How to grow big banana trees
Plant Care & Growing Guide
Bring a tropical flair to your home with these easy-growing fruit plants
Vanessa Richins Myers
Vanessa Richins Myers
Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, writer, and educator with over 10 years of training and experience as a professional horticulturist and gardener. She has a Bachelor of Science degree in horticulture, with an emphasis in landscape design and urban horticulture. She volunteers as a community garden specialist.
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Updated on 08/21/22
Reviewed by Barbara Gillette
Barbara Gillette is a master gardener, herbalist, beekeeper, and journalist. She has 30 years of experience propagating and growing fruits, vegetables, herbs, and ornamentals.
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The Spruce / Phoebe Cheong
In This Article
Common Pests & Diseases
Frequently Asked Questions
There are dozens of species and varieties of banana and plantain trees (Musa spp. ). While these tropical fruiting plants, including the banana plant, are commonly referred to as trees, they’re technically huge herbaceous plants, meaning they don’t have a woody stem. Instead, they have fleshy, upright stalks from which large, oblong, bright green leaves grow. Showy flowers appear typically in the spring, giving way to the fleshy, elongated, green or yellow fruit.
No matter the size of your yard or home, there is a banana tree to fit. Plus, banana trees can make good indoor plants with enough light, though they typically don't bear fruit indoors. Banana trees generally have a fast growth rate and should be planted in the spring.
|Common Names||Banana tree, plantain tree|
|Botanical Name||Musa spp.|
|Plant Type||Herbaceous, perennial|
|Mature Size||2–30 ft. tall, 1–15 ft. wide (varies widely by species)|
|Soil Type||Loamy, well-drained|
|Flower Color||White, purple, orange|
|Hardiness Zones||9–11 (USDA)|
|Native Area||Asia, Africa, Australia|
Watch Now: How to Grow and Care for a Banana Tree Plant
Banana Tree Care
While most species of banana trees grow best in warm climates, there also are somewhat cold-hardy banana trees. If you're planting the banana tree outdoors, choosing the right planting site is key to making care easy. Grow this plant in a location where it will be sheltered from strong winds, as it is very susceptible to damaged leaves. Prepare your planting site by mixing some compost into the soil. And make sure you have enough space for the height and spread of your particular species.
During the growing season (spring to fall), banana trees are water hogs. You might have to water daily, especially during hot weather, to maintain adequate soil moisture. The plants also will need regular fertilization throughout the growing season. Bananas form in the late summer in a cluster called a hand. Once the fruit is green but plumped up, it can be cut off the stalk and placed in a cool, dry space to finish ripening.
The Spruce / Phoebe Cheong
The Spruce / Phoebe Cheong
The Spruce / Phoebe Cheong
Most types of banana plants prefer to grow in full sun, meaning at least six hours of direct sunlight on most days. However, some varieties can scorch easily and will do better in partial shade.
These plants love organically rich, deep soil with good drainage and a slightly acidic soil pH. They typically have poor tolerance for salt in the soil.
Banana trees are tropical and originate in rainforests, so they need a lot of water and plenty of moisture in the air. They do best when planted in groups fairly close together, as this helps to retain moisture in the leaves. Water regularly to make sure the soil stays evenly moist but not soggy. Avoid overwatering, which can cause root rot.
Temperature and Humidity
These plants thrive in warm, humid conditions, but they don't like temperature extremes. Even the hardy, cold-tolerant banana tree species prefer consistent temperatures ranging between 75 and 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold temperatures and dry conditions can cause the plants to quickly die back. To increase the level of humidity, mist the leaves daily.
Banana trees are heavy feeders. Apply a balanced fertilizer regularly throughout the growing season, following label instructions. Also, mix compost into the soil annually to raise the level of organic matter.
Types of Banana Trees
There are roughly 70 species and even more varieties of banana trees, including:
- Musa acuminata: This species reaches around 12 to 20 feet tall and is often grown for its ornamental foliage thanks to its paddle-shaped leaves that can reach around 6 to 10 inches long.
- Musa ornata: Commonly referred to as the flowering banana tree, this species is mostly grown for its ornamental value; its small fruit is not typically eaten.
- Musa basjoo: Known as the Japanese banana, this species has fairly good cold tolerance and reaches around 6 to 14 feet tall.
Before the banana tree fruits, prune it so there is only one main stem. After it has been growing for six to eight months, leave one sucker (small shoot at the base of the stem). This plant will replace the main stem in the next growing season. After the fruit is removed, cut the main stem down to 2.5 feet. Remove the rest of the stem in a few weeks, leaving the replacement sucker intact.
Propagating Banana Trees
The best method of propagation is division. To divide banana plants, separate the suckers from the rhizome (horizontal underground stem) using a sharp spade. Before you do this, wait until the suckers are at least 3 feet tall and have their own roots. Once you separate a sucker from the parent plant, allow the surface of the rhizome section to dry for a day or so. At this point, it will be ready for replanting in any appropriate location.
Potting and Repotting Banana Trees
Banana trees can grow in containers, but they generally will need at least a 15-gallon pot at minimum for optimal growth. Ensure that the pot has drainage holes, and use a loose, organically rich potting mix. A benefit to potting your banana tree is you will be able to bring it indoors to shelter it from cold and inclement weather. However, potted banana trees tend to have higher watering and feeding needs, as they will use up what is in their limited soil faster than banana trees in the ground. In addition, they likely won't reach their maximum size and might not bear fruit. Still, many people prefer them for their foliage. You typically will need to divide and repot container banana trees every three years, separating any suckers from the parent plant.
Common Pests & Plant Diseases
Owners of banana trees need to stay vigilant of the many pests and diseases that can afflict a banana tree. Pests include the following:
- Aphids: These pests cause curled and shriveled foliage and can also transmit other diseases that will affect any fruit produced.
- Black weevils: If you see jelly-like sap oozing from the plant, you may have black weevils that can be eliminated with pesticides.
- Nematodes: This is the banana tree's most common pest that will rot the plant and fruit.
- Sap-sucking insects: Mealybugs and red spider mites are also common to banana trees.
- Scarring beetle: This pest invades bunches of the plant's fruit and can be eliminated with pesticide.
- Thrips: This pest will stain and split the peel of the plant's fruit.
There are many diseases common to banana trees in large orchards and are taken care of with commercial fungicides and pesticides. As for indoor potted banana trees, be on the lookout for root rot, leaf-spot disease, wilt, and powdery mildew.
Banana trees are easy to grow if they have optimal conditions (indoors or outdoors) to thrive. Giving your banana tree lots of water and light are the key to helping it grow strong.
A banana tree's height can grow quite large, so try the dwarf Cavendish banana, which grows 8 to 10 feet tall.
A banana tree, like the papaya plant, can make an excellent houseplant, just don't expect it to produce fruit as an indoor plant. To produce fruit, the plant needs tropical conditions outdoors. With the right conditions, a banana tree may bear fruit in around a year. Make sure you plant a type of banana tree that bears edible fruit, as not all types do.
Though you might find a few tiny "seeds" in a banana you buy from the grocery store, you can't grow a banana from those seeds. The commercially sold bananas are genetically altered so they do not produce seeds. If you find wild bananas with seeds, you might try growing a tree from those.
Growing Bananas - How To Grow Banana Plants And Keep Them Happy
How To Grow Banana Plants And Keep Them Happy
Growing bananas does not take much effort, but it does require that you get a few things right when you first get started...
Banana plants can offer many benefits:
- They make great windbreaks or screens,
- they can keep the sun of the hot western side of your house,
- they utilize the water and nutrients in waste drains (think washing water or outdoor shower),
- the leaves can be fed to horses, cows and other grazers,
- the dried remains of the trunks can be used for weaving baskets and mats.
Oh, and they give you bananas. Lots of bananas!
25 kg of bananas in the making.
But when I look around friends' gardens then I see some pretty sad looking banana plants growing there. It helps to understand what bananas like and dislike if you want them to be happy!
Banana plants like:
- Rich, dark, fertile soils.
- Lots of mulch and organic matter. LOTS. Just keep piling it on.
- Lot of nitrogen and potassium. (Chicken manure!)
