How to grow an elm tree


A Gardener's Guide on How to Grow an Elm Tree Easily

The chance to grow a tree from a seed or sapling stage and watch it evolve into a huge, immense living structure, is a chance every gardener or landscaper or even a homeowner should undertake. Scroll below to learn how to grow a magnificent elm in your backyard.

The shadow cast by a noble and regal elm tree is vast and enveloping. Elm trees are one of the oldest and tallest tree species around, since their origin in the Miocene period, 40 million years ago. They belong to the Ulmaceae family of trees and at least 30 members or types of elms belong to this family. Their key characteristic is their incredible height, large tree canopy or coverage and their ease of growth. Growing such a magnificent flora specimen in your backyard is not as difficult as you think, provided you have enough space for such a giant tree. The elm tree is a very hardy and durable species, with an average life span of 30-50 years. Read on to learn how to grow your own elm tree, that will stand the test of time and last for generations.

Starting Steps

The Elm tree as a species, is highly susceptible to a fungal disease, known as DED or Dutch elm disease. In fact most of America’s elm population is wiped out due to this devastating disease. So pick a cultivar like Valley Forge or lacebark elm, which are resistant to the impact of DED and hence will grow fully and live a long life.

You can start from seeds or from young saplings. The elm tree is a very hardy species and either starting point, seed or saplings, is sure to grow into a tall, healthy tree. Saplings can be obtained from a nursery and must be transported with root ball intact. You can obtain seeds from an aged elm, which should be at least 15 years old. The seeds or samaras have slight wings and are scattered by the wind. Usually seeds fall within 300 feet of the parent elm. Once you have collected the seeds, air-dry them for 1-2 days, so that they germinate. Store the seeds in a moist and damp sealed container and place the container in a low-light or dark area, which is low in temperature. Seeds collected in the spring season will germinate quickly within the same season.

Pre-planting Points of Care

As a species, the elm tree is tall. The American elm alone reaches a height of 35 m. And at the sapling stage, the tree may look short but spindly but as they grow, they develop a magnificent bush and leaf coverage, so the tree will soon cast a mighty shadow. To prevent your tree from growing into fences and utility lines or into houses, plant elms at a distance of 5 meters from nearby houses. Do not plant them under or near any utility lines.

Elms are tough trees and soil-wise, they need well-drained, rich, loamy or clay soils. They are also highly tolerant of soil acidity levels, within the range of pH 5.5 to 8.0. Elm trees need a lot of sunlight to grow, so plant the seeds or saplings in a bright spot, which receives a lot of natural light. If you are planting saplings, check their leaves and roots for signs of disease. They should be at least 3-4 feet tall.

Planting Steps

To plant the elm seed or sapling, you need to:

  • Dig a shallow, tapering hole. The hole’s width should be 3-4 inches wider than that of its container’s width. Place the root ball or the germinated seed’s roots in the hole and cover the hole loosely with native soil.
  • Water the roots of the plant and make sure the soil settles. If the soil dries up quickly, water the roots again. Do not keep watering the soil, the roots may rot.
  • You should add mulch around the tree’s roots without touching the trunk of the sapling. The young tree is vulnerable to pests like rats, squirrels and rabbits, so use a rodent guard to protect it.
  • For the elm tree, the soil must be fertilized below the grass root level, for the tree to absorb the nutrients. So use fertilizer spikes or stakes to fertilize the elm tree but do not use any fertilizer. There are specifically designed fertilizers, tailored to suit the growth needs of elm trees.

