How to grow mango tree in florida


Mango Growing in the Florida Home Landscape

Jonathan H. Crane, Jeff Wasielewski, Carlos F. Balerdi, and Ian Maguire 2

Scientific Name: Mangifera indica L.

Common Names: mango, mangga (Southeast Asia), mamuang (Thai), manguier (French)

Family: Anacardiaceae

Relatives: cashew, spondias, pistachio

Origin: Mangos originated in the Indo-Burma region and are indigenous to India and Southeast Asia.

Distribution: Mangos are grown in tropical and subtropical lowlands throughout the world. In Florida, mangos are grown commercially in Dade, Lee, and Palm Beach Counties and as dooryard trees in warm locations along the southeastern and southwestern coastal areas and along the southern shore of Lake Okeechobee.

History: Mangos have been cultivated in India for more than 4000 years. Beginning in the 16th century, mangos were gradually distributed around the world, reaching the Americas in the 18th century. The first recorded introduction into Florida was Cape Sable in 1833.

Importance: Mangos are universally considered one of the finest fruits and are one of the most important fruit crops in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Increasing commercial acreage and improved handling methods and shipping throughout the world have increased the mango's popularity and availability in US markets. Major producers include India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, and the Philippines. Other important producers are Australia, South Africa, Ecuador, Peru, Israel, and Egypt. In the United States, Florida, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii have small but locally important industries.

Figure 1.  Selected mango cultivars.
Credit: Ian Maguire, UF/IFAS

Description

Tree

Left unpruned many mango varieties become medium to large (30 to 100 ft; 9.1 to 30.5 m) trees. Trees are evergreen, with a symmetrical, rounded canopy ranging from low and dense to upright and open. Tree vigor varies among varieties with some of low, moderate, and high vigor (Table 1). In general, tree size control of low to moderate vigor varieties are more easily managed to maintain a low stature (height and width) while maintaining good fruit production than more vigorous varieties.

Leaves

Leaves are alternately arranged, lanceolate, 6 to 16 inches in length (15 to 40.6 cm), and leathery. Pinkish, amber, or pale green when young, leaves become dark green at maturity. Leaves may live up to five years.

Inflorescence (Flowers)

The inflorescence is a many-branched panicle borne at the ends of shoots. Shoots are 2.5 to 16 inches long (6.4 to 40.6 cm) and possess from 550 to more than 4,000 flowers. Flowers are small and pinkish-white. The majority are staminate (male) and the remainder are perfect (bisexual).

Fruit

Classified as drupes, mangos vary in shape (nearly round, oval, ovoid-oblong), size, and color depending upon the variety. Mangos may be greenish, greenish-yellow, yellow, red, orange, or purple and weigh from a few ounces to more than 5 pounds (2.3 kg). The skin is smooth and leathery, surrounding the fleshy, pale-yellow to deep-orange edible portion. The fruits possess a single large, flattened, kidney-shaped seed that is enclosed in a woody husk.

Seed Types

Mango varieties produce either monoembryonic or polyembryonic seeds. Polyembryonic seeds contain more than one embryo, and most of the embryos are genetically identical to the mother tree. Monoembryonic seeds contain one embryo, and this embryo possesses genes from both parents. A tree planted from a polyembryonic seed will be identical to its parent tree, whereas a tree planted from a monoembryonic seed will be a hybrid (mix of both parents).

Pollination

In Florida, mangos bloom from December to April depending upon climatic conditions and variety. Pollination is by various insects such as thrips, flies, and, to a small extent, honey bees.

Varieties

Indian Types typically have monoembryonic seeds and often highly colored fruit. The fruit tend to be more susceptible to anthracnose and internal breakdown. Many commercial Florida varieties are of this type.

Indochinese Types typically have polyembryonic seeds, and fruit often lack attractive coloration (i.e., they are green, light green, or yellow). The fruit tend to be relatively resistant to anthracnose. Florida varieties of this group are grown commercially on a small scale and some are appreciated in home plantings.

In many areas of the tropics, there are seedling mangos that do not clearly fit in either of these types. Some of these are 'Turpentine', 'Number 11', 'Madame Francis', and 'Kensington'.

There are many mango varieties available in south Florida and many are appropriate for small and large home landscapes. Some characteristics of the most important Florida varieties are summarized in Table 1.

Climate

Mango trees are adapted to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate areas that typically do not experience freezing temperatures. Mango trees do not appear to acclimate to cold temperatures, and no significant difference in cold resistance among mango varieties or types has been observed in Florida.

In general, mangos in Florida should be planted in the warmest areas of the state, i.e., along the southeast and southwest coasts. However, mango trees are grown in protected locations as far north as Merritt Island and along the southeast and southwest shoreline of Lake Okeechobee.

Well adapted to the lowlands of the tropics and subtropics, mature trees can withstand air temperatures as low as 25°F (-3.9°C) for a few hours with injury to leaves and small branches. However, young trees may be killed at 29°F to 30°F (-1.7°C to -1.1°C). Flowers and small fruits may be damaged or killed if the temperature falls below 40°F (4.4°C) for a few hours.