- Steady warmth, not too hot and not too cold. (Bananas are sissies when it comes to temperatures...)
- Steady moisture, in the ground and in the air.
- The shelter of other bananas! That's the most overlooked aspect by home growers...
Banana plants dislike:
- Strong winds.
- Extreme heat or cold.
- Being hungry or thirsty.
- Being alone and exposed.
More detail on all that below.
Cavendish is the variety that you know from the supermarket. If you live near a banana growing region, this is the variety you see in the plantations. It is a stout plant that produces large heavy bunches.
Lady Fingers are very tall and slender plants and have smaller, sweeter fruit. They are often grown by gardeners as ornamental plants with the small fruit being a bonus.
Plantains are cooking bananas. They are drier and more starchy. You use them green like you would use potatoes, and they taste similar.
80% of all bananas grown in the world are plantain varieties! They are an important staple food in many tropical countries.
There are many other exotic varieties, but those above are the most popular and most commonly grown.
What I describe below and most of the pictures on this page refer to Cavendish bananas but the advice applies to all other varieties as well.
How Do Bananas Grow?
Bananas are not real trees, not even palm trees, even though they are often called banana palms. Bananas are perennial herbs.
(Gingers, heliconias and bird-of-paradise flowers are distant relatives of bananas. They are in the same order, Zingiberales.)
Banana trunks consists of all the leaf stalks wrapped around each other. New leaves start growing inside, below the ground. They push up through the middle and emerge from the centre of the crown. So does the flower, which finally turns into a bunch of bananas.
Here is a picture series showing how the flower looks at first, and how the bananas appear and curl up towards the light.
Those pictures were taken over the course of a few days. You can pretty much watch this happen. But now it will take another two months or so, depending on the temperature, for the fruit to fill out and finally ripen.
A banana plant takes about 9 months to grow up and produce a bunch of bananas. Then the mother plant dies. But around the base of it are many suckers or pups, little baby plants.
At the base of a banana plant, under the ground, is a big rhizome called the corm.
The rhizome has many growing points and those turn into new suckers/pups. The suckers can be taken off and transplanted, and one or two can be left in position to replace the mother plant.
Great, so now you know what to do once you have bananas growing in your garden, but how do you start?
How To Get Started Growing Bananas
First you need to make sure that you can in fact grow bananas where you are.
You need a tropical or warm subtropical climate. Bananas can handle extreme heat (if they have enough water), but they don't like it. They can handle cool weather for a short while, but they don't like that either. Below 14°C (57°F) they just stop growing.
If the temperatures drop any lower the fruit suffers, the skin turns greyish and the leaves can turn yellow. Frost kills the plant above ground, but the corm can survive and may re-shoot.
The ideal temperature range for banana growing is around 26-30°C (78-86°F).
You need a lot of water to grow bananas. The huge soft leaves evaporate a lot and you have to keep up the supply. Bananas also need high humidity to be happy.
Where I live the commercial banana growers water their plants two or three times a day with sprinklers to keep up the humidity in the banana plantation!
You need very rich soil. If you don't have good soil to start with, make some. Incorporate lots and lots of compost and plenty of chicken manure before you plant your bananas. Wood ash for extra potassium doesn't hurt either. Then mulch them very thickly. And keep mulching and feeding them!
And you need room so you can plant enough of them together. Bananas need shelter from wind. Growing many banana plants together increases the humidity in the middle, evens out temperature changes a bit, and it shades and cools the trunks. You don't want to cook the flower that's forming in the middle...
If you get a chance, look at a commercial banana plantation somewhere. The outside rows, especially the western side, always look sad. The best bananas grow on the inside.
You should plant bananas in blocks or clumps, not single rows and definitely not single plants. If you have very little room you can grow a few banana plants together and grow something else on the outside to protect them. But you do need to give them that sheltered jungle environment if you want them to be happy.
(Now, please don't send me any more emails letting me know that you are successfully growing a solitary banana plant in a tub on your patio or in your greenhouse or wherever. This is a permaculture site. We are not talking about keeping plants alive outside their natural growing conditions. We are growing food.
Having said that, understanding what makes a banana plant happy will help you grow it just for fun and under sub-optimal conditions as well.)
You can not grow the usual bananas from seeds. These banana plants don't produce viable seeds like wild bananas do.
The best way is to start with the above mentioned suckers or pups. Know someone who grows bananas? Talk to them. Every banana plant produces a lot more suckers than you need, so people usually have plenty to give away.
Only take suckers from vigorous banana plants. The suckers should have small, spear shaped leaves and ideally be about four feet high. Smaller suckers will take longer to fruit and the first banana bunch will be smaller.
Cut the sucker from the main banana plant with a sharp shovel. Cut downwards between the mature plant and the sucker. You have to cut through the corm. It's not easy.
Make sure you get a good chunk of corm and many roots with it. Chop the top off the sucker to reduce evaporation while you move it and while it settles into its new home.
Remember, the growing point is at the bottom of a banana plant. You can decapitate the sucker. It will grow back.
Another option is to dig up a bit of the rhizome and chop it into bits. Every bit that has an eye can be planted and will grow into a banana plant. But it takes longer than growing banana suckers.
Plant your bits or suckers in your well prepared banana patch, keeping two to five metres between them.
The spacing depends on your layout. My bananas grow in a block of several double rows. Within the double rows the spacing is two to three metres, now with two plants in each position, suckers of the initial plant. My double rows are four to five metres apart.
I also have a banana circle around an outdoor shower with two metres at the most between individual plants, and they are growing in a haphazard way.
If you have just a single clump of a few banana plants you can put them even closer together.
Keep your banana plants moist but not too wet in the early days or they may rot. They don't have leaves yet to evaporate water, so they don't need a lot of it.
Maintaining Your Banana Patch
The most common cause of death for bananas is lack of water.
The most common cause for not getting fruit is starvation.
Banana plants blow over in strong winds.
Protect them and feed them and water them and all will be well. Other than that bananas don't need much maintenance.
Just remove any dead leaves and cut down the dead plants every now and then.
You get bigger fruit if you remove all unwanted suckers, only keeping the best one.
After the initial planting you can leave two on healthy, vigorous plants. Beyond that it is better to keep one sucker per plant on average. Otherwise your patch will become too crowded.
The best suckers are the ones with the small, spear shaped leaves, NOT the pretty ones with the big round leaves!
Why? A sucker that is still fed by the mother plant does not need to do much photosynthesis, so it doesn't need to produce big leaves.
And a sucker that is well looked after by the mother plant will produce better fruit and be stronger than one that had to struggle on its own.
A mature plantation is pretty much self mulching. Just throw all the leaves and old trunks etc. back under the plants. You can also grow other plants in the understory to produce more mulch. (I use cassava, sweet potato and crotolaria).
You just need to sprinkle on some fertiliser every now and then, to replace what you took out of the system when you took the bananas. Bananas are high in potassium, so ideally the fertiliser should be, too. Keep the fertiliser close to the trunk as bananas don't have big root systems.
Growing Banana Fruit
You may see your first flower emerge after about six months, depending on the weather. Leave the leaves around it, especially the one protecting the top bend of the stalk from sunburn!
As the purple flower petals curl back and drop off they reveal a "hand" of bananas under each. Each banana is a "finger".
You may get anything between four to a dozen or more full hands. Then, under the next petal, you'll see a hand of teeny weeny excuses for bananas. Those are the male fingers.
The male fingers just dry and drop off. Only the stalk remains. If you let it grow it will eventually reach the ground.
Some people break off the "bell" (the bunch of purple flower petals at the end) about 15 cm below the last female hand. That way the banana plant puts its energy and reserves into growing big bananas, and not into growing a long stalk. Commercial banana growers also remove some of the bottom female hands, so the remaining bananas grow bigger.
Not everyone thinks that way, though. This is a comment from one of my readers:
"I never cut the flower off the bananas. The hummers (Ed: hummingbirds) love them too much. As you said, there are always enough bananas around and though I sell them I have to keep my hummers happy."
Well, and then you patiently wait for at least another two months.
If your banana plant is not very strong or not very straight you may have to prop your banana bunch, because it becomes very heavy, and a bunch can snap off or pull the whole plant over.