After Planting Care

Once your elm is planted, to keep it growing tall, the following steps should be carried out:

  • Once or twice a year, apply fertilizer to your elm. But use elm-specific fertilizer only.
  • When watering an elm, water the soil at the outermost extent of the tree’s crown. Do not sprinkle water on the trunk or bark.
  • If you are mowing your lawn, do not mow the grass near the tree. You may damage the tree’s long and deep roots with the mower.
  • Do not use a sprinkler system to water an elm. You need to soak the soil with a hose.
  • You need to prune and trim your elm but pruning should be done at the right time, as it leaves the tree vulnerable to diseases. Never prune the elm tree during the fall and between April to late July. Instead prune your elm in early spring, so new growth takes place. Prune at the branch node, where the branches of a tree grow out from.
  • Examine the elm’s leaves from time to time. Brown, wilted leaves means insufficient water. White spots or black spots or sudden and unwanted defoliation means fungal infections. Aphids and scale insects attack the leaves and bark of the elm tree.
  • If the tree dies or an elm tree in the neighborhood is dead, you must dispose of the dead tree immediately. A dead tree is a breeding ground for the DED fungus. Remove major limbs, cut the tree down and either burn it or bury it immediately.

Elm trees are great natural recyclers. They can grow in moderate soil conditions but through their presence, the soil around them is enhanced in terms of richness. So growing an elm tree can increase the nutrient content of the soil and hence encourage other plants to grow better and live longer. Plus the impressive landscaping beauty provided by elm trees makes it a classic feature for most statuesque homes.

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Midwest Gardening — Trees Index

American Elm is also known as White Elm, Water Elm, Soft Elm, Gray Elm, American Weeping Elm, Swamp Elm or Florida Elm

Ulmus americana American Elm

  • Zones: 2-9

  • Sun, tolerates light shade

  • Height:  80-100’

  • Spread:  60-120’

  • Shape:  Broad to upright vase shaped crown

  • Growth Rate:  Fast when young, moderate as it matures

  • Soil Preference:  Tolerant of clay, loam or sand, preferring alkaline pH

  • Moisture:  Average moisture needs, high drought tolerance

  • Foliage:  Dark green, serrated

  • Blooms:  Inconspicuous small green flowers in early spring

  • Fruit:  Flat round green seed pods, turning papery brown

 

 

American Elm may once have been the most widely used landscape and street tree in North America before Dutch Elm disease devastated its’ population.   Although sometimes difficult to find, disease resistant specimens are available through cloning and hybridizing.  The easy to grow, very hardy and tolerant tree will live for 300 years or more.  American Elm is a highly desirable shade tree with moderately dense foliage and a symmetrical crown in a broad or upright vase shape.  When used as a street tree, shallow roots may displace sidewalks.  It grows quickly when young, and at a more moderate rate as it matures.  As with most fast growing trees, the American Elm’s wood is weak and susceptible to breakage.  Pruning when young will help to develop a stronger structure.    Once a strong crotch has developed, prune off all branches below the crotch.  Also prune off all branches at any level that grows at a wide angle, preserving only upright growing branches.  If pruned diligently in the first ten years, a strong structure and vase shape should maintain itself.  The trunk will naturally divide into several large ascending limbs, producing gracefully drooping branchlets.

The American Elm is very well suited to cold climates, and is very tolerant of difficult conditions including drought, compacted soil, poor drainage and air pollution, and has a good tolerance to soil salt.  It does prefer full sun in rich well drained soil, and will not grow as well in sand and drought or wet soil.  The health of an American Elm should be consistently monitored for signs of disease.  In addition to Dutch Elm disease, the elm may be afflicted with pests including bark beetles, gypsy moth, elm borer, mites and scales. Leaf beetles my consume large quantities of foliage, but will not necessarily damage the tree itself.  Elm saplings are also one of deer’s favorite foods, so protect young elm trees or use a repellant.  Maintaining an elm’s good health is essential.  Elms transplant and establish fairly easily, ideally plant in rich soil with a pH of 6 or 7, full sun, and regularly water deeply until well established.  Sprinkle a granular fertilizer in the root zone each fall, using a ratio of 5-10-5 or 5-10-10.   Use a bark mulch (wood chip mulches absorb soil nitrogen) and do not smother the base of the trunk with deep mulch.

Insignificant flowers appear in early spring just before the leaves open.  Small 1/2-1” round green seed pods follow, maturing quickly and eventually the wafer like pod turns dry brown.  Seeds do not develop until the tree is at least 15 years old.  Birds and wildlife enjoy the seeds, but large amounts are sometimes produced causing a mess on flat hard surfaces.  Leaves turn a pleasant yellow in autumn.