Propagation

Mango trees may be propagated by seed and vegetatively. Vegetative propagation is necessary for monoembryonic seed types, whereas varieties with polyembryonic seeds come true from seed.

Seed

Polyembryonic mango varieties generally come true from seed, and this is a common method of propagation in many parts of the tropics. Monoembryonic varieties do not come true from seed and must be propagated vegetatively in order to obtain the same variety.

Vegetative

Veneer- and cleft-grafting and chip-budding are the most common and successful methods in Florida. Young, vigorously growing seedlings are used for rootstocks. Scionwood is selected from young, leafy terminals or mature terminals with swelling buds. Grafting can be done at any time of the year when suitable rootstocks are available but is most successful during warm weather.

Undesirable varieties can be changed by top-working. Scions of the desired variety are veneer-grafted directly on the trunk or limbs of the tree or on to new shoots that develop after the tree is cut back.

Air layering of some varieties ('Tommy Atkins') has been successful by applying a 2% naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in a lanolin mixture to the distal bark and girdled wood interface of the girdle. Adventitious roots form in about 10 to 12 weeks. However, this method has not been successful for other varieties and is not practiced on a commercial scale, and tree performance under conditions in the home landscape has not been tested.

Rootstocks

Most mango varieties are grafted onto polyembryonic rootstocks. Common polyembryonic rootstocks include 'Turpentine' and unnamed criollo-types. These rootstocks are tolerant of high pH soils and seedlings are vigorous and relatively uniform.

Production (Crop Yields)

The number of fruits that set and mature is very small in relation to the number of flowers produced by the tree. Most varieties in Florida produce an average of less than one fruit per panicle.

Grafted trees will begin to bear 3 to 5 years after planting. In Florida, average yields of 4 to 6 bushels (220 to 330 lb; 100 to 150 kg) can be expected from mature trees. Greater yields are possible with good management and favorable weather conditions. Fruits of most varieties mature from May to September (Table 1), with greatest production in June and July. The period of development from flowering to fruit maturity is 100 to 150 days.

Anthracnose, powdery mildew, and low temperatures during bloom generally reduce fruit set and are the most limiting factors to mango production in Florida. Dry weather preceding and during the blooming period is considered optimal for good fruit production.

Mangos are picked by hand or by using a long picking pole that has at its distal end a canvas or nylon bag attached to a metal ring with a cutting blade; ladders are also used to reach fruit high in the tree canopy. However, pruning trees to limit their size enables most fruit to be easily harvested.

Spacing and Pruning

Vigorous mango varieties and mango trees where no pruning is likely to be practiced should be planted 25 to 30 feet or more (7. 6 to 9.1 m) away from buildings, power lines, or other trees. This is because if trees are left unpruned, they will become large to very large. In contrast, less vigorous or nonvigorous (sometimes called dwarf) mango varieties and mango trees where tree training and annual pruning will be practiced to limit tree size may be planted 12 to 15 feet (3.7 to 4.6 m) apart from other trees, buildings, and power lines.

Formative pruning (tree training) of young trees is advanta- geous because it increases the number of lateral branches and establishes a strong framework for subsequent fruit production. Selective removal of a few upper limbs back to their origin (crotches) each year will help prevent the loss of the lower tree canopy, reduce the work and time to spray and harvest the fruit and greatly reduce possible storm damage. Pruning should be done soon after harvest. Severe pruning (used to reduce canopy height or width of very large trees) does not injure mango trees, but reduces production for one to several seasons.

Once mango trees become 25 ft to 30 ft (7.6 to 9 m) or taller extreme caution should be used in pruning the trees. Climbing trees to prune them is dangerous and not recommended. Pruning of large mango trees should be done by a professional arborist who is licensed and insured.

Soils

Mangos are well adapted to many soil types. In Florida, trees growing in light sand and limestone soils produce satisfactory yields. Although mango trees are moderately tolerant of occasional flooding or excessively wet soil conditions, they will not perform well in poorly drained soils.

In the home landscape, select an area that does not flood. If there is a potential for flooding, plant the tree on a large hill or mound made up of native soil, 2 to 3 ft high (0.6 to 0.9 m) by 4 to 6 ft in diameter (1.2 to 1.8 m).

Planting a Mango Tree

Proper planting is one of the most important steps in successfully establishing and growing a strong, productive tree. The first step is to choose a healthy nursery tree. Commonly, nursery mango trees are grown in 3-gallon (11-liter) containers, and trees stand 2 to 4 ft (0.6–1.2 m) from the soil media. Large trees in smaller containers should be avoided because the root system may be "root bound." This means all the available space in the container has been filled with roots to the point that the tap root is growing along the edge of the container in a circular fashion. Root bound root systems may not grow properly once planted in the ground.

Inspect the tree for insect pests and diseases and inspect the trunk of the tree for wounds and constrictions. Select a healthy tree and water it regularly in preparation for planting in the ground.