A good prop would be a long stick with a u-shaped hook at the end. But a long enough plank or pole can do the job, too. I leave that to your ingenuity.
Bananas are ready to be picked when they look well rounded with ribs, and the little flowers at the end are dry and rub off easily. You can pick them now, green, and they will start ripening as soon as you pick them, no matter their size.
They will eventually ripen on the bunch, too, and those bananas taste the best. But once they start they ripen very quickly, faster than you can eat or use them. So you may as well cut the top hands off a bit earlier and ripen them on the kitchen bench.
You can also cut the whole bunch and hang it somewhere if you need to protect it from possums or birds or other thieves. But then all bananas will ripen at once! So be prepared.
You can preserve bananas for use in cooking and baking by peeling and freezing them. Or, to preserve them for eating, peel, split in half lengthwise and dry them.
Once the bunch is picked the rest of the plant will die quickly. Cut it to the ground, throw on some chook poo, and let the next sucker grow while you process all the bananas.
The mystery of the missing banana bunch
by reader Glenn Baxter
"We grow some Cavendish bananas in a small area in the back garden and the biggest plant eventually produced a good-sized bunch of bananas.
The bunch was nearly ready to pick when all the hands disappeared off the main stalk. There were no skins or any bits of fruit left on the ground.
We suspected that someone had stolen them until we looked closer on the ground under the bare stalk...
There was a small mound of kanagaroo poo!
We didn't believe that the roos would eat bananas, until my wife was approached by one while she was eating a banana. She offered some to the roo who eagerly ate it and was looking for more. So there you go."
The banana thief! © Photo: Glenn Baxter
Commercial banana growers use bunch covers (plastic bags open at both ends that they slip over the bunch and tie at the top) to protect bananas from diseases, insects, sunburn and marauders. You can try to buy those bags at a rural supplies store, or beg some of a grower.
I used to bag my bananas (hard to get out of habits after four years of working on commercial plantations) but I don't bother any more. Even if the birds get a few, there are still more than enough left for me and the chickens and the dog and all friends and their families and freezing and drying. .. So why not let the wild birds (or kangaroos) partake of the bounty as well!
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How to grow a banana tree at home. Seed preparation. Home care
Each of us knows what a banana is. These tasty, edible fruits are sold in most grocery stores and make up a significant part of our diet. Children and adults are very fond of bananas and willingly buy them, and enthusiastic flower growers grow bananas on their own windowsill. Yes, yes, you heard right, you can grow your own homemade banana , and the process will not cause much trouble. Want details? Read the article and you will learn all the secrets of growing an indoor banana.
Perhaps we should start with the botanical classification of the banana, because it depends on how to care for the plant. So, banana (lat. Musa) is the name of perennial plants of the same genus of the Banana family (lat. Musaceae).
Despite its size (under conditions of natural cultivation, bananas reach a height of 10 meters), a banana is not a palm tree or a tree at all, but a grass, while the fruit of a banana, oddly enough, is a berry. Banana has a fairly powerful root system, a short stem hidden underground, and oval-elongated large leaves, the number of which varies from 6 to 18 per plant.
[!] What appears to be the trunk of a banana is actually its leaves, the lower part of which is tightly wrapped around each other.
[!] In nature, there are also real trees, called banana trees - plants from the genus Azimin. The taste of their fruits is very reminiscent of banana and papaya.
The exact origin of the Latin name is unknown - according to one theory, the plant is named after the court physician of the Roman Emperor Anthony Musa, according to another, the word has Arabic roots. The common name for the fruit is borrowed from West African languages.
Bananas are native to the islands of Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Over time, the plant, the fruits of which were very liked by the seafarers who visited those places, spread throughout the world. Now bananas are grown in many countries with a tropical climate and are one of the main export products. For example, the main exporters of bananas to Russia are Ecuador, Costa Rica, the Philippines, and Mexico.
For us, banana is just a delicious fruit, but in the southern countries the plant is used for a variety of purposes. In addition to eating, banana is used in folk medicine, as a basis for fishing tackle and rafts, for making ropes, and so on. We can say that people have learned to process every part of this wonderful plant, getting a lot of the necessary products. And of course, one cannot fail to note the culinary value of the fruit - bananas are eaten raw, fried, boiled, dried, baked. They are the basis of the diet of a number of countries and, in terms of importance, as agricultural crops, can be compared with potatoes in the northern regions.
But back to the main question of the publication - how to grow a banana at home? Perhaps you should start by choosing the right variety.
Banana species suitable for home cultivation
Homemade banana can still be classified as indoor plant. And yet, year by year, the popularity of fruit exotics is growing. This happens, among other things, thanks to the work of breeders who breed low-growing species and varieties adapted to room conditions. To date, all types of homemade bananas can be divided into two groups:
- decorative foliage,
Indeed, some growers grow bananas just for the beautiful leaves or flowers. The fruits of such plants, if they are formed, do not have the usual delicate, sweet taste and contain too many hard seeds. Ornamental species include:
Bloody banana (lat. Musa sumatrana Zebrina) - wide leaves are covered with a beautiful green-burgundy pattern. The fruits are small, red, inedible;
Chinese dwarf banana (lat. Musella lasiocarpa). Other names are rough-fruited musella, golden lotus. It has bright green large leaves and a beautiful bright yellow inflorescence. The maximum height of the plant is about one meter;
Banana bright red (lat. Musa coccinea Andrews) - like the previous species, it is flowering. Attention is drawn to the rich scarlet bract, favorably shaded by green foliage;
B. bloody, B. chinese dwarf, B. bright red
Velvet banana (lat. Musa velutina) is also known as purple, dwarf pink or velvet pink banana. Differs in oval light green leaves, often decorated with red edging and bright pink large flowers. The skin of the fruit also has an unusual crimson hue. The variety is grown as a flowering one, but, if desired, the fruits can be eaten;
Lavender or pink banana (lat. Musa ornata Roxb), as well as Musa velutina, is valued for its beautiful flowers and pale pink fruits.
B. velvet, B. pink
Fruit species and varieties of domestic exotic are not so diverse. Almost all of them, as well as their counterparts. growing outdoors, bred on the basis of two species - pointed banana (lat. Musa acuminata) and Balbis (lat. Musa balbisiana). Most often, the following representatives of an edible indoor banana can be found on sale:
Dwarf Cavendish Banana (lat. Musa acuminata Dwarf Cavendish)
Banana Cavendish Super Dwarf (lat. Musa acuminata super Dwarf Cavendish)
Both varieties are characterized by short stature, which allows them to be grown indoors, and abundant fruiting. The leaves of the plants are large, dense, bright green, oval in shape. Peduncle - bright burgundy in the shape of a candle.
B. Cavendish dwarf, B. Cavendish super dwarf
Caring for a homemade banana
The first thing flower growers who decide to get a homemade banana should pay attention to is the size of the plant. Even dwarf varieties have an impressive height (up to one and a half meters) and large spreading leaves. Therefore, it is best to grow a banana in large rooms with high and wide windows.
Secondly, when caring for a banana, you need to remember that its homeland is the hot tropics. This means that the ideal room conditions for the plant are warm, good lighting, high humidity. Let's consider each parameter in more detail.
Temperature and lighting
Unlike many other indoor plants, this southern guest is very, very thermophilic, and the comfortable temperature range for him is 25-30°C. The banana does not have a dormant period and such a high air temperature is necessary almost all year round. Only in winter it can be a little cooler - about 20 ° C.
Countries in Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa, where the banana grows naturally, have a large average annual number of sunny days. In our climate, the sun is much less, so the banana must be placed on the most illuminated window sills - south, southeast or southwest. On a too hot sunny day, so that burns do not appear on the leaves, the location of the plant can be shaded a little.
[!] The health and appearance of indoor banana directly depends on the amount of sun. In the shade, home exotics will stop growing, blooming and, of course, set fruits.
Watering and air humidity
Banana can not be attributed to either very moisture-loving representatives of the flora, or to those who prefer drought. Rather, the banana gives preference to abundant, but at the same time quite rare watering - on average, once or twice a week. At the same time, it is useful to simulate a warm tropical downpour with the help of a shower in the bathroom. After such a procedure, it is necessary to leave the plant for about half an hour in order for excess water to drain.