 

Ulmus americana ‘Valley Forge’

  • Zones: 5-7, perhaps zone 4

  • Sun, tolerates light shade

  • Height:  60-80’, can reach up to 110’

  • Spread:  One-half to two-thirds the height

  • Shape:  Classic American Elm form, broadly vase shaped

  • Growth Rate:  Fast

  • Soil Preference:  Adaptable to poor soil conditions and tolerates road salt.

  • Moisture:  Average moisture needs, with high drought tolerance

  • Foliage:  Full dense canopy with lustrous dark green leaves, turning yellow in fall

  • Blooms:  Inconspicuous small green flowers in early spring

  • Fruit:  Flat round green seed pods, turning papery brown

‘Valley Forge’ is a pure ‘American Elm’ cultivar developed from seedling and shows high resistance to Dutch Elm disease, matching even the Asian elm to resistance.  Along with ‘New Harmony’, they are the first commercially available Dutch Elm disease tolerant American elm trees, although neither is immune and may sometimes be difficult to find at retail nurseries.  Several mail order nurseries have them available.  These trees are wonderful selections for the home landscape, as they are also very tolerant of poor soil conditions, drought and air pollution.  ‘Valley Forge’ like the ‘American Elm’, is very adaptable to adverse climate conditions that can sometimes be fatal to oak, maple and other popular trees.   Tolerance to road deicing salt makes this tree an excellent candidate for street and boulevard trees, however shallow roots may displace sidewalks. 

‘Valley Forge’ grows quickly, to 26’ and a 30’ crown spread in twelve years.  Once established, growth rate can be as much as 3 feet per year.  The ‘American Elm’ form is preserved in this cultivar with a broad vase shape and upright branches giving way to arching branchlets.  As with the ‘American Elm’, crotch and structure weakness can be strengthened with pruning when young.  Once a strong crotch has developed, prune off all branches below the crotch.  Also prune off all branches at any level that grows at a wide angle, preserving only upright growing branches.  If pruned diligently in the first ten years, a strong structure and vase shape should maintain itself.

Maintaining an elm’s good health is essential.  Elms transplant and establish fairly easily, ideally plant in rich soil with a pH of 6 or 7, full sun, and regularly water deeply until well established.   Sprinkle a granular fertilizer in the root zone each fall, using a ratio of 5-10-5 or 5-10-10.  Use a bark mulch (wood chip mulches absorb soil nitrogen) and do not smother the base of the trunk with deep mulch   Elm saplings are also one of deer’s favorite foods, so protect young elm trees or use a repellant.

Ulmus american ‘New Harmony’

  • Zones: 4b-7, perhaps zone 4a

  • Sun, tolerates light shade

  • Height:  68’

  • Spread:  72’

  • Shape:  Broadly V-shaped

  • Growth Rate:  Fast

  • Soil Preference:  Adaptable to poor soil conditions and tolerates road salt.

  • Moisture:  Average moisture needs, high drought tolerance

  • Foliage:  Dark glossy green, turning yellow in fall

  • Blooms:  Inconspicuous small green flowers in early spring

  • Fruit:  Flat round green seed pods, turning papery brown

‘New Harmony’ is a pure ‘American Elm’ cultivar developed from seedling and shows nearly as high a resistance to Dutch Elm disease as ‘Valley Forge’, matching even the Asian elm to resistance.   Along with ‘Valley Forge’, they are the first commercially available Dutch Elm disease tolerant’ American Elm’ trees, although neither is immune and may sometimes be difficult to find at retail nurseries.    Several mail order nurseries have them available.  These trees are wonderful selections for the home landscape, as they are also very tolerant of poor soil conditions, drought and air pollution.    Tolerance to road deicing salt makes this tree an excellent candidate for street and boulevard trees, however shallow roots may displace sidewalks. 