Site Selection

In general, mango trees should be planted in full sun for best growth and fruit production. Select a part of the landscape away from other trees, buildings and structures, and power lines. Remember, mango trees can become very large if not pruned to contain their size. Select the warmest area of the landscape that does not flood (or remain wet) after typical summer rains.

Planting in Sandy Soil

Many areas in Florida have sandy soil. Remove a 3 to 10 ft diameter (0.9 to 3.1 m) ring of grass sod. Dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times as deep as the container the mango tree came in. Making a large hole loosens the soil next to the new tree, making it easy for the roots to expand into the adjacent soil. It is not necessary to apply fertilizer, topsoil, or compost to the hole. In fact, placing topsoil or compost in the hole first and then planting on top of it is not desirable. If you wish to add topsoil or compost to the native soil, mix it with the excavated soil in no more than a 50:50 ratio.

Backfill the hole with some of the excavated soil. Remove the tree from the container and place it in the hole so that the top of the soil media from the container is level with or slightly above the surrounding soil level. Fill soil in around the tree roots and tamp slightly to remove air pockets. Immediately water the soil around the tree and tree roots. Staking the tree with a wooden or bamboo stake is optional. However, do not use wire or nylon rope to tie the tree to the stake, because they may eventually damage the tree trunk as it grows. Use a cotton or natural fiber string that will degrade slowly.

Planting in Rockland Soil

Many areas in Miami-Dade County have a very shallow soil, and several inches below the soil surface is a hard, calcareous bedrock. Remove a 3 to 10 ft diameter (0.9 to 3.1 m) ring of grass sod. Make a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times as deep as the container the mango tree came in. To dig a hole, use a pick and digging bar to break up the rock, or contract with a company that has augering equipment or a backhoe. Plant as described in the section above.

Planting on a Mound

Many areas in Florida are within 7 ft (2.1 m) or so of the water table and experience occasional flooding after heavy rains. To improve plant survival, consider planting fruit trees on a 2 to 3 ft high (0.6 to 0.9 m) by 4 to 10 ft diameter mound of native soil.

After the mound is made, dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times as deep as the container the mango tree came in. In areas where the bedrock nearly comes to the surface (rockland soil), follow the recommendations for the previous section. In areas with sandy soil, follow the recommendations from the section on planting in sandy soil.

Care of Mango Trees in the Home Landscape

To promote growth and regular fruiting, mature mango trees should be periodically fertilized and watered only during severe drought conditions. Insects and diseases should be controlled only as needed (Table 2).

Fertilizer

In Florida, young trees should receive fertilizer applications every two to three months during the first year, beginning with ¼ lb (114 g) and gradually increasing to one pound (455 g). Thereafter, 2 to 3 applications per year in amounts proportionate to the increasing size of the tree are sufficient (Table 3).

Fertilizer mixtures containing 2% to 6% nitrogen, 6% to 10% available phosphoric acid, 6% to 12% potash, and 4% to 6% magnesium give satisfactory results with young trees. For bearing trees, nitrogen should be drastically reduced or eliminated, and potash should be increased to 9 to 15%, and available phosphoric acid reduced to 2% to 4%. Examples of commonly available fertilizer mixes include 6-6-6-2 [6 (N)-6 (P2O5)-6 (K2O)-2 (Mg)], 6-3-16 and 0-0-22. Little to no nitrogen is needed for mature healthy trees; in contrast emphasize potash and minor element nutrition.

Mango trees growing in the calcareous soils of south Miami-Dade County should receive annual foliar sprays of copper, zinc, manganese, and boron. Boron should only be applied at very low rates (1/300th of the nitrogen rate) because it is toxic to plants at moderate to high rates. Mixes containing copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium, and boron are available from many garden centers and through the internet; follow label directions. Iron should be applied in chelated form for high pH soils (FeEDDHA compounds are the best) as a soil drench 2 to 3 times per year.

Mango trees growing in neutral and acidic soils should also receive annual foliar sprays or may be fertilized with soil-applied dry materials of iron, zinc, boron, magnesium and manganese either separately or in mixes. Iron may be applied in non-chelated form (i.e., iron sulfate, ferrous sulfate) as a dry material that is watered in 2 to 3 times per year.

Irrigation (Watering)

Newly planted mango trees should be watered at planting and every other day for the first week or so, and then 1 to 2 times a week for the first couple of months. During prolonged dry periods (e.g., 5 or more days of little to no rainfall) newly planted and young mango trees (first 3 years) should be watered once a week. Once the rainy season arrives, irrigation frequency may be reduced or stopped.

Once mango trees are 4 or more years old, irrigation will be beneficial to plant growth and crop yields only during very prolonged dry periods during spring and summer. Mature mango trees do not need frequent watering, and overwatering may cause poor quality fruit and/or trees to decline or be unthrifty. Little to no irrigation is generally necessary during the fall and winter.