One of the most important parameters for keeping a banana at home is high humidity. The air in our apartments, especially during the heating period, is too dry. This negatively affects the well-being of most domestic plants. In order for the southern flower not to suffer from dry air, it is recommended:
- put the bowl with the plant on a tray filled with wet pebbles,
- place a banana next to the aquarium,
- spray the leaves at least once a day with water from a fine mist sprayer,
- use household air humidifier.
Additional moisture is vital for a banana, so you should never forget about humidifying the air.
[!] In the warm season, to replenish moisture, a banana can and should be taken out into the open air.
Soil, replanting and top dressing
As for the soil, here indoor exotic shows unpretentiousness. Any universal soil from a specialized store is suitable, which has sufficient friability, which means water and air permeability, and neutral acidity.
One of the most common plant problems is root rot. To prevent this disease, a high, at least a third of the total volume of the pot, drainage layer is required. Expanded clay, broken brick or clay shards can act in this capacity.
You can prepare the substrate yourself by mixing leafy soil, soddy soil, peat and sand in a ratio of 2:1:1:1. Small amounts of coconut fiber and vermiculite added to the soil will help reduce the risk of root rot.
As a rule, a homemade banana develops quite quickly, so an adult plant needs to be transplanted annually. In some cases, when the banana is growing very actively, the indoor exotic should be relocated twice a year. The capacity for transplantation should be only a few centimeters larger than the previous one.
[!] Too large "to grow" dishes can provoke acidification of the soil and, as a result, rotting of the roots. In a bowl that is too small, the banana will stop growing and blooming.
During the period of active growth and development (spring, summer), the banana must be actively fed. For additional plant nutrition, you can use universal mineral and organic top dressing, alternating with each other. In general, the frequency of fertilizing during the growing season is once a week. With the onset of autumn and during the winter, fertilizers should be excluded.
Propagating a banana at home is not an easy task. There are only three ways to get a new young plant:
- using seeds,
- with extensions,
- by dividing the mother plant,
each of which has its own subtleties and secrets. Let's consider them in more detail.
Propagation of indoor banana seeds
First of all, it is worth saying that banana seeds are rather unusual - they look like small nuts covered with a hard shell. It is because of the shell that the seeds germinate rather poorly - not every sprout is able to break through a strong shell. In order to facilitate the germination process, nuts can be scarified.
[!] Scarification is a mechanical or chemical violation of the integrity of the hard shell of seeds.
This is done as follows:
- The seeds are soaked in warm water for two days.
- Carefully, trying not to pierce the swollen shell, grind it down with sandpaper or a nail file.
Experienced growers who grow indoor bananas often express the opinion that the seeds of a tropical plant do not need to be scarified, just a little longer, about a week, to keep them in water for better swelling. As an experiment, some of the seeds can be scarified, and some can be planted without scarification.
After the above manipulations, banana seeds are planted directly in the ground:
- For germination, it is recommended to use a peat-sand mixture (1: 1), coconut fiber, sphagnum moss.
- As a container, you can take a plastic food container with a lid, which is quite suitable for the role of a mini-greenhouse, or buy a ready-made greenhouse from a specialized store.
- For better germination, banana seeds are laid with a notch on their side and slightly buried in the substrate.
- The greenhouse is moved to a bright and warm (25-30°C) place and waiting for shoots, which should appear in about 1-3 months.
During the entire period of germination, the soil with seeds should be slightly moistened, but without excessive stagnant water, and the greenhouse should be aired about once a day.
Sprouting banana seeds is a rather long process. Growers who want faster results can try planting young shoots of the plant.
Propagation of bananas by shoots and division
As a rule, indoor bananas produce fairly dense root shoots, with which the banana reproduces in natural conditions. In home cultivation, these root cuttings can also be used to produce a new plant.
For planting, a well-formed shoot with several leaves is selected, carefully removed from the ground and cut off from the mother plant along with the rhizome from which it grows.
[!] A rhizome is a part of a branched rhizome that does not have a central stem.
To prevent decay, the cut points are sprinkled with crushed coal, after which the shoot is planted in a new container with the same soil as for an adult plant. Usually young shoots of a banana take root well and do not require special care.
Propagation of the banana by division is done at the time of plant transplantation. An adult plant is cut into two or three parts, each of which should have a healthy, formed process and rhizome, after which the resulting specimens are seated in a separate bowl. In general, reproduction by division is a procedure similar to planting shoots.
Homemade banana fruiting
Before waiting for indoor exotic fruits, it is worth knowing the timing of its fruiting. On average, a banana grown from seeds will only bear fruit in the third or fourth year. A plant obtained from a shoot will bear fruit earlier - within one to two years.
In order to get delicious fruits, you need:
Pests and growing problems
When it comes to diseases, the root of all plant health problems is improper care. The main banana diseases and their symptoms:
Banana does not grow. Most likely, the case is too small a pot. If there is not enough soil, the homemade banana stops developing. In addition, the reason for this phenomenon may be a lack of sunlight.
Black-brown spots appear on the banana leaves, the leaf plate loses turgor. The reason is the bay and waterlogging of the soil. This is a dangerous sign indicating the possible occurrence of root rot. It is necessary to get the plant out of the ground, carefully examine it, cut off the rotten areas, sprinkle the cut points with crushed coal and plant them in new soil. In the future, the frequency and intensity of watering should be reduced.
Banana leaves dry around the edges. These symptoms indicate that the air humidity is too low. Especially often, a room banana suffers from a lack of moisture during the heating period.
If dries up and subsequently dies off with the base of a homemade banana sprout , but at the same time, young shoots are developing well, do not worry - this is not a disease, but a completely normal phenomenon. The growth, development and reproduction of a banana in natural conditions occurs in exactly the same way. As a rule, the largest sprout dies off immediately after fruiting.
Dark spots on the leaves of young seedlings. This feature is found in some varieties of indoor exotic. The spots have a characteristic red-brown color and are located along the lateral veins of the leaf plate. Usually, as the plant matures, the spots disappear and the leaf turns into a uniform rich green color.
Do you know that, according to an ancient Indian legend, an insidious snake-tempter seduced Eve not with an apple, but with a banana? So, a banana can be considered a heavenly fruit that you and I can grow at home.
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Scientists around the world seriously believe that the banana belongs to the plants that interested the first people in ancient prehistoric times. Banana culture is about 10,000 years old, however, this age is inaccurate. It is known that the banana came to Southeast Asia already as a valuable food plant, it began to be cultivated long before the cultivation of sugar cane and rice crops. The Hindu folk epic tells of the first birth of the banana on the island of Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
Numerous written sources tell us how and where bananas were grown. For example, we can find the first mention of the wonderful "Indian fruits" in the manuscripts of the ancient Greeks, Arabs and Romans. Banana drawings have been found on frescoes in ancient Assyria and Egypt.
Around the 16th century, the banana tree took root well in Africa and became an important food item for such an arid region.
Over the next hundreds of years, the banana settled in the Canary Islands and South America (before the expeditions of Christopher Columbus).
In Europe (beginning of the 20th century), the banana won the hearts of the townspeople with its unusual appearance, thanks to which it became one of the important exhibits in any Victorian greenhouse and home winter gardens.
Description, cultivation and home care
The banana is often incorrectly referred to as the banana tree, but this plant does not have all the features of a tree crop. In fact, a banana is a grass that can grow, depending on the species, from 1.5 (domestic banana) to 7.5 m (in the wild). The massive stem consists of dried leaf petioles. Flowering is profuse and colorful. Fruiting is rich. After the plant gives a harvest, its natural death occurs. Instead of a dying old banana, young offspring appear around the base in the ground, capable of repeating the entire life cycle again.
Growing at home usually does not cause serious problems for fans of plant exotics. A purchased young plant is able to bloom already in the third year of growth. Banana grows green mass quite quickly, under favorable conditions during the growing season it has at least one leaf per week.
