trees of many other types. Although this tutorial shows the use of the cleft graft to add a new variety to a multi-grafted citrus cocktail tree, the cleft graft is also useful for grafting new citrus trees. Although this tutorial shows the use of the cleft graft to graft a new variety to a mature citrus tree to make a multi-grafted citrus cocktail tree, the cleft graft is also useful for grafting new citrus trees.


Grafting Citrus Trees with the Cleft Graft – YouTube Video

In addition to this step-by-step guide, I have also made a YouTube video (see below) showing the cleft grafting of citrus trees.

Citrus Budwood from a Disease-free Source

Citrus cuttings have the potential to spread tree-killing diseases. It is often not apparent when a tree is infected with a fatal disease. This makes the source of citrus budwood for grafting very important.

In California we now have both exotic diseases that kill citrus trees and also the insects that spread the diseases. The situation is so severe that it now against the law in California to graft with cuttings taken from backyard citrus trees. To save our trees from deadly diseases, hobbyists in California no longer swap citrus cuttings with friends. We now instead order our budwood at a nominal cost from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), a program that exists to provide disease-free budwood for the grafting of citrus trees.

The CCPP will ship budwood anywhere in the world where the local government allows it. Many citrus growing regions where CCPP budwood is not allowed have their own disease-free citrus budwood programs. Here I have created a web page that lists some other programs: Citrus Budwood Programs.

The below YouTube video goes through in detail the process of setting up an account and placing a budwood order with CCPP.

Disinfecting Grafting Tools

Disinfecting grafting tools.

In order to both maximize the probability that the graft lives and also to prevent the spread of disease from tree to tree, it is important to disinfect grafting tools between grafts. To learn more about disinfecting grafting tools, please see the following link: Disinfecting Grafting Tools.

 

 

 

Choosing the Grafting Technique based upon the Scion Size

There is no single best grafting method for citrus, but when grafting multiple varieties to a mature citrus tree I often prefer to use a scion graft rather than a bud graft. I have found that chip bud grafts and T-bud grafts of additional citrus varieties tend to be very slow to grow or they do not grow at all. Scion grafts on the other hand are more likely to grow and they grow more quickly. For this particular graft, the scions that I received from the CCPP were slightly smaller in diameter than my target branch, so I decided to use the cleft graft and I selected the scion closest in size to my target branch. Had the scions been significantly smaller than my target branch, I would have chosen the bark graft instead. For cases where the diameter of the scion is bigger than the diameter of the rootstock, I like to use the Z graft.

For citrus scions of the same or slightly smaller diameter than the target branch, the cleft graft is a useful grafting technique.

Cutting off the end of the Branch

The first step is to cut the end off of the target branch. I prefer to use a saw because the clean cut causes the least amount of damage to the target branch.

Sawing the end off of the target branch.

Splitting the Target Branch

The next step is to split the end of the target branch to create the cleft into which the scion will be inserted. I begin the cut at the middle of the end of the branch and slowly rock the knife back and forth until the cut is the desired length. This cut is about 1.5 inches (4 centimeters).

Splitting the target branch.

Examining the Scion

The next step is to examine the scion to determine where to cut it. In this graft I will focus on matching a single side of the scion to the cleft in the target branch. I choose the flattest side of the scion. I will cut the flattest side to a tapered point for easy insertion into the target branch.

Examining the scion to determine where to cut it.

Cutting the Scion

Here I cut the scion to a tapered point. I focus on a single side of the scion. The opposite side of the scion does not need to line up with the target branch. For easy insertion, the opposite side of the scion can be cut thinner than the side that will be lined up.

Cutting the scion.

Secret to Success: Aligning the Cambium Layers

Cambium layer shown by arrow.

The goal with any type of citrus grafting is to connect the cambium layer of the scion to that of the rootstock or target branch. The cambium is a very thin layer of tissue between the bark and the wood. The distance of the cambium layer to the outside of the bark tends to vary depending upon the diameter of the wood. I have seen many grafting tutorials that give the impression that the grafter must make an exact match between the cambium layers all along the length of the graft. Such a match would be quite difficult since the bark obscures the cambium layer and since the cambium layer is so thin.