Insect pests

Many insect pests attack mangos, but they seldom limit fruit production significantly. Insect infestations are not predictable and control measures are justified only when large infestations occur. Currently, the most important insect pests in Florida are:

  • bud mites (Eriophyes mangiferae)

  • red-banded thrips (Selenothrips rubrocinctus)

  • false oleander scale (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli)

  • pyriform scale (Protopulvinaria pyriformis)

  • dictyospermum scale (Chrysomphalus dictyospermi)

  • Florida red scale (C. aoaidum)

  • mites (e. g., Paratetranychus yothersii)

  • Florida thrips (e.g., Frankliniella bispinosa)

  • ambrosia beetles (Xylosandrus spp.).

Homeowners should contact their local UF/IFAS Extension office for recommended control measures.

Diseases

Disease control for mango trees in the home landscape is usually not warranted or should not be intensive. The easiest method for avoiding disease problems is to grow anthracnose-resistant varieties; to plant trees in full sun where the flowers, leaves, and fruit dry off quickly after rainfall; not to apply irrigation water to the foliage, flowers, and fruit; and to monitor the tree for disease problems during the flowering and fruiting season.

The two major disease problems for mango trees in the home landscape are powdery mildew and anthracnose. Both these fungal pathogens attack newly emerging panicles, flowers, and young fruit. One to two early spring applications of sulfur and copper timed to begin when the panicle is 1/4 full size and then 10 to 21 days later will greatly improve the chances for fruit set and production. Usually, protecting the panicles of flowers during development and fruit set results in good fruit production in the home landscape.

Successful chemical control of diseases caused by fungi requires that all susceptible parts of the plant be thoroughly coated with the fungicide before infection occurs. Sprays applied after infection (which occurs several days to months before the disease is evident) have no effect on disease development. Sprays must be reapplied as new tissues become exposed by growth and as spray residues are reduced by weathering. A successful program depends on:

  • Use of the right amount of a recommended fungicide and adjuvant, if required.

  • Timely applications before infection is most likely to occur.

  • Thorough coverage of susceptible parts. Homeowners should contact their local UF/IFAS Extension office for recommended control recommendations for the diseases discussed below.

Homeowners should contact their local UF/IFAS Extension office for recommended control recommendations for the diseases discussed below.

Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides): The most important disease of mango in Florida, the anthracnose fungus attacks flowers, young fruits, leaves, and twigs. It also appears as a storage disease of mature fruits. Symptoms appear as black, slightly sunken lesions of irregular shape, which gradually enlarge and cause blossom blight, leaf spotting, fruit staining, and fruit rot. Disease development is encouraged by rains or heavy dews. Prevention can be accomplished by maintaining a coating of fungicide on susceptible parts starting when bloom buds begin to expand and ending at harvest.

Mango Scab (Elsinoe mangiferae): The fungus attacks leaves, flowers, fruits, and twigs. In early stages, mango scab infection resembles anthracnose. Lesions on fruit usually become covered with corky brown tissue and leaf distortion. Mango scab is usually not important because the anthracnose spray program also controls scab.

Powdery Mildew (Oidium spp.): The fungus attacks leaves, flowers and young fruits during the dry spring weather. Infected tissues are covered with whitish powdery growth of the fungus. Lesions develop along the midribs or undersides of leaves and become dark brown and greasy-looking as leaves mature. Severe infections destroy flowering panicles and cause failure of fruit set and defoliation of trees. If mildew occurs, applications of sulfur will prevent spread of infection to new growth.

Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum): Verticillium wilt may occur in the limestone soils of Miami-Dade County and is usually observed in new trees planted on land previously used for vegetable production (especially tomatoes). This fungus attacks the tree roots and vascular (water-conducting) system, decreasing and blocking water movement into the tree. Symptoms of infection include leaf wilting, desiccation and browning, stem and limb dieback, and browning of the vascular tissues. Occasionally verticillium will kill young trees. Control consists of removing affected tree limbs by pruning.

Alga Spot (Cephaleuros spp.): This parasitic alga attacks leaves and stems. Symptoms begin as circular green-gray spots which then turn rust red, indicating sporulation. Stem infection appears similar but can lead to bark cankers and thickening and stem death. This organism is normally not a problem where copper fungicides are periodically applied during the summer months.

Disorders

Mango Decline: Research to date suggests that mango decline is caused by deficiencies of manganese and iron. These deficiencies may predispose trees to infection by fungal pathogens (Botryosphaeria ribis and Physalospora spp. ), which attack shoots, or by root-feeding nematodes (Hemicriconemoides mangiferae). Leaf symptoms include interveinal chlorosis, stunting, terminal and marginal necrosis, and retention of dead leaves that gradually drop. Dieback of young stems and limbs is common and even tree death may occur. Increased applications of iron, manganese, and zinc micronutrients have been observed to reduce or ameliorate this problem.