Depending on age, banana leaves can be up to 2.5 m long and up to 60 cm wide. In their color, they maneuver from rich green, sometimes with burgundy inclusions, to green in the upper and reddish in the lower part of the sheet.
Properly maintained, a banana can flower and produce fully edible fruits (depending on the species). The flowers are usually yellow and red, clustered in compact terminal inflorescences. Banana fruit is commonly called a berry. The color of the fruit at the beginning of its ripening is green, gradually changing to yellow or red. The taste is pronounced, usually sweet, less often with sourness, somewhat reminiscent of an apple.
Growing a banana at home is extremely painstaking, but no less interesting. Many will be surprised that a banana has seeds. Recall at least purchased bunches of bananas: no matter how much we eat them, unfortunately, we cannot find seeds in them. Fans of planting something from the seed of a freshly eaten fruit must have seen in the banana fruit the rudiments of seeds that were not able to germinate when planted. What is sold in our supermarkets and markets has been commercially produced.
Wild species are characterized by an abundant presence of seeds - sometimes it happens that it is difficult to see the pulp, but no one would buy such fruits. That is why the banana is gradually artificially modified, getting more sweet pulp and a minimum of seeds. The inability of mature individuals to produce seeds is covered entirely by vegetative propagation of well-proven crops.
For those who are not looking for easy ways and want to grow a banana on their own, we can advise you to use purchased seeds. Often on sale you can see indoor banana seeds, which rarely grow above one and a half meters, which is especially important for residents of small houses.
Water can be changed, but not more than 2-3 times during the whole period;
At the end of the term, the seeds must be cleaned from the remnants of pulp, mucus;
Landing in the ground is carried out at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other. However, it will be better if you plant the seeds in separate pots, then when transplanting, the risk of damage to the roots will be minimal.
Homemade banana may be smaller than the plants displayed in flower shops and will not bloom soon. But grown in the microclimate of your home, it will get sick less often and most likely will give the richest harvest.
Homemade bananas need bright sunlight during the growing season. During the midday sun, many flower growers recommend shading a banana from strong heat. In winter, to ensure the normal growth of a banana, it is necessary to install additional lighting.
When growing on a windowsill, make sure that the leaves do not touch the panes (they can burn) and that there is no draft. Sudden changes in temperature do not affect the plant in the most favorable way, since it is still a tropical culture, sometimes the harsh weather of other countries is alien to it.
Banana is not one of those plants that will forgive you an overflow or a drought of an earthy coma. Watering a banana is necessary only after the topsoil dries out. Water the plant abundantly, until the first drops in the pan. By the way, it is advisable to immediately pour out excess water from the pan, since excessive waterlogging will lead to acidification of the earth and rot of the root system.
Overdrying of the soil will lead to the death of the roots, and even if watering is resumed, the surviving roots will not be able to fully provide nutrition to the vegetative part and it is quite possible that part of the foliage will die off naturally.
In summer, bananas are watered with plenty of settled water closer to room temperature. When the temperature drops to + 16 ° C, watering is significantly reduced. During the summer months, the banana simply loves daily spraying with a spray bottle.
This should be done in the morning or evening to prevent sunlight from reaching wet leaves. In winter, spraying is either stopped altogether or carried out no more than 1 time per week.
Although the banana plant is unpretentious, an important part of its successful management lies in the right choice of pot. For young plants with a height of no more than 20 cm, a pot of 2-3 liters is enough.
A plant that exceeds half a meter can be safely transplanted into a container up to 20 liters. The maximum pot size is 50 liters. However, it is important to remember that you should not immediately transplant the plant into a pot that is too large, as the roots may rot, which will cause the plant to become unwell. There is no flowering here.
Banana potting soil is easy to buy at any gardening store, but you can make your own potting mix. To do this, we need the usual universal soil based on biohumus (1 l), to which it is recommended to add river sand (2 l) and wood ash (0.5 l).
It is advisable to line the bottom of the pot with a layer of expanded clay for good soil drainage. The seedling is always planted a little deeper than it grew before. Thus, many adventitious roots are formed on its trunk, accelerating its growth and development. It is recommended not to clog the drainage holes, with their help oxygen will flow into the pot directly to the roots of the plant.
Indoor banana is fed during the growing season 1 time per week, during the dormant period not more than 1 time per month. Fertilizers based on biohumus are perfect for top dressing. Fertilize only with liquid fertilizers during watering; other methods of fertilizing can accidentally burn young developing roots.
Banana has almost no pests. Inspect the leaves of the plant daily for pests or diseases, especially if you have a recently purchased specimen that has not yet been quarantined. As a preventive measure, you can loosen the top layer of soil and sprinkle it with tobacco dust no more than once a month. Also, some flower growers water the soil every six months with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. And avoid drafts!
Growing a banana at home is quite easy, compared to such whimsical plants as an azalea or an orchid. The main thing is to monitor the degree and frequency of watering. You can call a banana mature when 13-17 well-developed leaves are formed on it. Usually during this period, a huge bud is shown at the top of the plant in color closer to a red-violet hue. The flowering itself is often delayed for a year, during which the bud descends and continues to form small rudiments of fruits, while other fruits are fully ripe.
Banana is increasingly becoming the object of desire for many seasoned flower growers to replace the already boring floral exotics. Beginners who love this plant should also not be afraid to get a banana at home, since it is quite unpretentious and easily interferes with the size of the rooms. Try and experiment! Good luck!
How to grow bananas at home? Video.
There are many plants in which, at first glance, you can accurately identify a guest from the hot tropics. One such plant is definitely the banana.
Many of us have seen bananas that grow in the open field: someone - on TV, and someone - in the southern resorts. This is a perennial herbaceous plant, which is sometimes called banana, which is incorrect. Banana has nothing to do with the palm family, but forms its own family - Banana.
Members of the family can grow up to 12 meters and have a stem (or rather, a pseudo-stem) with a diameter of tens of centimeters. The real banana stalk is hidden underground, it is a kind of rhizome, or rhizome.
It's hard enough to imagine such a big plant at home. However, among the representatives of the family, there are also dwarf varieties of bananas. They grow no higher than 1.5 meters and are quite suitable for home use.
Some dwarf varieties - Musa velutina (Velvet banana), Musa violacea (Purple Banana), Musa coccinea (Banana bright red), Musa ornata (Lavender Banana) and others - can only perform . Even if they bloom, they will produce inedible fruits that contain more seeds than pulp. But there are varieties like Musa Cavendish Dwarf (up to 2.4 m tall) and Musa Super Cavendish Dwarf (up to 1.3 m tall), which produce edible, tasty fruits. One of the distinguishing features of fruit bananas are large maroon spots appearing on the leaves of young plants.
In 2000 I was lucky to buy Musa Super Cavendish Dwarf . For the first time, it bloomed in my apartment for the 7th year, a dozen and a half dozen first-class fruits in terms of taste were ripe on it. But his basal offspring (or baby) has already bloomed for 5 years.
There is information in the literature that it is possible to achieve flowering of a banana even at two or three years of age. But this is more likely to apply to plants contained in winter gardens and greenhouses. In apartment conditions, it is difficult to achieve flowering from a banana of this age.
Ornamental dwarf bananas: Musa velutina (velvet banana), Musa violacea (banana purple), Musa coccinea (bright red banana), Musa ornata (lavender banana) are propagated by seeds that are sold in flower shops, including Russian and foreign online stores. True, according to reviews of exotic lovers, seed germination is not very high, but luck is becoming more common. With fruity dwarf banana varieties such as M usa Cavendish Dwarf and Musa Super Cavendish Dwarf , the situation is more complicated. They reproduce by root offspring. Therefore, such bananas can only be purchased from lovers of exotic plants at flower forums or in specialized flower shops. Musa Cavendish Dwarf is sold in some flower shops under the name Kyiv dwarf . Sometimes you can find Dutch bananas in stores called Tropicana . I think this is some kind of Musa Cavendish Dwarf .