Outside of Bark Aligned

The below illustration shows an example where the scion and target branch are aligned at the outside of the bark.

Illustration of cleft graft with the bark aligned.
Cambium Layers Not Aligned

The below illustration shows the same graft as above, but with the bark removed and the cambium layers revealed. Although the bark was aligned, there is no contact between the cambium of the scion and the cambium of the target branch; this graft would fail.

Illustration of cleft graft with bark aligned showing that the cambium layers are not aligned.
Aligning the Cambium Layers at Two Points

In the below illustration, the angle of the scion has been slightly adjusted in an attempt to create contact between the cambium of the scion and that of the target branch.

Illustration of cleft graft showing the scion at an angle.
Cambium Layers Now in Contact

The below illustration shows the same scion angle as above, but with the bark removed and the cambium layers revealed. The cambium layer of the scion is now in contact with the cambium layer of the target branch in two places. The cambium does not need to be lined up all along. These two points of contact are sufficient for a successful graft. When the graft heals, callus tissue will grow and connect more of the cambium layers.

Illustration of cleft graft showing two points at which the cambium layers are in contact.

Inserting the Scion

Here I insert the scion at a slight angle to ensure that the cambium layers are in contact. The angle is opposite of the above illustration. The above illustration showed the top of the scion angled outward, but in my example below the top of the scion is angled inward. Either way will work.

Inserting the scion.

Wrapping the Graft with Parafilm

Here I wrap the graft with an initial layer of parafilm to seal the graft and hold it in place. To get a good seal, I gently pull on the parafilm as I wrap it. This makes it stick to itself. I used half inch parafilm to wrap the scion. The following link shows where parafilm can be ordered: Grafting Supplies.

Wrapping the cleft graft with parafilm.

Wrapping with a Rubber Band

In order to ensure close contact between the cambium layers and to strengthen the graft while it is healing, I wrap it with a rubber band.

Wrapping the graft with a rubber band.

Pruning the Scion to Three or Four Buds

Here I prune the scion to leave three or four buds. In this particular example the scion has three buds remaining.

Cutting the scion down to three buds.

Adding a Second Layer of Parafilm

The next step is to wrap the scion with a second layer of parafilm. I wrap starting from the bottom, overlapping as I go up and gently pulling on the parafilm to make it stick. Overlapping the layers keeps the graft from drying out and will also keep out rainwater. Keeping out rainwater will help the graft survive in climates that are rainy during grafting season. Other than the buds I completely wrap the scion, including the cut end. Some people cover the buds with parafilm, but when I tried that, I noticed that buds of some citrus varieties struggle to break through the parafilm.

Wrapping the graft with a second layer of parafilm.

Protecting the Graft from the Sun

At the time of year that I performed this graft, the temperatures were getting into the upper part of the optimum range (70°F to 85°F ; 21°C to 29°C) for healing of citrus grafts. In order to keep the graft from absorbing sunlight and getting even hotter, I gently wrapped it with aluminum foil to reflect the sunlight.

Wrapping the grafted scion with aluminum foil to protect it from the sun.

Removing the Aluminum Foil after Three Weeks

Citrus grafts typically heal within three weeks, so I removed the foil after three weeks. The scion was still green which is a good sign. Many failed grafts would be brown after three weeks.

Removing the aluminum foil after three weeks.

Citrus Cleft Graft Growing

After removing the aluminum foil, the next step is to be patient and wait for the graft to start growing. Sometimes the buds on the scion will start growing within a couple of weeks. Other times I have seen it take months. Patience is the key. The below photos show about four months of growth.

Four months growth of the citrus cocktail tree.

Healing of the Citrus Cleft Graft

The below photos show the graft union after many months of growth. The rubber band and parafilm had deteriorated and were no longer needed, so I removed them. The graft had healed well on the front and on the back.

Upper left: view of front of graft with deteriorated rubber band and parafilm. Upper middle: view of front of graft with rubber band and parafilm removed. Upper right: view of back of graft. Bottom: side view of graft.