Internal Breakdown: This is a fruit problem of unknown cause, which is also called jelly seed and soft nose. Generally, it is less of a problem on the calcareous (limestone) soils found in south Miami-Dade County and more common on acid sandy soils with low calcium content. The degree of severity may vary from one season to another. Several symptoms may appear including (1) a softening (break-down) and water soaking of the fruit flesh at the distal end while the flesh around the shoulders remains unripe, (2) an open cavity in the pulp at the stem end, (3) over-ripe flesh next to the seed surrounded by relatively firm flesh, or (4) areas of varying size in the flesh appearing spongy with a grayish-black color. This disorder is aggravated by overfertilization with nitrogen. If fruit have this problem, reduce the rate of nitrogen. In sandy and low-pH soils, increased calcium fertilization may help alleviate this problem. Fruits harvested mature-green are less affected than those allowed to ripen on the tree.

Mango Malformation: This disorder is caused by Fusarium mangiferae Britz, a fungus. Symptoms include the drastic shortening of panicles, giving them a clustered appearance and/or a shortening of shoot internodes. Affected panicles do not set fruit and eventually dry up and turn black. This disorder is not common in Florida, but homeowners should watch for it and immediately prune off affected flower panicles and shoots and destroy them.

Mango Trees and Lawn Care

Mango trees in the home landscape are susceptible to trunk injury caused by lawn mowers and weed eaters. Maintain a grass-free area 2 to 5 or more feet (0.6–1.5 m) away from the trunk of the tree. Never hit the tree trunk with lawn mowing equipment and never use a weed eater near the tree trunk. Mechanical damage to the trunk of the tree will weaken the tree and, if severe enough, can cause dieback or kill the tree.

Roots of mature mango trees spread beyond the drip-line of the tree canopy, and heavy fertilization of the lawn next to mango trees is not recommended because it may reduce fruiting and or fruit quality. The use of lawn sprinkler systems on a timer may result in overwatering and cause mango trees to decline. This is because too much water too often applied causes root rot.

Mulch

Mulching mango trees in the home landscape helps retain soil moisture, reduces weed problems next to the tree trunk, and improves the soil near the surface.

Mulch with a 2-to-6-inch (5 to 15 cm) layer of bark, wood chips, or similar mulch material. Keep mulch 8 to 12 inches (20–30 cm) from the trunk.

Harvest, Ripening, and Storage

Mango fruits will ripen on the tree, but they are usually picked when firm and mature (Table 1). Table 1 may be used as a guide to when picking your fruit may begin. However, slight year-to-year variations occur in when maturity begins. The crop is considered mature when the shoulders and the nose (the end of the fruit away from the stem) of the fruit broaden (fill out). Varieties that have color when ripe may have a slight blush of color development, or they may have begun to change color from green to yellow. Prior to this peel color break, the fruit is considered mature when the flesh near the seed changes color from white to yellow. Generally, mature fruit are available from May to September in Florida.

The fruit from mango trees do not all have to be harvested at the same time. This feature allows you to leave the fruit on the tree and pick fruit only when you want to eat it. Remember, it takes several days or more (depending upon how mature the fruit is) for the fruit to ripen once it is picked. As the season of harvest for any given variety passes, the fruit continue to mature (and later ripen), and there is an increased chance the fruit will begin to fall from the tree.

The best temperatures for ripening mangos are from 70°F to 75°F (21°C to 24°C). Fruits ripened at higher temperatures often shrivel and develop off flavors. Mature fruits ripen 3 to 8 days after harvest. After the fruit has ripened you may store it in the refrigerator. Placing the fruit in the refrigerator before it is ripe may lead to chilling injury. Chilling injury symptoms may not become evident until fruit is exposed to higher temperatures. Symptoms may include brown or gray discoloration of the skin, surface pitting, uneven flesh ripening, and off flavors.

Uses and Nutritional Value

Mango is one of the most highly esteemed fruits of the tropics. The fruit is used in many ways, with fresh consumption being the most important. It can also be frozen, dried, canned, or cooked in jams, jellies, preserves, pies, chutney and ice cream. The fruit is a fair source of phosphorus and potassium, and a good source of vitamins A, C, B-6, and E (Table 4).

Tables

Table 1.  

Some characteristics of Florida mango varieties recommended for the home landscape.

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Table 2. 

Cultural calendar for mango production of mature (bearing) trees in the home landscape.

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Table 3. 

Fertilizer program for mango trees in the home landscape.

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Table 4. 

Nutrient value of mango fruit (3.5 oz or 100 g of fruit).1

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Footnotes

1. This document is HS2 (formerly FC2), one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date April 1994. Revised May 2003, May 2017, and March 2020. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2. Jonathan H. Crane, professor and tropical fruit crop specialist, UF/IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center; Jeff Wasielewski, tropical fruit crops Extension agent, UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County; Carlos F. Balerdi, professor and multi-county tropical fruit crops Extension agent (retired), UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County; and Ian Maguire, media artist (former), UF/IFAS TREC; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

How To Grow Mangoes In Florida

Is it possible to grow mangoes in Florida?

You can grow mangoes easily in southern Florida’s tropical climate. Those as far north as Orlando have had success growing Mangoes but they stay diligent protecting them form cold weather. Those in north Florida will have to grow mangoes in pots or have a rather large greenhouse to protect them during winter.