Some exotic lovers bring banana sprouts from tropical countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, etc. When buying, be sure to specify that you need a dwarf banana. You can ask to form a phyto-certificate. If they give you a phyto-certificate, fine. If not, no big deal. I brought plants from Thailand several times without such certificates. The Thais do not pay attention to this, and in order to cross our border, it must be remembered that only the transportation of soil is prohibited. Therefore, just before flying home, you need to shake off the roots of the plant from the ground (you can do it without much fanaticism, because no one will make claims for a small amount), wrap the roots in a damp cloth (or toilet paper) and put them in a plastic bag or a plastic one cut in half bottle. Immediately upon arrival home, land in the ground.
Banana cultivation: care rules
Banana is an unpretentious plant, so its care is not difficult. For growing bananas, you can use any purchased, without special preferences. While experts often recommend well-drained leafy soil mixes, a and sand (2:2:1). Expanded clay or charcoal is poured at the bottom of the pot with a layer 2-3 cm thick. When planting, you can deepen the plant a little. It won't hurt the banana.
Preferably keep the banana in as bright a place as possible: . In dimly lit places, the banana will develop worse and flowering may not occur.
Try to feed every 10-14 days. Preferably . However, the banana is responsive to any top dressing.
The plant likes abundant watering, because. its leaves are large and evaporate a significant amount of moisture. Watering time can be determined as follows: the top layer of soil should dry to a depth of 2 cm. Watered until water appears in the pan, from which water does not need to be drained. However, pouring and drying a banana is quite difficult. Therefore, you don’t have to worry if, in your absence, or watered too actively.
From time to time it is necessary to loosen the surface layer of the soil (to a depth of 2 cm), this will ensure air access to the roots. I usually do this once a month.
If white roots appear from the drainage holes, the plant needs to be transplanted (or rather transferred) to another pot, with a diameter of about 5 cm larger than before. Sometimes young white roots appear on the surface. In this case, it is also necessary to pour a little soil on top.
It is believed that in order to start fruiting, a banana must master a pot with a volume of 30-50 liters and have a large leaf mass. My bananas bloomed and fruited in 35 liter pots. After flowering and fruiting, the pseudostem from which the peduncle grew dies. And a new offspring (baby) actively begins to grow from the rhizome, which in a few years should produce the same peduncle. Usually rhizomes live for about 40 years and constantly produce basal offspring, which replace each other after fruiting.
Bananas are propagated by cutting offspring. There are no seeds in the fruits of these bananas.
I usually separate the offspring when they reach a height of 10-15 cm. I do this in the following way: the offspring of the mother plant is less painful.
Banana can withstand temperatures as low as 0°C for a short time (several days). I have carried out such experiments. But it is preferable for him to have a warm wintering with temperatures not lower than + 10 ... 15 ° С, the most favorable temperature all year round is + 20 ... + 30 ° С.
What problems might arise?
Of the household pests, only the spider mite usually lives on a banana. But he's not the biggest problem.
Much more banana in the apartment suffers from dry air. Because of this, the edges of the leaves begin to dry out prematurely, for this reason the plant looks untidy. Drying edges can be safely trimmed without touching living tissue. And when the leaf starts to turn yellow, cut it off completely. An actively growing banana usually kicks out on a leaf in 1-2 weeks, they form a pseudostem. The dying off of the leaves also happens quite quickly - you don’t need to be afraid of this, just remove dried and yellowing leaves as needed.
It is quite obvious that it is impossible to provide humidity in an apartment, which is maintained in greenhouses (above 70-80%) and is most suitable for people from the humid jungle. To increase the likelihood of flowering, you can use a humidifier or spray regularly. Under such conditions, the banana will look more attractive, delight you for more than one year with its exotic appearance and delicious fruits.
Many people dream of growing a banana at home. The idea seems rather unusual, since this tropical plant mainly grows and bears fruit in hot climates and high humidity. But if you wish, nothing is impossible, especially since the adaptation of this culture to various climatic conditions has been going on for many millennia.
Although the banana is a large plant (some specimens grow over 10 m in tropical climates), it is not a tree. And although he has a very characteristic crown, he does not apply to palm trees. All types of bananas, and there are more than 70 of them, are herbaceous plants. What is called a trunk is actually tightly woven leaf petioles. A real stem, short and thick, almost all located in the ground. Side shoots are formed on it, which develop alternately, replacing each other. Leaf plates, which form a rosette at the top of a false trunk in an amount of 6 to 20 pieces, differ in size and color in different species. But they are always large (from 0.7 m to 2.5 m) and elongated oval. The root system in natural conditions is very powerful for a herbaceous plant. It can reach a depth of up to 1.5 meters, and lateral processes extend up to 5 m. In size, this grass is second only to bamboo, which also belongs to herbaceous plants.
The development of a green shoot in a tropical climate lasts about 10 months. Then comes the flowering period. A powerful peduncle appears from the center of the false trunk, at the end of which a complex inflorescence is formed. At first, the inflorescence is covered with a common shell and is shaped like a huge purple or green pistachio. Then the shell opens and a multi-tiered inflorescence appears. At the base of the inflorescence are female flowers that have only a pistil. In the middle part of the inflorescence are bisexual flowers with both stamens and pistils. They are smaller than women's.
At the end of the inflorescence are small male flowers. All flowers are tubular, consist of 3 petals, 3 sepals. Flowering of wild bananas begins at night. Bats pollinate them at this time of the day. During the day, flowering bananas attract insects and birds, which also pollinate them.
Fruits develop only from female flowers, as the rest are sterile. Bananas are multi-seeded berries covered with a dense shell. Fruits of different species and varieties are very different in size, color and shape. The length of a banana can vary from 5 to 35 cm. The shape can be cylindrical or trihedral. Most varieties and species have fruits of different shades of yellow, but there are also green (when ripe), reddish and whitish bananas. Up to 300 fruits can ripen from 1 inflorescence, but usually there are no more than 50 of them. After the fruits ripen, the ground part of the plant dies off, and a new shoot appears from the stem.
In wild plants, the fruits contain a large number of seeds, which also vary in shape and size. Banana seeds are very hard and dense, their number in 1 fruit can reach 200 pcs. Those fruits that are sold in stores and on the market are obtained from an artificially bred variety called "Paradise Banana". Varieties of bananas that do not have seeds are suitable for propagation only by vegetative means.
How to grow a banana at home?
Banana is a very demanding crop. Being a tropical plant, it needs high temperature, bright light and high humidity. In the absence of these conditions, the plant will grow poorly, will not bloom and bear fruit, may dry out and die.
Growing a banana in a pot
Growing a banana at home is a chore even for experienced gardeners. It reproduces by seeds and vegetatively. It is very difficult to grow a full-fledged plant from seeds at home, and it is not very easy to find them. But you can try. An important feature: bananas propagating in this way with inedible fruits.
Both ornamental and fruit varieties can be grown in pots. Decorative varieties are more unpretentious, compact in size and attractive leaf colors. These varieties also bear fruit, but they are not suitable for food. As a houseplant, they grow a bright red banana (its height does not reach even 1 m), lavender and velvety, which can grow up to 1.5 m.
Fruit cultivars are less attractive but may produce small edible fruits. In room conditions, the Kyiv dwarf (1.5 m tall) and superdwarf (up to 1 m) are grown. In greenhouse conditions or a high-ceilinged room, varieties such as Velvet pointed and Cavendish dwarf can be grown. These plants grow up to 2.5 m.
When growing bananas from seeds, the plants are more viable, since their adaptation begins from the moment the seeds germinate. How to plant a banana? Since the peel of the seeds is very dense, for faster spitting of the sprouts, it is polished with a nail file or sandpaper. Through an artificially thinned shell, moisture will quickly reach the seed embryo, and it will move to growth. Polished seeds are soaked for a day in warm (35 ° C) water. During the day, the water is changed every 6 hours, maintaining the required temperature. After the appearance of sprouts, the seeds are placed on a sandy-peat substrate, consisting of 1 part of sand and 4 parts of peat, slightly deepened into it. Containers with planted seeds are covered with a transparent film and glass, and placed in a warm, bright place.
Germination of seeds is long and takes 2-3 months. During this time, it is necessary to carefully monitor the soil moisture and spray it from time to time with a spray bottle. Crops need to be aired daily. The room temperature should be around 30°C during the day and at least 25°C at night. The emerging shoots grow very quickly, so several transplants will be needed in the first year. This is usually done as soon as the roots of the plant become visible from the drainage holes.