The trees grows quickly, once established will grow as much as 3 feet per year.  The crown is broadly V-shaped with limb branches producing slender, somewhat drooping branches.  As with the ‘American Elm’, crotch and structure weakness can be strengthened with pruning when young.  Once a strong crotch has developed, prune off all branches below the crotch.  Also prune off all branches at any level that grows at a wide angle, preserving only upright growing branches.   If pruned diligently in the first ten years, a strong structure and vase shape should maintain itself.

Maintaining an elm’s good health is essential.  Elms transplant and establish fairly easily, ideally plant in rich soil with a pH of 6 or 7, full sun, and regularly water deeply until well established.  Sprinkle a granular fertilizer in the root zone each fall, using a ratio of 5-10-5 or 5-10-10.  Use a bark mulch (wood chip mulches absorb soil nitrogen) and do not smother the base of the trunk with deep mulch.  Elm saplings are also one of deer’s favorite foods, so protect young elm trees or use a repellant.

Ulmus americana ‘Princeton’

  • Zones: 3-9

  • Sun, tolerates light shade

  • Height:  60-100’’

  • Spread:  40-60’

  • Shape:  Vase shaped

  • Growth Rate:  Fast

  • Soil Preference:  Adaptable to poor soil conditions and tolerates road salt.

  • Moisture:  Average moisture needs, high drought tolerance

  • Foliage:  Dark green large leathery leaves, turning yellow in fall

  • Blooms:  Inconspicuous small green flowers in early spring

  • Fruit:  Flat round green seed pods, turning papery brown

 

This 80 year old cultivar has thrived in the streets of New Jersey and has an extremely wide range of habitat, growing easily throughout Eastern and Central North America.  Being very adaptable, it will also do well to the west coast and in the Southwest.  ‘Princeton’s’ disease tolerance is comparable to ‘Valley Forge’, showing moderate to high resistance to Dutch Elm disease as well as elm leaf beetle.  A true American Elm, ‘Princeton’ is produced from cuttings to preserve its’ classic attributes.  It’s crown exhibits the classic vase shape, is dense and symmetrical with upright branches.

Like the other American elms, ‘Princeton’ is tolerant of road salt and urban conditions, serving well as a shade tree or boulevard tree.   It is one of the most tolerant and adaptable of the American elms, growing well in frigid zone 3 and has proven to also do well as far north as zone 2, as well as dry regions to zone 9 and wet regions.  Harsh pollution does not bother ‘Princeton’ other than sulfur dioxide pollution, making it an excellent choice in cities.  A ‘Princeton’ elm tree will live well over 150 years.  As with the American elms above, monitor branching habit and prune accordingly when young to promote strong crotch and structure, feed and mulch to maintain health as also noted above.

Ulmus americana ‘Jefferson’

The ‘Jefferson’ elm is a newer introduction, 2005, which is not yet available to the public but may be by 2009 or 2010.  ‘Jefferson’ grows in the classic American elm vase shape reaching nearly 70’ tall.  Broad U-shaped branch unions differ from the American elm, and the leaves turn dark green earlier in spring and stay dark through fall.  Pollution tolerance makes it a good street tree and it is very adaptable.   It is still being tested and has shown outstanding resistance to Dutch Elm Disease.  ‘Jefferson’ elm is hardy in zones 5-7.  More information will be added as it is available.

TreesSharon Dwyer

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Elm tree: description, planting and care

Contents

  • Variety of tree
  • Planting and care
  • Properties of elm

Elm tree or elm refers to deciduous plants that are rich in European countries, Scandinavia and Vladikavkaz. In our latitudes, there is a variety of elm species, which fills mixed forests, as well as coastal zones of the Sverdlovsk, Ural and Chelyabinsk regions. Among the varieties, the most popular is the common elm, or it is also called the smooth elm, according to Latin.