Citrus Cocktail Tree with Four Varieties

The below photo shows the tree with the Sarawak branch extending from the lower middle of the photo to the upper left of the photo. It also shows two other pummelo varieties that have been grafted to the Oroblanco tree.

Multi-grafted citrus cocktail tree with four varieties. The Sarawak Pummelo branch extends from the lower middle of the photo to the upper left. Mato Buntan pummelo has been patch budded and is shown magnified. A cleft grafted Hirado Buntan pummelo branch can be seen in the lower right corner.

Save Citrus Trees by Spreading the Word

In places where huanglongbing has spread, citrus trees now have very short life spans. Parts of the world that do not have the disease are highly vulnerable. There is no cure for the disease, but education can slow the spread. Please help stop the spread to new parts of the world by sharing this article and the importance of grafting with registered disease-free budwood. Thank you!

Resources for Californians

Please visit CaliforniaCitrusThreat.org for more information on how to stop the spread of huanglongbing.

California Law Regarding Citrus Propagation

In California, the collection of any citrus propagative materials, including budwood and seeds, from non-registered sources is illegal. Any citrus trees grown or grafted in California must come from source trees registered with either:

  • The Citrus Nursery Stock Pest Cleanliness Program, administered by the California Department of Food and Agriculture, or
  • The Citrus Clonal Protection Program, located at the University of California at Riverside.

Funding

This article was funded by a grant from California's Citrus Research Board.

How To Grow Calamansi from Cuttings?

by Audrey Woods

Calamansi, also known as calamondin, is a citrus hybrid that is predominantly cultivated in the Philippines. This plant, known by the scientific name Citrofortunella microcarpa, is native to the Philippines, Sulawesi in Indonesia, Borneo, Southern China and Taiwan. The  calamansi fruit is a favorite addition to beverages, dishes, marinades and preserves in Malaysian, Indonesian and Filipino cuisines. You can easily propagate calamansi from cuttings if you follow the vital steps outlined in this article. 

How to grow calamansi from cuttings

These are the materials you will need:

  • Pruning shears
  • Pot
  • Grit 
  • Sand 
  • Sawdust 
  • Spray bottle 
  • Plastic bag 
  • Rubber band

Below are the steps to grow calamansi from cuttings:

  1. Take the cuttings during late spring or summer, since this is when the calamansi tree has new growth. Choose new growth that has already hardened. The wood should not be brittle but springy, and look for branches that are beginning to turn from green to brown. 
  2. Using a pair of sharp pruning shears, cut the branch horizontally just below a leaf node or a set of leaves. Make a second cut about three to five inches higher on the branch, right above a set of leaves, at a 45-degree angle. 
  3. Remove the leaves from the cuttings’ bottom but keep the leaves at the top of the calamansi cuttings. 
  4. While you prepare the pot, mist the cuttings every few minutes using a hand-held spray bottle, to keep the cuttings from drying out. 
  5. Be sure to use a tall, narrow pot with a two- to three-inch diameter top and four- to eight-inches deep. It should have drainage holes to allow water to drain through. 
  6. Place equal parts sand, grit and sawdust in a bucket and mix thoroughly. Blend and add water until the mixture is crumbly and damp. Fill the rooting pot with this damp potting mix.  
  7. Place the bottom two to three inches of the cutting into the pot. The bottom of the cutting should have no leaves, and should be cut horizontally. Mist the leaves of the cutting and make sure they remain damp. 
  8. Put a clear plastic bag upside down over the top of the pot, with the mouth of the bag around the pot’s rim so that the bag covers the cutting and creates a humid environment around it. Secure the plastic bag with a rubber band around the lip of the pot. 
  9. Place the cutting in a room with bright, indirect light. Keep the cutting between 77 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Remove the plastic bag at least twice a week and mist the leaves and rooting mix with water to maintain a high humidity inside the plastic bag. 
  10. Finally, remove the plastic bag once the cutting produces a mature set of new leaves. Plant it in a nursery bed during springtime. Calamansi cuttings can grow up to 24 inches in the first year. 