These plants are much easier and faster to propagate from cuttings. This method is started at the moment when the fruiting is completed, and the aerial part of the plant has died, and the new one has not yet grown. To do this, the underground stem is dug out of the ground and the part with the bud that has begun to grow is carefully separated. This part of the stem is planted in a separate prepared pot. As you grow, the capacity of the pot during transplantation is increased. Do not plant a small plant immediately in a large pot. The root system of a young plant is not able to absorb a large amount of moisture, which will lead to acidification of the soil and rotting of the roots. As a result, the plant may die.
When transplanting, the young plant is taken out of the pot along with a clod of earth. This will prevent damage to the fragile root system. A more voluminous pot is selected, the diameter of which is 2-3 cm larger than the previous one. A drainage layer consisting of expanded clay or small pebbles must be laid at the bottom of the pot, then a layer of sand, and only after that a layer of fresh soil. The basis of the soil for growing a banana should be leafy soil, to which humus, wood ash and coarse sand are added. An adult dwarf plant needs a 50-liter container for fruiting, a 35-liter pot is enough for a super-dwarf banana. Despite the dwarfism, this is far from a small plant and needs a spacious flowerpot. Under suitable conditions for 3 years of life, completely edible fruits can be obtained from a plant.
In flower shops or greenhouses you can buy a ready-to-grow plant. You should not buy a large banana, because after greenhouse conditions it will be difficult for him to adapt to the climate of the apartment. It is better to take a young, recently germinated plant.
Conditions for successful banana cultivation
For homemade bananas, choose the brightest spot in the room. This plant can only feel normal in bright light. In the autumn-winter period, the banana will in any case need additional lighting. But the burning summer sun can harm tender young leaves, so during this period the plant should be slightly darkened.
The optimal temperature at which bananas grow as quickly as possible is 30-35ºС. In winter, this plant can withstand 16ºС, but its growth will completely stop.
Despite the fact that bananas are very moisture-loving, they tolerate light drying of the soil much more easily than waterlogging. Therefore, you should be careful with watering. Bananas need to be watered abundantly, but not very often. The criterion is the drying of the top layer of soil by 2 cm. Only warm (about 30 ° C) settled water can be used for irrigation. In the warm season, this plant should be sprayed as often as possible. It is even better to put the pot on a grid, under which there is a container of water, or place a humidifier next to the flowerpot.
Obtaining fruits from dessert varieties is very problematic without the use of dressings. This culture takes well organic fertilizers in the form of manure infusions or fish broth. You can also use ready-made fertilizers for fruit trees or biohumus. It is recommended to water bananas with infusions of ordinary weeds. You can also add crushed pulp and banana peel to the soil. In the warm season, the plant is fed once a week, and in winter - once a month. Growing a banana at home, and even trying its fruits, is not an easy task, but quite real and interesting.
We are talking about the same banana, the fruits of which both children and adults like to eat. It turns out that it can be grown at home. At the same time, he will delight his owners not only with the taste of fruits, but also with their appearance.
Banana (Musa) is a very tall (up to 10 m) powerful perennial plant of the family of the same name. Despite its impressive size, a banana is classified as an herb, and their fruits are nothing more than a berry.
Bananas grow in the tropics and subtropics. His homeland is southeast Asia and Hindustan. The taste of the fruits of this plant was liked by travelers and sailors, who contributed to its spread.
The underground part of the banana is represented by a powerful, spherical rhizome with well-branched adventitious roots and a central growth point. Escape shortened, underground. What we are used to seeing above the ground is not a shoot, it is a leaf.
Leaves are long-petiolate, wrapping each other's bases. They form like a trunk. Leaf blades have impressive dimensions: 2, sometimes even 3 m in length and up to half a meter in width. Ellipsoid, juicy, green, sometimes with burgundy or dark green spots. After fruiting, the leaves of the plant gradually die off, they are replaced by new ones.
Blossom: Banana will bloom for the first time in about a year. By this time, it develops from 15 to 18 leaves. The flower stalk emerges from the flower bud and does a great job of "breaking" through the base of the leaves, growing through a long vaginal tube and stretching almost to the height of the leaves. There it "ends" with a huge, up to one and a half meters, inflorescence, consisting of a large number of small single flowers, painted in pale yellow and greenish tones. Among them there are both bisexual and heterosexual flowers. Banana blossom is a magnificent sight, lasting two or even three months.
The fruits are tied after pollination of the largest, female, flowers and are located in their place, forming a kind of brush, called a bunch. The ripened single fruit has an elongated bean shape and reaches a length of 3 to 40 cm.
Location and lighting
Banana loves bright rooms, is not afraid of direct sunlight, and also needs a long daylight. In winter, he needs lighting.
Banana is a thermophilic plant. The optimal temperature for the full development of a banana is considered to be in the range of 24-30 degrees. It is important that the temperature does not fall below 16 degrees.
Banana does not tolerate dry air, reacting to it with a loss of luster and drying of the leaves. For additional moisture, the plant is sprayed daily, and the banana pot is placed in a tray filled with wet expanded clay. It is important that the bottom of the pot does not touch the water. For the purpose of moisturizing and hygiene, the leaves of the plant are wiped with a damp soft cloth or a warm shower is given to the flower.
Banana needs not only moist air, but also abundant watering, especially in spring and summer. In autumn, watering is reduced, by winter it is completely reduced to a minimum. For irrigation, only settled water at room temperature or slightly higher is suitable.
The optimal composition of the soil for growing bananas: a mixture of sod, humus, leaf soil and sand in a ratio of 2:2:2:1.
Feeds and fertilizers
Like most plants, bananas are fed with liquid mineral fertilizers designed for indoor plants. Top dressing is carried out twice a month, starting in April and ending at the end of September.
Banana grows very fast and needs to be repotted periodically. It is better to do this in the spring, picking up a more capacious pot. A layer of drainage must be poured at the bottom of the container.
When replanting a banana, it is always buried deeper than the previous time. This is done in order to stimulate the emergence of new roots.
Bananas are usually propagated by offspring, division of rhizomes, and some species by seeds.
Propagation by seeds is quite laborious. A hard shell resembling a nut shell is a serious and sometimes insurmountable obstacle for a tender sprout. Therefore, 2-3 days before sowing, the seeds are placed in warm water, and then they are scarified (sawed). Sowing is carried out in a moist substrate, composed of equal amounts of leafy soil, peat, sand and charcoal. The depth of planting seeds should be equal to their size.
Greenhouse conditions are created for seedlings by covering the container with glass or a transparent film and placing it in a warm place with a temperature of 24-26 degrees. Crops are aired and sprayed daily. Seedlings will have to wait at least a month, sometimes even two. Picking is carried out after the seedlings get stronger and give 2-3 leaves. Young plants are fast growing.
Vegetative reproduction is carried out by root offspring. It is very convenient to propagate a banana in this way during transplantation, separating layering from an adult plant, making a cut to the rhizome. The cut points are sprinkled with charcoal. The root offspring is placed in a separate container filled with a mixture of equal amounts of leaf, peat soil and sand.
Diseases and pests
Over-watering can cause root rot and leaf spot. At home, a banana may be affected by spider mites, thrips, scale insects, and mealybugs.
Differ in more modest, in comparison with wild-growing plants, sizes, beautiful flowers and leaves, for which they are grown.
Velvet banana - rises one and a half meters above the ground and has spectacular bright yellow flowers with scarlet wrappers or bracts. The bracts gradually bend outwards, curling up into a tube. This species has velvety fruits, to which it owes its name.
Lavender banana is valued for its beautiful lavender, pink or orange flowers.
Banana bright red does not exceed a meter in height, and has a bright flower with a scarlet wrapper, effectively set off by green foliage.
Banana - care and mistakes when growing (video)
How to grow a banana tree at home
Banana trees can be grown throughout the year. They have long, broad and graceful leaves.
Many people want to learn how to grow a banana tree. A banana tree grows quickly, and every part of it can be useful.