Wood similar to oak, powerful, tall and centuries old. Its height is determined by two or three meters, and the girth of a smooth and straight trunk is about one and a half to two meters. The smooth elm retains a smooth bark for many years, but in old age or due to diseases, the bark of the tree exfoliating with furrows and cracks becomes rich brown. The soil in which the elm thrives, as for many plants, should be fertile and moist, but not alkaline. In the event of floods or drought, the tree easily retains its vital activity. Every year, young shoots reach half a meter in length and twenty centimeters in width and have a smooth, thin, beige-colored structure, with fluffing of the upper section.

Smooth elm.

In early spring, in March, the mature plant begins the flowering phase, which lasts for a month. The appearance of green leaves, which differ in significant size and oblong, with a pointed end, shape (reminiscent of raspberry leaves), occurs after flowering. Leaves grow quickly, have short petioles, veins and hairs on the underside. The color of elm leaves is green, dark above, and lettuce below. The color change occurs in autumn, as the anthocyanins contained in the plant determine the tint pattern. According to the season, they turn yellow, redden, and also acquire orange tones.

During flowering, bisexual flowers appear on leaf axils. They have a single-celled ovary, which is rewarded with one seed bud, bifurcated in the form of two stigmas. Thus, bunches of small flowers are formed in the form of a bell-shaped inflorescence of pink color and emerging purple stamens. Many insects feast on elm nectar.

After flowering, on the stalks, flat fruits appear, which are represented by a round membranous structure, with a seed nut inside. Fruit ripening depends on the area in which the smooth ligature grows. If the tree grows in the southern regions and is at least seven years old, then the fruits are already ripe at the beginning of summer, in the northern regions, they ripen in the middle or end of the summer season after twenty years of elm life. Reproduction occurs by windy spreading of seeds, as well as root sprouts. The root system of the elm takes root in the depth of the soil if it is not sufficiently fed with moisture. In more moisture-resistant terrain, the root grows superficially to the sides.

Strong frosts and wind, elms are not afraid, as the bark and powerful stem parts are frost-resistant, only young shoots of the tree can suffer slightly. The sun's rays, like all plants, smooth elm loves and in shading conditions, its development is not disturbed. Shade from other plants can somewhat slow down its growth, flowering and fruiting.

Variety of tree

Twenty meters tall, with a lush green crown, a tree that loves the sun very much is called Hornbeam elm. Elm leaves have a dark green (bottle) color and an oblong, serrated smooth surface. The trunk is not smooth, and cork growths are noted on the branches. It blooms with a reddish inflorescence for a rather long time, after which it overgrows with leaves that have a juicy yellow color in autumn. The fruiting lionfish reaches twenty millimeters. This view decorates the park area with a dense plant wall.

Hornbeam Elm.

Lowered, dense crown of leathery leaves, has Dense Elm . Elm grows up to thirty meters even in drought conditions and has a dark furrowed bark.

Coniferous and deciduous forests, where there is a lot of shade, complemented by Lobe Elm , which withstands frosts down to minus thirty degrees.

Wild elm, which is observed in Siberia, Kazakhstan and East Asia, is called Euonymus or Pinnate Elm, Karagach . The scorching sun in these areas does not prevent the tree from developing on sandy and stony soil, where the salinity is increased. A tree of this kind is the size of a five-story building. The leaves are pinnate, smooth, small and collected in openwork bunches, and the bending branches are thin. Due to the rare crown, there is little shade from the elm, but planting an ornamental tree in the squares and parks of the city, with appropriate care, pruning, can help enrich the area with oxygen and create a recreation area in the summer.

Karagach.

Rounded crown of small leaves and small height, possesses Squat elm . In urban conditions of the central part of Russia, it is possible to grow this tree, but it is difficult, since the elm is not very winter-hardy and loves fertile soil with an abundance of moisture.

Of the elm variety, also note such as:

  • Japanese elm or birch bark;
  • Mountain or rough elm;
  • Androsov Elm;
  • English Elm.

Trees differ in size, flowering period, shape and structure of leaves, flowers, stem bark, fruiting cycle, and resistance to soil and weather conditions.

The elm species described can help in choosing a plant to plant for ornamental purposes.