How to cultivate calamansi from seed

Below are the steps to cultivate calamansi from a seed:

1.

Purchase calamansi fruit online or from a nursery or supermarket. 

Buy some calamansi fruits and remove the seeds without cutting through them. Cut through the top one-third of the fruit rather than through the center. Use the seeds immediately or store them correctly, as they need to keep moist to survive. 

2. Put the seeds in a damp paper towel. 

Dampen some paper towels with a few drops of water and place the seeds in the center of the towel. Fold so that the seeds are securely inside. You can also place the seeds directly into damp potting soil, just deep enough to be completely covered by the soil. 

3. Leave the seeds in a plastic bag somewhere warm for about three days. 

Put the seeds, wrapped in a paper towel, into a resealable plastic bag. Close the bag but make sure that there is some air inside. Put the bag somewhere warm like a windowsill where there is a lot of sunlight, or even on top of a fridge. If the seeds are placed directly into the soil, cover the pot with plastic wrap so the environment becomes warm and humid.  

4. Transplant the seeds that have sprouted into a small pot filled with soil. 

Check the seeds, and if you see any sprouts you can move them into a small pot to continue growing. Place potting soil in the pot and plant the sprouted seeds under the surface. Make sure to water the soil so that the top one inch is damp. If seeds were placed directly into the soil, remove the plastic wrap once the seeds in the pot have sprouted. It usually takes an extra day or two for these seeds to sprout. 

5. Seedlings should be moved to individual pots once they have two large leaves. 

The seedlings will grow to several inches tall and start to sprout leaves after around six weeks. Once the seedlings have two fully-grown leaves, you can place them in a pot. Remove the soil gently so you do not break the roots.  When transplanting to a new pot, water the seedlings well so the potting soil is always damp. 

6. Transplant calamansi every two months to allow more room to grow.

 

Slide the soil and seedlings gently from the pot and break the roots carefully to separate them. Put the seedlings in a larger pot and fill it with well-draining soil. Make sure to water the seedlings so the soil remains damp. The seedlings should be planted around two inches deep into the soil. 

7. Water the calamansi plants regularly and put them in an area with full sun. 

When the top layer of soil has dried out completely, the plants should be watered. This happens several times a week depending on the humidity level. Calamansi plants need to be exposed to the sun for at least six to 10 hours a day, or you can use grow lights if they are indoors. Be sure to use fast-draining soil since these plants do not like having damp roots. 

8. Plant the seedlings outdoors once grown. 

It is ideal to plant calamansi outside if you are in the USDA hardiness zone 9b or higher. Ideal regions where calamansi thrives include parts of Texas, Florida, Hawaii and California.

Conclusion 

Learning how to grow calamansi from cuttings is seamless, provided you have the necessary tools and materials to help you. Follow the instructions as stated above to cultivate calamansi that is rich in Vitamin C and a known immune booster.

Image: istockphoto.com / Richard Ernest Yap

Calamondin (Citrofortunella calamondin) ~ Growing citrus at home

Calamondin (citrofortunella calamondin) is another beautiful, interesting and important citrus for beginners . This is probably one of the first fruit-bearing plants in many people. They are often given as gifts, calling them tangerines. Often people are misled by sellers, either on purpose to sell, or out of inexperience.

Variety information

Calamondin also has another name - citrofortunella ; by this name, you can guess that this is a hybrid of citrus and a subgenus of Fortunella - in this case, mandarin and kumquat. From the mandarin, calamondin inherited the appearance, only the fruits are smaller, and from the kumquat, the sweet peel and frost resistance. But despite the fact that the "parents" are often very tasty, this citrus, unfortunately, does not have the same qualities. The aroma of the fruit is wonderful, but the taste ... unusual, citrus, but it cannot be said that it is very pleasant and that you want to eat more and more. But it does not matter, calamondin is an excellent fruit for a very beautiful tasty jam. If this year there is a good harvest, then I will definitely make a jar, and post a photo of the process.

