How to grow poplar trees from seed


What Kind of Seeds Does a Poplar Tree Have? | Home Guides

By Cathryn Chaney

About 30 different kinds of poplar (Populus spp.) trees exist, with most native to the northern hemisphere. They are tall deciduous trees valued for ornament, shelter belts, pulp and wood, and include cottonwood and aspen. Members of the willow family, trees are either male or female, with only the female producing the seeds which are encased in white fluffy masses of hairs. Trees can regrow from the roots. Poplars are rapid growers and tolerant of a wide variety of growing conditions.

Poplar Flowers and Seeds

  1. Poplar flowers appear in elongate catkins that hang from tree branches in spring before the leaves emerge. Once the female flowers are wind-pollinated from male trees, seeds begin to form, maturing in late spring or early summer just after the leaves have grown out. Small round fruit capsules on the catkin split open, revealing small seeds surrounded by white cottony hairs. The wind catches the fluffy hairs and carries the seeds long distances from the parent tree.

Cottonwood Trees

  1. Cottonwoods (Populus spp.) are named for the abundant summer seed production of female trees. Each cottonwood tree produces thousands of fruits each summer, and each fruit has hundreds of seeds. A single tree might produce millions of seeds a year. The tiny dark-colored seeds don't have a stored food reserve, so for germination they depend on being blown into a moist area near water courses where they can sprout right away. Where cottonwoods are abundant, blowing seeds can look like a snowstorm. Some cities don't allow planting of female cottonwood trees because of the seed accumulation. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 2 through 9, western cottonwood (Populus fremontii) grows in USDA zones 5 through 10, and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) is hardy in USDA zones 3 through 8.

Other Poplars

  1. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) seldom grows from seed. Instead, they reproduce from root suckers and form dome-shaped clonal groves, where all the trunks came from a single tree. Aspen is hardy in USDA zones 3 through 7 and grows throughout most of North America except for the southeast. Eurasian white poplar (Populus alba) is widely grown as an ornamental in USDA zones 3 through 9. It grows to 40 to 80 feet tall and has silvery-white foliage. It hybridizes with other poplars and is suitable for seaside landscapes. It also has fluffy wind-borne seeds and grows easily from seed. There are numerous hybrid poplar cultivars available for landscaping, many of which are male selections or are sterile and don't produce seeds. This is an advantage where cities prohibit planting of female poplars because of the messy seed dispersal.

Propagation

  1. Selected hybrid poplars can't be grown from seed since the desirable characteristics of the hybrid won't be replicated. Instead, hybrids are reproduced from root cuttings or from stem cuttings. Poplars are grown in plantations for pulp production, and fast-growing hybrid strains are selected for quick harvesting. Black cottonwood hybrid plantations use cuttings of 1- to 2-year-old wood. Unrooted cuttings taken in spring are 12 to 24 inches long and 1/2 to a little over 1 inch in diameter, and are planted directly in place to root. To grow poplars from seed, the seed has to be in direct contact with moist soil. Sometimes the seed lands with the cottony fluff between the seed and the soil, and germination is inhibited. The soil has to remain wet for about a month for germination and seedling establishment.

References

  • Flora of North America: Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae; Flora of North America Editorial Committee
  • University of Illinois Life Sciences: Salicaceae: Populus Deltoides Fruit
  • Discovering Lewis & Clark: Cottonwood Fruit
  • Discovering Lewis & Clark: Cottonwood Seeds
  • University of Utah Extension: Trees Listed According to Lowest Average Temperature They Can Tolerate
  • Utah State University: Range Plants of Utah: Quaking Aspen
  • United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile: Populus Tremuloides Michx.
  • Floridata: Populus Alba
  • The City of Edmonton: White Poplar Fluff
  • Oregon State University: Oregon Wood Innovation Center: Black Cottonwood (Populus Trichocarpa)

Resources

  • Utah State University Digital Commons: Seed Hairs and Seed Germination in Populus
  • North Dakota State University Department of Agriculture: Hybrid Poplar

Writer Bio

Cathryn Chaney has worked as a gardening writer since 2002. Her horticultural experience working in the nursery industry informs her garden articles, especially those dealing with arid landscaping and drought-tolerant gardening. Chaney also writes poetry, which has appears in "Woman's World" magazine and elsewhere. Chaney graduated from the University of Arizona in 1992 with a Bachelor of Arts in English.