Planting and care

Since elm is propagated by seeds in the wild, elm can also be grown at home. In this process, it is necessary to control the process of seed maturation. If the fruit maturity of the tree is early, then the tree can be propagated immediately. For such a process, you need to choose a place of fertile soil without significant shading and deepen the seeds. Sow preferably not deep to facilitate the emergence of sprouts. Care after sowing consists in abundant watering. If the seeds are immature or improperly stored before planting, then their germination does not occur. From bad weather or the scorching sun, the planted seeds can be covered with agrofabric or film.

The description of the planting of the purchased seedling does not differ from the procedure for growing ornamental or fruit trees. In a half-meter hole of moistened and fertilized soil, you need to place an elm seedling to strengthen the rhizome. The sun should fall on a young tree, but not scorching. From drought, elm can also die, so care at first should be aimed at constantly moistening the soil. The growth of properly planted seeds and seedlings will not be long in coming. In some cases, one has to observe the cultivation of elms from their own sprouts. In this situation, the plant independently copes with the desire to live and it does not need special care.

If the seeds are collected late, they can be stored for about two years under sealed conditions.

The main rule for planting elm is the choice of location, since the shallow root system, as well as the lush shading crown, can damage ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops in the neighborhood.

Properties of elm

If we compare elm with oak, they have a lot of similarities. Both trees are age-old giants, with powerful wood and useful properties. Raw elm is also used for industrial and medicinal purposes. Elm wood is quite strong, flexible and moisture resistant, so it is well suited for the manufacture of wooden products: vehicles, furniture, kitchen utensils, fences, garden tools, etc.

In medicine, due to the healing composition of leaves and bark, elm is successful in the treatment of many diseases. The content of polysaccharides, fiber, protein, oils, catechins, flavonoids, steroids, carboxylic acids and tannins in the vegetation of the tree endows the tree with medicinal properties:

  • Antibacterial;
  • Diuretic;
  • Anti-inflammatory;
  • Antipyretic;
  • Enveloping.

Elm bark infusions are used for cystitis, urethritis, intestinal dysfunction, skin lesions and mucous inflammations of the oral cavity.

For harvesting elm bark, it is necessary to cut several layers from the trunk or branches of the tree in the spring season. It is desirable to cover the place of the cut with garden pitch so that disease and parasites do not join the tree. The bark can be washed and put to dry in a dry, ventilated area. Leaves are best harvested after their maturity, that is, young foliage does not have time to accumulate nutrients. Dry raw material for medicinal use, retains healing properties for up to two years.

Preparing an infusion of elm bark comes down to grinding it and infusing it in a water bath, as described:

  • Gargle for sore throats, gingivitis, as well as compresses and lotions for skin pathologies — pour twenty-five grams of crushed elm bark with half a liter of boiling water and leave for half an hour;
  • In case of inflammation of the joints, intestinal dysfunction - ten grams of crushed bark brew with a glass of boiling water for fifteen minutes and in a warm, filtered form, take one third of the glass during the day before meals, three times;
  • In case of oncological pathology - pour fifteen grams of powder from the bark with a glass of boiling water and hold the infusion in a water bath for another ten minutes. After that, the infusion should brew and cool for an hour. The resulting amount is supplemented with warm boiled water to an amount of two hundred milliliters. Infusion take sixty grams before meals.

All plants are prone to disease, so smooth elm is no exception. Its main enemy is the Dutch fungus, which infects the tree with insects. The disease spreads under the bark of the elm and withers it from the inside. In appearance of a mature elm, this is not immediately visible, but during the period of flowering and landscaping, dead wood is observed, that is, the presence of dry branches with sparse or no vegetation at all. Unfortunately, the cardinal treatment of the Dutch disease will be the felling of the tree, since over time, it will die anyway.

tree description, planting and care, growing from seeds

Spectacular elm tree is part of the Elm family, popularly called elm, or elm. This plant can often be found in forest plantings, in parks and in the garden. The tree has a powerful trunk and spreading crown, which can become not only an excellent decoration for various territories, but they also serve as a kind of barrier that traps dirt and dust.