Calamondin also has a very decorative appearance due to abundant fruiting and, with the right formation of the crown, will become a real decoration for your cozy home.


My calamondin

Calamondin came to me at the end of March 2012 as a birthday present from my wife. He was a beautiful little bush and already with fruits - in most cases this is what "bribes" people. Sorry, I didn't take a photo at the time of purchase. In my archive I found only two photos for June 22, 2012:

To understand what calamondin was at the time of purchase, you need to imagine it with green fruits and without young shoots. It was sold in a very small pot. I watched him for two weeks - he acclimatized well and did not have to pick the fruits. I advise you to pick all the fruits if you see that after the purchase, he begins to throw off the leaves. After acclimatization, I transferred the calamondin to a larger pot, and chose pure leafy humus as the soil. He liked such changes and he started to grow, carrying the fruits.

At the beginning of the topic, I mentioned the importance of calamondin for beginner citrus growers. First of all, I want to say that he is the least whimsical from my entire collection. And even more importantly, he is best grafted , which means he learns well to vaccinate. All my attempts to graft calamondin have been successful.

Here is my very first inoculation, which gave growth and a bud and a plant was also presented for my birthday:

I also like calamondin because it has practically no dormant periods, it is constantly trying to grow and bloom. Here is a photo of what I have now:

Despite the fact that there are already several fruits, with the increase in daylight hours, he began to release many more buds:


In the end, I would like to mention my mistakes growing calamondin. In care, everything seems to be done correctly, because it does not throw leaves, it steadily bears fruit. But in the formation he made one mistake - he regretted and did not remove the fatty shoot:


Firstly, there are no buds on it and they are unlikely to be. Secondly, the plant loses the decorative shape of the bush. And thirdly, fat shoots are also born on it, and not fruit-bearing branches, as in the two photos above.

Do not repeat my mistakes - either remove such shoots immediately, or use them as grafting cuttings - this is what they are great for.

Harvest 2014:



Carbon 2015:



Read also:
Calamondin flowering
Carbon Carbon 2015

Calamondin: Care at home (crossing and extraction). Citrofortunella. Why do calamondin leaves fall

Calamondin, or Citrofortunella, is a beautiful evergreen plant obtained as a result of natural hybridization of mandarin and kinkan. Its botanical name is ×Citrofortunella microcarpa, the old ones still found are Citrus madurensis and Citrus Mitis. Calamondin has many local names, as the plant is popular and loved in many countries as a fruit or as an ornamental. The best known to us are “Chinese mandarin” and “golden orange”.
At home, calamondin is grown on light windowsills, in winter gardens and greenhouses, sometimes in a standard form or in the form of bonsai. In subtropical climates, calamondin is used in landscape design and planted outdoors in gardens and parks, grown in large containers on terraces and patios. Less commonly, it is a culture of citrus fruit growing. The height of the tree can reach several meters.

DISTRIBUTION

Homeland of calamondin China, from where the plant came to nearby regions. There, citrus found practical use, it was used mainly for juice production. And now in the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, calamondin is primarily a fruit crop. In the rest of the world, the plant is popular more as an ornamental. He has new forms, including variegated with striped fruits and dwarf. For some peoples, citrofortunella has become an attribute of Christmas and the New Year. The tradition of giving calamondin for New Year's Eve and Christmas, or decorating our homes with them these days, also takes root with us. After all, a beautiful plant is very similar to a tangerine, which we historically associate with the New Year holiday.

CALAMONDIN. DESCRIPTION

A calamondin tree from 3 to 7 meters high, with an upright trunk branching close to the base and a dense crown. Dark green dense glossy oval leaves, 4-7 cm long, yellow-green below. They are arranged alternately on small petioles. The root is pivotal, powerful. The flowers are solitary or grow 2-3 more often in the axils of the leaves, very fragrant, self-pollinated, up to 2.5 cm in diameter. They have 5 white petals. Attractive to bees.
Fruit orange-red, round or slightly flattened, up to 4.5 cm in diameter. The skin is thin, glossy, fragrant, contains many glands with essential oil. It cleans well and is the sweetest in the fruit. The pulp, on the contrary, is sour, juicy, enclosed in 6-8 slices and contains up to 5 seeds, sometimes there are no seeds. Calamondin is abundantly strewn with fruits, the average yield of a tree in the Philippines is 30 kg, at the age of ten, up to 50 kg.