Some varieties are more cold-resistant than others, continue reading to learn more about growing mangoes in Florida.

Where Can You Grow Mangoes In Florida?

The best part of the state to grow mangoes in is south Florida. Mango trees are a tropical tree and do not like cold weather. Mangoes are generally rated for USDA zones 10-11.

However, there have been people that grow mango trees in central Florida, as far north as Orlando. It’s not entirely impossible to grow mangoes in the northernmost parts of Florida either. You guys will just have to work a bit harder.

By Abhishek Priyadarshi – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=23792370

Mango fruits and flowers begin to get damaged when temperatures are at or below 42F for an extended period of time. You trees will suffer major damage if temperatures drop to or below 30F.

Mature trees will make it through temperatures in the upper twenties, not without some damage. You will most likely miss the next season of fruits due to this cold weather and will need to severely prune your tree.

Best Types Of Mangoes To Grow In Florida

There are more types of Mangoes than I can (or want to) list here. Below I’ve made a little chart that shows you some popular mango choices out there as well as some brief info about them.

VarietyBrief Description
AngieA slow grower but a good producer. Makes 13-14oz sized mangoes
CarrieA vigorous grower. Makes 10-12oz sized fruits.
GlennA Medium growth tree that will make fruits as large as 18oz. Can withstand colder temperatures when mature.
HadenA very fast-growing tree that makes fruit from 16-24oz. It is cold sensitive.
Ice CreamA slow grower that makes smaller, 8-9oz fruits.
KentA vigorous grower that can make fruits as large as 30oz.
PalmerA Vigorous grower that makes fruits between 20-30oz.

There are many other varieties of mango that I have not listed here, check out this post by IFAS if you’re interested in seeing a few more mango cultivars.

When I mention growth rate in each plant’s description I think it’s helpful to know that trees with slow and moderate growth rates are trees that are much easier to prune yearly and keep at a manageable size. While trees with vigorous growth descriptions will require more aggressive pruning to keep them manageable.

Best Time To Plant Mangoes In Florida

The best time to plant mangoes is in the early spring time, after fear of any cold weather has gone.

North FloridaApril
Central FloridaMarch – April
South FloridaFebruary – March

You can definitley plant mangoes after these time frames as well, they will grow well in our hot humid summers. These dates are ideal because this is the earliest that suitable weather is around in the state.

The thing to keep in mind when planting mangoes is to avoid the cold weather at all costs. Young mango trees can die if it gets down to 30F for a small period of time.

What To Know Before Planting A Mango Tree

If you have already pruchased a mango tree from your local nursery this little section does not apply to you, you can skip ahead to how to care for mango trees.

But if you are planting a mango tree from a seed I think it’s important for you to know this info.

New leaves emerging

Mango tree seeds come in two different “types” for lack of a better word. These types are; Monoembryonic and polyembryonic.

The difference between the two is that if planting a poly embryonic seed you will get an exact clone to the mother plant. However, if you plant a mono-embryonic seed you might not get the exact same mango as the mother plant.

All of the varieties mentioned in the above chart are Mono-embryonic.

How To Care For Mango Trees

Mango Trees enjoy being planted in full sun, the more the better. Mango trees prefer a soil that is well-draining and full of organic material. However, mango trees have been grown well in sandy and limestone soils.

When first planting your mango tree you should water every day for at least two weeks, unless it’s raining. After that, you should water at least 3-4 times a week for a few months until tapering offer to watering only once or twice a week for the first few years.

You don’t have to prune your mango tree but it will grow quite large. unpruned mango trees can spread 25-30 feet making it hard to manage. It’s a good idea to prune when the tree is young to encourage lateral branching and make a structurally sound tree and highly productive tree.

A good basic fruit tree fertilizer will do for your mango tree. Follow the directions on the bag for application. Your plant may also need certain micronutrients like iron, boron, zinc, etc…

The only way to know if you need these things is to have your soil tested. Your local UF IFAS extension office can test your dirt for a pretty cheap price.

When Do Mango Trees Bloom In Florida

Generally speaking, we should see mango trees bloom in Florida between November and February/March.

photo Cred: Taters

With our relatively warm winters, we may see multiple blooms during these months. Dryness usually encourages flowering, during these months you should cut back on watering slightly.

Common Mango Pests and Diseases

The most common pests that you will see on your mango tree are ambrosia beetles, mites, scale and thrips.

The best defense against these pests is to raise a healthy tree. Water and fertilize frequently.

Some common diseases in mango trees are powdery mildew and anthracnose. Both of these are fungal diseases that attack young leaves, flowers and fruit.

A simple spray of a copper fungicide will help the situation as long as you catch it quickly. At the first sign of either of these two things you must spray your plant because after the disease has set in, copper fungicide spray will not help.

How To Grow Mangoes In Florida

  • Those in southern and parts of southern parts of central Florida will have the best luck growing mangoes.
  • Those in north florida can grow mangoes but it will take extra effort to protect them from the cold weather
  • Angie, Carrie,Glenn, Haden, Kent, and Ice cream are some popular varieties of mango.
  • The best time to plant young mango trees and seeds in Florida is in March and April
  • Mango trees enjoy full sun and well draining soil.
  • water and fertilize regularly.
  • Prune young to encourage a good growth structure.