How to Grow Poplar Tree

Tall and elegant, the poplar tree is an ideal way to bring structure, focus and shade into your garden. An attractive deciduous plant, the poplar tree is a great choice if you want to introduce privacy or shelter to an outdoor space.

Thriving in warm weather and moist soil, most varieties are hardy in USDA Zones 3 to 9.

Most poplar tree varieties are easily identified by their foliage. This is often heart shaped, and if you look closely, edged with small teeth. Green in the autumn, the foliage turns a golden or yellow shade, depending on the variety, in the fall. Interestingly the poplar tree sets both male and female flowers, meaning that it can self pollinate. This leads to the plant producing yellow flowers and small fruit.

The poplar has long been used to add height and structure to an outdoor space. As well as a great way to introduce natural privacy, they can also be used to line paths and driveways. 

With over 35 different species, as well as numerous hybrids, to choose from, you are sure to find a plant that suits your situation. Here is your complete guide to growing a poplar tree.

Different Poplar Tree Varieties


Fast growing but not long lasting, these plants have a lifespan of around 50 years. Selecting the right variety for your garden and caring for it correctly can help to extend this lifespan for as long as possible.

While there are over 35 recognised species, very few are commonly grown in domestic settings.

The most commonly grown are

  • White (Populus Alba), this cultivar is native to Southern and central Europe and South Asia. With a distinctive pale grey bark, the leaves of this plant can reach up to 20 cm in size. Its colorful flowers, or catkins, turn red if they are male and yellow green if they are female. Following fertilization the plant produces masses of cotton like seeds. This cultivar can reach a height of 65 to 100ft, depending on growing conditions.
  • Eastern or Cottonwood (Populus Deltoides). Reaching a height of around 80 ft, and a spread of 60 ft, this is another large specimen. Pleasingly drought tolerant, its dark green leaves turn a pleasing shade of yellow in the fall. The bark of mature plants turns ash-gray in color.
  • Lombardy (Populus Nigra Italica) is a reliable and popular cultivar. A fast growing plant, growing roughly 6 ft a year, Lombardy is a good choice if you want to create a wind break or a privacy screen. Helping to create the iconic column shape of the poplar tree, Lombardy has an unusual branching structure. The branches start close to the ground and grow upwards, in parallel to the trunk. While the foliage does yellow in the fall, the plant is not, unlike other cultivars, grown for its autumn foliage. Another distinctive feature of the Lombardy is the trunk which blackens as it ages.
  • Balsam (Populus Balsamifera) reaches heights of up to 100 ft. Balsam grows in an attractive, cylindrical shape. This is also a fragrant cultivar. During the spring, as the buds open the resin which coats them emits a distinctive, almost exotic smell. The Balsam cultivar is commonly found in damp or swamp-like conditions.


The distinctive pale foliage of the Populus Alba. Take the time to find a variety that best suits your growing conditions and situation. 

Source your saplings from a specialist supplier or plant nursery. They will be able to help you select the ideal variety for your situation.

Be careful when selecting your sapling. Some nurseries sell male only plants. This means that the plant won’t produce masses of cotton like seeds which can be scattered on the wind. However male plants produce lots of pollen, which can be a problem if, like me, you suffer from hayfever.

Saplings are usually sold as 10 inch plants. If your garden is prone to foraging deer and other pests, select larger saplings, about 18 inches tall. The larger the sapling, the quicker it grows.

Where to Position Your Poplar Tree

If planted in the right location, care is pleasingly simple.

The poplar tree does best in a fertile soil. Use a soil test kit to assess the condition of your soil. The soil should be either acidic or neutral, a pH reading of between 5 to 7.5 is ideal. These plants struggle in extremely acidic soils.

Your chosen location should be a full sun position. Low lying moist ground is perfect. While they prefer well draining soil, these plants can also cope well with wet and boggy conditions.