Alas, in our climate, whatever the care, at home, calomondin will not grow to such a size, so dwarf citrofortunella grow more often on the windowsills. There are also differences in life expectancy. In a pot, it is limited at best to four years, in greenhouses a little longer, in the open field, long-livers records are 20 years or more.

CALAMONDIN: HOME CARE

Calamondin variegata▲

Calamondin flowers light and moisture.

Lighting

Calamondin loves bright light, but not midday sun. With an excess of light, the leaves turn pale or discolor, with a lack, they increase in size, partially fall off. Particularly demanding on light variegated varieties.
At home, window sills oriented to the south - east are assigned to calamondin. Glasses are wiped more often so that light penetrates better. In the autumn-winter period, they are additionally highlighted. The total daylight hours should be 12 hours. But this does not guarantee success either. The best care option is to provide Calamondin with a dormant period (see below).
In the summer, Citrofortunella is best taken out onto a terrace or balcony, accustoming it to the sun gradually. In the garden, it is advisable for her to take a semi-shady place, and shade the pot so as not to burn the roots with overheating walls of the vessel. Install the plant in a place protected from the wind.
In the autumn, after returning to the room, the tree is under serious stress and can shed its leaves, this must be taken into account and moved in advance so that there is no sharp contrast in the conditions of detention.
In a subtropical climate, the plant stays within practically unchanged light and temperature ranges throughout the year. At home, it needs the same stability. In a temperate climate, the grower needs to try hard for this.

Temperature

Calamondin is considered the most persistent citrus, but this does not make home care easy. Withstanding minus temperatures of 6 °, for growth and life, the minimum for the Golden Orange should be +12 °. For active vegetation, temperature indicators should be between +18 ° and +27 °.

Rest period

Rest period is an important step in home care. Calamondin without it weakens and dies. Winter rest is necessary for the plant, because:
• it is difficult to provide full daylight hours from November to the end of February, even resorting to additional illumination, and the plant cannot fully vegetate, grow, bloom, form fruits;
• most indoor calamondins are obtained by grafting on poncirus three-leaf, which tends to stop sap flow and shed leaves during this period. Therefore, the scion-citrofortunella at this time does not receive nutrients from the soil. The advantage of such a vaccination is the increased resistance of calamondin, including to cold.
The necessary care at home during the rest period is as follows. Calamondin is kept in a well-lit room (up to 12 hours a day) at a temperature of +4 to +12°C. Watering is reduced, usually to 1-2 times a month. If you leave citrofortunella at normal room temperature, it will not go into a dormant state and will wither due to lack of light, a mismatch in humidity and temperature. The one who creates optimal living conditions for the plant in the autumn-winter period expects continuous flowering and fruiting, because five months or more pass from the formation of the ovary to ripening, and calamondin can simultaneously bloom and bear fruit.

educ dry, especially hot, air. For this reason, it is not advisable to place it near a hot battery, or it is necessary to isolate the citrus from it with a screen. Insufficient watering or poor drainage can cause leaves to curl and fall off, while excessive moisture and overcooling of the substrate often lead to root rot and plant death. Therefore, citrofortunella is watered under the root after the earthen lump dries up (upper 2-3 cm of soil), preventing it from drying out (the roots must be in a moist substrate). With careful care, the need for watering is determined by the weight of the pot. Excess water that has escaped into the pan must be drained fifteen minutes after watering. Watering is considered the best method of immersing the pot in water. They do the same if calamondin grows in a plastic pot, which is located in a beautiful planter. For watering, the pot is removed, immersed almost completely in water, for example, in a basin, and kept until the soil is completely moistened through the holes in its bottom. After they get it. When excess water drains, the pot is returned to the pots.
The hotter the ambient temperature, the more often calamondin is watered. The temperature of air, soil and water for irrigation should be as equal as possible. For watering and spraying use only soft, settled water.
In the heat of summer, the tree is regularly sprayed with a spray bottle, wetting the leaves well from the underside. The required air humidity is about 70%. In winter, spraying is carried out only if the air in the room is very dry. Excessive moisture can damage the plant, as it is a favorable environment for the growth of mold - a fungal disease. With its symptoms, the leaves are thoroughly washed and treated with a fungicide, and the conditions of detention are normalized.