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Care instruction, Planting times and varieties all learned from The University of Florida IFAS website.

How and where does mango grow in nature and at home, what does the plant and fruit look like + photo

How does a mango grow? This question was probably asked by everyone who tried an exotic tropical fruit for the first time. A plant with fleshy fruits - orange or reddish, fragrant and juicy, sour-sweet inside and greenish-red outside - is it a tree or a bush? From which countries are fruits delivered to supermarket shelves? And is it possible to grow full-fledged fruit-bearing mangifers from oblong seeds - mango fruit seeds - at home?

Contents

  • 1 Mango - fruit and ornamental plant

    • 1. 1 Countries and regions of growth

    • 1.2 Video: how a mango grows

  • 2 Long-lived tree

  • 3 Mango fruit

    • 3.1 What does mango taste like

  • 4 Mangifera at home

    • 4.1 Video: how to grow a mango from a stone at home

Mango - fruit and ornamental plant

Mango, or mangifera, is cultivated as a fruit and ornamental plant. Evergreen trees Mangifera indica (Indian mango) belong to the Sumac family (Anacardiaceae). They have glossy dark green (or tinged with reddish) foliage and grow to gigantic sizes. But with proper and regular pruning, they can be quite compact.

A mango tree in bloom is an unforgettable sight. It is strewn with large pink inflorescences-panicles exuding a unique aroma. Therefore, the plant is grown not only for the sake of obtaining fruits, but also for its use in landscape design (when decorating parks, squares, household plots, private greenhouses, winter gardens, etc. ). However, its main purpose in exporting countries is still agricultural.

This is how green (Philippine) mango grows

Countries and regions of growth

Mangifera comes from the humid tropics of Assam, India, and the forests of Myanmar. It is considered a national treasure among the Hindus and in Pakistan. It is grown in tropical Asia, in the west of Malesia, on the Solomon Islands and east of the Malay Archipelago, in California (USA) and tropical Australia, in Cuba and Bali, the Canaries and the Philippine Islands.

India is considered the largest supplier of mangoes in the world - a year it provides the market with more than thirteen and a half million tons of these fruits. Mangoes are also cultivated in Europe - in the Canary Islands and in Spain. Ideal conditions for the plant are a hot climate with not too much rainfall. Despite the fact that Armenian-made mango juice can be found on supermarket shelves, mangifera does not grow in Armenia.

She can be found:

  • in Thailand - the country's climate is perfect for tropical plants, the mango harvest season here is from April to May, and Thais love to enjoy ripe fruits;
  • in Indonesia, as well as in Bali, the mango harvesting season is autumn-winter, from October to January;
  • in Vietnam - winter-spring, from January to March;
  • in Turkey - Mangifera is not very common, but is grown and ripens in the middle or towards the end of summer;
  • in Egypt - mango ripens from early summer, June, until autumn, until September, it is even exported to other countries;
  • In Russia - in the south of Stavropol and in the Krasnodar Territory (Sochi), but rather as an ornamental plant (blooms in May, and bears fruit by the end of summer).

Indian mango on tree

The genus includes more than 300 species, some varieties were cultivated several thousand years ago. In tropical countries, you can try mangoes Alfonso, Bauno, Quini, Pajang, Blanco, fragrant, bottled and others, in Russia, Indian varieties of mangoes, with a reddish barrel, and South Asian (Philippine) varieties of green mangoes go on sale more often.

Mangifera is very sensitive to cold, which is why in the middle latitudes it can be grown only in heated rooms - winter gardens, greenhouses, greenhouses. Trees need a lot of light, but they do not need rich soil.

Even a short-term drop in air temperature below plus five degrees Celsius will negatively affect young trees - their flowers and fruits will die. Mature mangoes can withstand light frosts for short periods of time.

Video: how a mango grows

long-lived tree

Shady mango trees with a wide rounded crown grow up to twenty meters or more in height, develop very quickly (if they have enough heat and light, and the humidity is not too high) and live for a long time - there are even three-hundred-year-old specimens in the world that even in such a venerable bear fruit in age. Access to water and useful minerals in the soil for these plants is provided by long roots (rods), which grow underground to a depth of five to six, or even nine to ten meters.

Mango - evergreen and non-deciduous, very beautiful trees. They are decorative all year round. The leaves of mature mangoes are oblong, dark green above, and much lighter below, with clearly visible pale veins, dense and glossy. The young foliage of the shoots has a reddish color. Inflorescences are like panicles - pyramidal - there are up to two thousand yellow, pinkish or orange, and sometimes red flowers each. But only a few of them (two or three per inflorescence) are pollinated and bear fruit. There are varieties that do not require pollination at all.