Contents

  • 9 Landscaping applications
  • Features of Elm

    Most experts consider the elm (ulmus laevis) to be as powerful and majestic as the oak. Such a relic breed is a long-liver, its life expectancy is several hundred years. Karagach is quite widely found in Europe and North America. On the territory of Russia, this plant is represented in several subspecies.

    Elm is grown both in mixed plantings and singly. It prefers to grow in nutritious soil, however this tree also thrives quite well in poor soil. With a lack of sunlight, such a plant begins to actively reach up. Moreover, elm is a fast-growing plant. In one year, the increase in height is approximately half a meter, while the girth of the trunk increases to 30 cm.

    The height of an adult tree can reach up to 40 m, but there are varieties that look very similar to shrubs. In a young plant, the bark is pale brown and smooth (without roughness). Over the years, its surface is covered with vertical grooves. A strong and well-developed system of elm roots goes into the deep layers of the soil: with a girth of the trunk of 150 cm to a depth of 30 m. However, there are such varieties whose root system grows in breadth, while it covers large areas.

    The shape of the sheet plates is elongated-oval, while their edge is serrated. Their size is 4–20 cm. The foliage is short-leaved, it is placed alternately on the branches. With the onset of the autumn months, the leaves change their color from green to brown-red. They fall off pretty quickly.

    Elm flowers in early spring before the leaves open. Yellow inflorescences are small. The seeds are small winged nuts. Their full ripening is observed at the end of May, after which the wind carries the seeds in different directions. In the presence of favorable conditions, the seedling may appear in just a few days, after the seed falls to the ground.

    Elm, or elm


    Watch this video on YouTube

    Elm species with photo

    Elm is the most widespread among all species of the Ilm family. It easily adapts to bad weather conditions and withstands frosts down to minus 28 degrees. The most popular are the following subspecies of elm:

    Smooth or common elm (Ulmus laevis)

    The height of such a tree can reach up to 25 m. The surface of the trunk is covered with dark brown bark with a clearly visible relief. Leaf blades are large. This variety differs from the rest in the color of the leaves: one surface is dark green, and the other is a lighter shade with slight pubescence. Inflorescences are painted in burgundy-violet color.

    Elm or Elm (Ulmus pumila)

    This low-growing tree has a height of about 15 m. Quite often it looks like a shrub. The species is most widely distributed in the Far East. Medium-sized leaf plates are painted in a greenish color. During flowering, the plant is decorated with small brown-yellow inflorescences.

    Scotch or mountain elm (Ulmus glabra)

    Prefers fertile soil. Most often, the plant can be found in mixed forests. Compared to other varieties, the bark of this elm is the smoothest. The height of the tree is about 40 m. The surface of the green large leaf plates is uneven.

    Rough elm and its weeping form 'Camperdownii'. Area, agricultural technology, diseases.


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    Distribution

    Elm is found naturally in Europe and the Scandinavian Peninsula. Temperature drops are not terrible for such a plant, but if the air temperature drops to minus 30 degrees and below, then freezing of young branches may occur. On the territory of Russia, elm is found in the Southern Urals, in Western Siberia, the Volga region, etc.

    Planting outdoors

    Planting

    Planting an elm outdoors is easy. To do this, you need dried seed material that has matured well. Seedlings will appear a few days after sowing. It should be remembered that the seeds lose their germination very quickly, so it is better not to delay sowing.

    Step-by-step instructions for sowing:

    1. Seed material is collected after the flowering of the elm is complete. Next, the seeds are placed in wet cotton wool or sown in a moistened substrate. Before this, it is recommended to treat the seeds with an antifungal drug.
    2. After a few days, the seeds are sown in a container filled with potting mix. Chernozem is best suited for sowing, as it will accelerate the growth of seedlings. You can also use leaf humus. Whatever substrate you choose, it should be moist and soft.
    3. Bury the seeds about 10–20 mm into the substrate. In this case, the distance between the holes should be approximately 25 centimeters. From above, the soil mixture is covered with a layer of dried grass, sphagnum moss or cotton wool. Moisturizing the substrate is carried out daily. After about a week and a half, a seedling should appear, after which you need to remove the covering material for good.