Feeding calamondin at home

Citrofortunella grows intensively, consuming a large amount of nutrients. Therefore, home care necessarily requires regular fertilization. With their shortage, leaves and fruits fall. During the period of active growth, complex fertilizers for citrus fruits are applied once a week. It is useful to carry out foliar top dressing. In winter, plants are fed once a month.
It is necessary to strictly observe the dosages recommended by the manufacturer, since an excess of nutrients is no less harmful to plants than their deficiency. For this reason, Citrofortunella can be transplanted more often into a new pot with the addition of fresh soil. This reduces the frequency of feeding.

KUMQUAT. GROWING IN HOME

CALAMONDIN. PRUNING

'Golden Orange' tolerates pruning and branches well after pruning. A beautiful tree is formed with a compact, dense crown and a trunk 20-25 cm high in low varieties. You can form a plant in the form of a bush.
The main pruning is carried out in early spring, at the same time as transplanting. At the same time, thickening, brown and old branches are cut out. A pruned shoot will set fruit only the next year. In summer, long branches are shortened by cutting with garden shears over the internode.

CALAMONDIN. TRANSFER

With proper care, calamodin at home gives up to 10 cm of growth in a pot and up to 30 cm in a large container. At the same time, trees no more than 25 cm high begin to bloom and bear fruit. A fast-growing plant requires frequent transplantation, usually annual. Large calamondins are transplanted every 2-4 years, and the topsoil is changed annually. The root system of citrofortunella is well developed, it needs a large pot. The minimum ratio of tree to pot height is 2:1.
The best time for transplantation is the end of winter - the beginning of spring. Do not replant a flowering or fruiting plant, this can lead to abscission of both flowers and fruits.
In the open field, calamondins grow on almost any fertile soil - loamy, calcareous, sandy. In the limited space of the container, in order to achieve the decorative qualities of calamondin, care must be taken about the soil. For planting, a substrate is prepared from leafy, soddy soil and sand, or a mixture of peat soil and sand is used in a ratio of 9:one. The mixture should have a slightly acidic or neutral reaction (pH 5.5-6.5). A special soil for citrus fruits is suitable, adjusted if necessary.
Plants are carefully removed from the pot, the roots carefully examined, they should be white and clean. Dark, rotten and damaged cut out. If the roots are healthy, the tree is moved to a new container, trying not to damage the earthen ball, and fresh soil is carefully added, leaving the root neck at the same level. It is impossible to clean the soil from the roots during transplantation, because a fungus lives in it, replacing small roots and supplying nutrients to the plant. By removing the soil, you will remove these "roots" of Calamondin and the plant will take root for a long time.
After transplantation, Citrofortunella is not fed until the roots occupy a new volume of the pot.

CALAMONDIN. REPRODUCTION

Since even proper care at home does not ensure a long life of calamondin, the plant must be propagated periodically. It is better to do this by cuttings or grafting.
Cuttings are carried out in early summer. Adult and healthy trees are used as queen cells. Immediately after flowering, cuttings about 10 cm long with 2-3 buds are cut and kept in a heteroauxin solution for 10 hours.
Planted in a loose disinfected substrate, in moss, peat or sand and placed in a greenhouse or a special greenhouse with bottom heating. Maintain temperature around +25°C and high humidity.
Calamondin is difficult to root, so you need to be prepared for the fact that a significant part of the cuttings will die.
When young leaves appear, the plants are accustomed to fresh air, raising the shelter for a while. Remove it after the seedlings are strong enough.
Calamondin can be grafted onto any citrus fruits grown from seeds. The stalk blooms quickly. Fruiting occurs in the second year.
Calamondin, grown from seeds, develops very slowly and does not inherit the characteristics of the mother. It is very difficult to wait for its fruiting at home, so a cutting taken from a varietal plant is grafted onto it.