Pyramidal Mango Buds

Mangifera does not bear fruit in conditions when the humidity is high, with a large amount of precipitation. Fruits are also not set when the air temperature (including at night) drops below plus twelve degrees Celsius. Mango trees begin to bloom and bear fruit only five to six years after they are planted. In a greenhouse or at home, you can see the flowers and fruits of the mangifera only if you buy grafted seedlings or graft them yourself. And at the same time, observe the necessary parameters of humidity and air temperature, properly care for and cut.

In the countries of growth, mangifera forms entire mango forests and is considered the same agricultural crop as, for example, wheat or corn in our country. Under natural conditions (in the wild), the plant can reach a height of thirty meters, has a crown diameter of up to eight meters, its lanceolate leaves grow up to forty centimeters in length. Fruits after pollination of flowers ripen within three months.

Mango trees only produce two harvests under cultivated conditions, in the wild mango trees bear fruit once a year.

Mangifera blooms like this

Mango

The unusual appearance of mangifera trees always attracts the attention of tourists who visit tropical countries for the first time. Their fruits ripen on long (about sixty centimeters) shoots - former panicles - two or more on each, have an oblong shape (curved, ovoid, flattened), up to twenty-two centimeters long and weighing about seven hundred grams each.

Fruit rind - glossy, like wax - colored depending on the type of plant and the degree of ripeness of the fruit - in various tones of yellow, orange, red, green. There are traces of flowers on the ends of the fruit. The peel is considered inedible because it contains substances that cause allergic reactions.

Indians and Asians use mango fruits in home medicine - they are considered an effective folk remedy that stops bleeding, strengthens the heart muscle and improves brain activity. Ripe selected mangoes have a shiny surface, without spots and bruises (the color of the peel depends on the variety), their flesh is not hard, but not too soft, juicy, fragrant, with a fibrous structure. An unripe mango can be wrapped in dark opaque paper and placed in a warm place. In about a week, it will ripen and be ready to eat.

In India, mangifera is eaten at any stage of maturity. The fruits are washed thoroughly, separated from the stone with a knife, peeled and cut into slices. Or they cut half the fruit into cubes right on the peel.

Mangoes cut into cubes or slices

Everyone in our family loves mangoes. We eat it fresh or use the pulp of the fruit in combination with other fruits to make vitamin cocktails or smoothies, soufflés, mousses, puddings, homemade cakes. It turns out very tasty. In salads, mango goes well with seafood and chicken breast. But I didn’t succeed in growing a tree from a bone, although I tried several times. The fact is that for transportation, tropical fruits are not fully ripened, and then the seeds do not always germinate.

What does mango taste like

The taste of mango, perhaps, cannot be compared with any other - it is special and unique. Sometimes fragrant-juicy-sweet, sometimes with a pleasant and refreshing sourness. It all depends on the degree of ripeness of the fruit, variety, region of growth. For example, Thai mangoes have a slight coniferous aroma. The consistency of the pulp of all fruits is thick, tender, somewhat reminiscent of apricot, but with the presence of hard plant fibers. The brighter the skin of the mango, the sweeter the flesh of the fruit.

Mango juice, if it accidentally gets on clothes, is not washed. The stone is separated from the pulp poorly. The pulp protects the seeds of the plant (the seeds inside the fruits) from damage. It contains sugars (more in ripe ones), starch and pectin (more in green ones), vitamins and minerals, organic acids and other useful things.

Unripe mangoes are high in vitamin C and sour in taste. Ripe mangoes are sweet, as they contain a lot of sugars (up to twenty percent), and less acids (only half a percent).

Mangifera at home

Mango as an ornamental plant can be grown in a house or apartment, but not in a household or summer cottage (if the site is not located in a region with a tropical or subtropical climate). For home breeding, dwarf mango varieties are purchased. Mango trees are also germinated from the stone of the purchased fruit. But the fruit must be fully ripe.

Home-grown young mango seedlings

Mangifera reproduces both by sowing seeds, and by grafting, and by vegetative means. An ungrafted indoor plant is unlikely to bloom and bear fruit, but even without that it looks very aesthetically pleasing. In fairness, it should be noted that even grafted seedlings do not always bear fruit in room, greenhouse or greenhouse conditions.

Dwarf mangoes grow as compact trees up to one and a half to two meters in height. If you plant an ordinary plant from a stone, then it will be necessary to carry out regular formative pruning of the crown. In favorable conditions, the mangifera grows very intensively, so it usually needs to be transplanted into a larger pot once a year, and pruning several times a year.

During the period of intensive growth, it is desirable to fertilize the plant, without top dressing and sufficient illumination, mango at home grows with thin stems and small leaves. In summer, the crown of the mango tree needs to be sprayed. And in winter, place the mangifer closer to the heat source.

Video: how to grow a mango from a stone at home

Mango is a tropical tree that produces delicious juicy fragrant fruits. It grows in countries with a warm, not too humid climate, does not tolerate cold weather. Mangifera is also grown as an ornamental plant at home, but rarely blooms and bears fruit - only grafted trees, and subject to the necessary climatic indicators.

  • Author: Natalya Galushko