    Seedlings should be exposed to direct sunlight as often as possible. If there is no wind and precipitation outside, then it is recommended to take the container with seedlings to fresh air (in the garden or on the balcony). By the end of the first year of growth, the height of the seedling will be about 20 centimeters. Its planting in open ground can be carried out in the second year.

    Elm care

    For several years, while the plant is young, it must be protected from frost and strong winds. The plant needs shelter for the winter with a special covering material. Do not forget that the development of the root system is directly related to the nutritional value of the soil. In this regard, if the soil is poor, then regular fertilization will be required. And do not forget to systematically loosen the surface of the soil near the plant.

    During the year, the young tree grows quite quickly and reaches a height of about 0.4–0.5 m. The branches of the first and second years are not pruned, this is necessary for the correct formation of the crown. Cut off only dead or diseased branches. Crown pruning can be carried out during the growing period of the tree.

    Propagation methods

    Elm can be propagated by seed (detailed above), but cuttings can also be used. Harvesting of cuttings is carried out in late autumn. Treat it with a root stimulant. Put the cut in a container of water and wait for it to grow roots. Planting the cuttings in open ground is carried out when the first roots form in it. It is planted in a special fertile and loose soil.

    Diseases and pests

    The most common pests on the elm tree are scale insects, springtails and leaf beetles. You can understand that the plant is sick by the following signs: the appearance of growths on the surface of the bark and the drying of the crown. To get rid of pests and diseases, it is recommended to treat the tree with an insecticidal or fungicidal preparation, and a solution of copper sulfate is also often used.

    While the tree is young, it is much easier to cure it of various diseases. Old trees are extremely difficult to treat, fungal diseases are especially dangerous for them. In this regard, already during the planting of elm, it is recommended to use antifungal drugs.

    Uses and Meanings

    Elm fruits, bark and leaves are widely used in alternative medicine. However, before using elm-based products for the treatment of any disease, it is necessary to consult with your doctor. The fact is that such treatment has certain contraindications and unwanted side effects.

    A decoction of leaves and bark has a pronounced anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and wound healing effect. The extract is used in the treatment of diseases of the heart, thyroid gland, kidneys, blood vessels, etc.

    Decoction is used for throat diseases. For example, with angina, it is used for regular gargling. The leaves are used to make a tea that helps with constipation. Bark baths are recommended for kidney diseases and hemorrhoids. For rashes on the skin, tincture is used.

    Elm wood has excellent properties and therefore it is widely used in industrial production. Often, elm wood is used as an alternative, replacing more expensive tree species with it. The fact is that such wood has a texture that allows you to imitate valuable varieties, it has a rather light color. Elm is even liked by lovers of mahogany. Paintings are made from elm, as well as furniture for the home.

    Elm wood has a high density: approx. 600 kg/m 3 . Its cut has a spectacular texture, due to which it is widely used in carpentry. Such wood is resistant to decay, and it is also very difficult to saw or split it. Great for polishing.

    In ancient times, elm was also popular with carpenters. And its bark was used to make paint. Such a tree is often used to decorate city streets and parks.

    Edible plants. Elm


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    Landscape use

    The mighty elm has a lush, domed crown. Due to the fact that the foliage is very dense, it is able to protect residential areas from gas, dust and dirty air, trapping them. In addition, the elm looks very impressive and gives a thick shadow.

    Often, landscape designers create various figures from the crown of elm tree due to the fact that the plant has dense branches. A well-developed strong root system helps to strengthen the slopes of ravines, banks of rivers and lakes.

    Such a tree is often planted in the local area. It is used not only for decoration, but also to strengthen the soil. This allows you to protect the nutrient soil from slipping, blurring and weathering.

    When choosing an elm variety and a place to plant it, it is important to consider the size of a mature tree.


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