WHY CALAMONDIN LEAVES FALL?

The first sign of improper care of calamondin at home is leaf fall. This phenomenon can be caused by several reasons, for example:
• Not observing the temperature regime
• Drafts and/or cold soil
• Too much or too little light
• Sudden changes in growing conditions
• Nutrient deficiencies
• Over- or under-watering
• Low air humidity
• Fungal root diseases
• What to do1 do calamondin leaves fall, and even ovaries and fruits? It is necessary to determine exactly which of the listed causes causes leaf fall and eliminate it.
If the care is correct, and calamondin drops leaves daily, it is treated with Epin's solution and placed in a plastic bag (but not in the sun). Spray regularly to keep the humidity high. Be sure to ventilate once a day. The package is removed only after the plant has fully recovered.
Picking off all flowers, ovaries and fruits will also help calamondin recover from stress faster and speed up the recovery process. After recovery, it will give a new growth and again be covered with leaves and flowers.
Sometimes in Calamondin, with a good vernal appearance, only some of the ovaries fall off. It's not worth worrying. The plant thus itself regulates the required number of fruits that can ripen, and reduces them to the optimal number.

CALAMONDIN. PESTS

Whiteflies, aphids , mites, mealybugs, thrips, scale insects are dangerous for Citrofortunella. With strong reproduction, they weaken the plant, and can cause not only leaf fall, but also the death of the plant. Prevention is rubbing the leaves and maintaining the proper level of air humidity, dryness is dangerous as well as excessive humidity.
Dark waxy plaques are clearly visible on leaves and shoots in case of damage by scabies. To combat this pest, plants are treated with insecticidal preparations, such as deciss or karbofos.
Spider mite breeds at low air humidity and can quickly destroy even an adult plant. The leaves become lethargic, turn yellow and fall off. You can fight the invasion of ticks with the help of acaricides.
If the plant to be treated needs to be moved to another location, all operations are carried out in the evening. Before moving the pot, note which side it is turned towards the light. The next morning, citrofortunella is returned to its permanent place.

HOME CARE

Calamondin after purchase. Abroad, calamondins, strewn with golden orange or green fruits, are actively on sale closer to European Christmas or Chinese New Year. Like other purchased potted plants, after the loss of decorativeness, calamondin is thrown away like a wilted bouquet or a Christmas tree. This culture can also be adopted by us, since it is sometimes difficult to ensure the further life of citrus. But if you want to save and take care of Citrofortunella, after the purchase, you need to help the plant survive the stress that it experiences after changing the conditions of detention. Let it come to its senses after intensive exposure to drugs and fertilizers in commercial greenhouses. In this case, immediately after purchase:
• Transplant the plant into a new larger pot with nutrient soil by careful transshipment, as the old one is usually completely filled with roots that dry quickly in such conditions.
• If damaged roots are visible during transplantation, they are removed.
• Quarantine the plant separately from others in the house for 10 days.
• When pests are found, spray the tree with insecticidal preparations.
• When dropping leaves, treat with Epin, pick off flowers and ovaries.

►If properly cared for, calamondin blooms every year in early spring, filling the whole house with a unique fragrance. For better fruit set, artificial pollination is carried out, transferring pollen with a soft brush. The fruits ripen from the end of September. Since the flowers do not bloom at the same time, the fruiting period stretches for several months. In places of natural growth, calamondin exhibits the properties of a remontant plant and bears fruit throughout the year. At home, on the contrary, with a lack of light and heat, the fruits may not ripen even in a season and remain on the tree until next year.

►Plants, especially flowering plants, must not be moved or rearranged. If home care requires it, for example, spraying, watering, then a mark is made on the pot and after the procedures, focusing on it, the pot is returned to its place.


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