- Types of banana wood for growing at home
- Fruit species
- Decorative species
- Banana Pointed
- Banana Cavendish
- Kyiv dwarf Banana or Yamaisky
- Bananan: Comes
- How to grow a banana tree
- Growing and caring for a banana tree
- How to divide banana trees?
- Banana tree seeds
- Choose pot
- A few tips for growing banana trees
- beneficial properties of banana
- Banana tree: Consification at home 900,000
for growing at home
At home, amateurs grow banana varieties with very tasty fruits, as well as trees that serve as interior decoration.
- Pointy banana;
- dwarf Cavendish banana;
- banana Cavendish superdwarf;
- Kyiv dwarf;
- Kyiv superdwarf.
- Velvety banana;
- Lavender Banana;
- Chinese dwarf;
- Bright red banana.
Pointed banana (lat. Musa acuminata) is grown for its beautiful leaves up to one meter long
with a large central vein, resembling a bird feather.
The leaves of the decorative banana are dark green, often there are specimens with a reddish tint.
In greenhouse conditions, the height of a pointed banana plant can reach 3.5 meters, although in room conditions it grows no more than 2 meters.
The size of the fruits of this type of banana ranges from 5 to 30 centimeters, and their color can be green, yellow and even red.
The pointed banana is edible and grows in the countries of southeast Asia, in southern China, India and Australia.
In countries with colder climates, this type of banana is grown as an ornamental plant. Cavendish Banana The fruits of the banana tree reach 25 cm.In the photo Banana Cavendish
The peel has a rich yellow color with small green streaks.
When overripe, the shell turns black and the flesh becomes soft.
Kyiv dwarfPhoto Kyiv dwarf
Kyiv dwarf (lat. Musasuperdwarfcavendish) or indoor fruit-bearing dwarf banana.
This bonsai grows up to 2 meters in height.
With good care from one plant, you can get about two hundred of your own mini-fruits.
A flower pot is best placed near an east or south window, northern rooms are not suitable for fruiting.
The temperature regime is not lower than + 16 degrees.
Banana blooms throughout the year, after the flowers appear small fruits collected in clusters.
Red banana or Jamaican
Red banana or Jamaican is another unusual banana.In the photo is a Jamaican banana
In addition to the fact that the ripe fruits have a dark burgundy color and pink flesh, this species is endowed with an aroma reminiscent of raspberries.
Banana: care and types for home growing
How to grow a banana tree
At home, a banana plant can be grown by planting a seed, or you can buy an already sprouted specimen.
A variety will grow from the seeds, the fruits of which are inedible.
The process of seed germination at home is a rather long process and seedlings will have to wait at best for two months.
Cultivation and care of a banana tree
The most comfortable conditions for growing bananas are the daytime temperature,
, which is in the range of 26-35 C and the night temperature, which fluctuates from 22 to 28 C.
When the ambient temperature drops up to 10 about With growth completely stops.
Strictly defined humidity has no less influence during the entire life cycle of a plant.
Long periods of dryness can lead to the death of the plant.
In the first year of life, the plant does not need much care.
It only needs to be watered and periodically loosened very carefully.
In October pawpaw sheds its foliage and prepares for a dormant period.
Now you need to provide your pet with moderate watering until spring, you can move the plant to a cooler place.Photo of a banana tree
In April, sap flow begins, which means it's time to feed.
Nitrodiammophos fertilizer will be the best option.
Dilute approximately 20 g per bucket of water.
How to divide banana trees?
- Banana trees are tropical plants that usually grow quickly.
As they grow, they sprout or "children" underground around their base.
If these shoots are not dug up and removed, they grow into banana trees.
When this happens, the growth of both trees slows down as they compete for nutrients in the same soil.
The solution to this problem is to split the trees first.
Then transplant the process at a distance from the mother.
- Place the shovel between the trees with the back of the shovel facing the main plant.
Dip the shovel blade into the ground a few centimeters.
Move the handle of the shovel so that the blade is at an angle to the shoot and rests lightly on it.
- Insert the blade of the hand shovel into the ground as far as it will go.
Push the handle back and forth to cut off the stalk that attaches the shoot to the main banana tree.
- Dig out the core of the banana tree sprout while lifting the tree up and out of the ground.
A rhizome is a white, potato-like mass that forms the base of a shoot.
The rhizome has "eyes" like potatoes, from which shoots grow.
- Plant a banana tree in a large pot or in the ground.
The soil should be rich in humus and well drained.
Water the plant minimally at first until it begins to grow.
Banana Tree Seeds
- Remove the banana seeds from the core of the fruit and lay out on paper.
- Rinse and dry the seeds for 2 days.
- Seeds with pre-scratched shells are pressed into the ground.
After sowing, after 3 days the seeds should peck.
Banana seeds germinate for a very long time - from 2 to 3 months.
Choosing a pot
Choose a spacious container for your future banana.
It is necessary to make good holes in it, cover with expanded clay with a layer of 1.5 - 2 cm, add sand 1.5 - 2 cm, fill with earth.
The stalk is carefully transplanted: it is important not to damage the root system and delicate foliage.
If the growing conditions are favorable for your plant, then it will develop quite quickly.
Then you may need more than one transplant per year. Good drainage is most important.
The banana tree is detrimental to stagnant water, which can rot the roots.
Also requires daily leaf dampening, spraying or wiping.
Dry air adversely affects the leaves of the banana tree.
During the period of active growth and development, you can feed with organic fertilizers, in the same proportions as for other plants.
The optimal temperature for the active growth of a banana tree can be considered from +23 to +28 degrees, in winter from +17 to +20 degrees.
Humidity and rather high temperatures are the key to success!
In the wild, bananas prefer scorching sunlight, for this reason a south window sill is a good fit.
It is necessary to select a place with sufficient lighting.
Lack of light adversely affects growth and development.
Now we know how simple and easy it is to care for a banana tree at home.
A Few Tips for Growing Banana Trees
Banana trees also provide tropical appeal to your patio or pool area.
In addition to their beautiful appearance, they can offer pleasant shade in hot weather.
Before you start growing banana trees, you need to learn about their features and the rules for caring for them.
First, you need a suitable soil for this tropical plant.
To do this, dry the soil well with a special mixture with perlite.
This provides good drainage. Do not plant banana trees in heavy soil, such as in a yard.
The rhizomes of the banana tree are in an upright position. Make sure the roots are well covered.
The rhizome should be 3-5 centimeters covered with soil.
Of course, the banana tree needs to be fertilized and watered.
Use fresh fertilizers, mixtures suitable specifically for these plants.
Since bananas need quite a lot of nutrients for active growth, they need to be fertilized.
After the initial watering, you do not need to water the plant again,
until the top 2-5 cm of soil is dry.
Banana trees can only grow in bright light. Ideal for them 12 hours of sunlight.
Heat is essential for these tropical plants.
The ideal temperature for growing bananas is 20 degrees Celsius.
As for humidity, it should be at the level of 50% and above.
Very dry and hot air can destroy leaves.
If you want to grow a banana tree in a container, make sure they are not too big.
Standard sizes - from 15 to 20 centimeters. They must have a drainage hole.
Do not plant banana trees in containers without them.
If you see that the plants are getting crowded, you need to transplant them into a larger container.
Banana plants have a stem and an underground corm.
It is essential for the growth and nutrition of the new plant.
Only after the trunk has grown and strengthened (about 10-15 months), useful substances will go through it from the soil, nourishing the leaves,
and then the apical inflorescences, which will subsequently turn into fruits.
Useful properties of banana
Banana pulp is used to relieve inflammation in the oral cavity,
and also as a dietary product in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
In addition, banana is laxative and is therefore used as a mild laxative.
Due to the presence of tryptophan, an amino acid that prevents cell aging and has a beneficial effect on brain function,
bananas are recommended for the elderly.
The presence of potassium and magnesium allows them to be used as a means of preventing high blood pressure and stroke.
Infusion of banana flowers helps in the treatment of diabetes and bronchitis.
Banana stem juice is a good anticonvulsant and sedative.
The invaluable benefits of bananas are concentrated in the peel. Banana skins are used for medicinal purposes.
Compresses from young leaves or banana peel promote rapid healing of burns and abscesses on the skin.
- beneficial properties of banana