Remember, when selecting your location to consider the final size of the plant. The poplar tree can be 50 to 165 ft in height. It’s trunk can achieve a diameter of 8 ft. To maintain this spread and size the plant must grow a large and extensive root system.

This root system can easily disrupt foundations, paths, pipes and sewers. Make sure that your chosen site has enough empty space for the plant and its root system to grow into. If you are unsure what is beneath your soil, contact your local utility or water company. They can mark out exactly where any pipes and sewers are, helping you to avoid any costly planting mistakes.

To minimise root spread dig a planting trench and line the sides with a durable, heavy duty material such as Deeproot Bamboo Barrier.

These plants do best in light, sunny positions. If you are planting more than one, be sure to space them out correctly. 

If you are planting a windbreak, aim to plant the saplings at least 50 ft, but no more than 200 ft, away from the area you want to shade.

How to Plant

Before planting, prepare the ground by digging over the soil and weeding well.

The poplar tree should be planted during its dormant season. This lasts from November until mid-May. Try to plant as early in the dormant season as you possibly can. This gives the saping time to settle and establish itself before the first frosts hit. Alternatively, wait until the last frost date has passed before planting. Whenever you plant, the soil temperature should be above 50 ℉.

Dig a hole deep enough to hold the saplings root ball. Ideally, the finished hole will be twice as wide as the root ball. Use a shovel to roughen up or loosen the sides of the hole. This helps the roots to spread more easily. When placed in the hole, the sapling should sit at roughly the same depth as when it was in the pot.

Position the sapling in the center of the hole. Carefully backfill the hole, being careful not to disturb the plant too much. You may need someone to hold the sapling in place as you do this.

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCGM20ybzvs 

After planting mulch around the base of the plant. This helps to suppress potentially damaging weed growth.

Planting is the ideal time to install a stake or support such as the Kradl Tree Staking Kit. This is an easy to use kit that is both robust and reusable.

You may also need to cover the trunk of the spaling with a guard or mesh to protect it from rabbits or other destructive pests. Tree Guard’s Plastic Mesh Bark Protector is easy to install and protects against both rabbits and deers.

If you are planting more than one poplar tree, space them at least 3 ft apart. The exact distance varies depending on the variety that you are growing. For example Lombardy’s require spacing of at least 8 ft.

Caring for a Poplar Tree

Weed regularly around the base of the plant. Weeds sap the soil of moisture, causing plants to struggle, particularly during warm weather. After weeding, laying a 2 to 3 inch thick layer of mulch helps to suppress weed growth.

When to Water

Water newly planted saplings regularly until they are established. This can take several weeks.

Once established water requirements are minimal. These plants require about 1 inch of water every two weeks. You may only need to water during particularly dry or warm periods.

Fertilizing Your Plants

A poplar tree in good or rich soil is unlikely to require fertilizing every year. If you apply an organic mulch to the soil around your plant it will gradually break down through the year, adding nutrients to the soil.

If the distinctive heart shaped foliage is not as large or as green as it should be, you may need to fertilize the plant.

If the stem adds less than 6 inches of new growth in the spring, or if the foliage seems small and pale, you may need to fertilize the plant. This is best done in the fall.

To fertilize, work a multi purpose granular fertilizer onto the soil, under the poplar tree canopy. Cover as much of the area under the branches, also known as the drop line, as possible. Don’t allow the fertilizer to contact the trunk.

Alternatively, you can apply a water soluble or liquid fertilizer.

Do not fertilize during the first season.

The amount of fertilizer you need to apply varies depending on the size of the plant and the product you are using. Consult the information on the fertilizer packet before applying.

Pruning Your Plant

The poplar tree is a surprisingly low maintenance plant. Most cultivars develop and maintain their own structure. However Lombardy cultivars are known for dropping leaves and twigs which will need to be cleaned away.

Regularly inspect your plant for signs of disease or broken limbs. Use a sharp pole saw to remove diseased and damaged sections as soon as you notice them. This helps to keep the plant healthy and prevents serious issues such as canker from developing.

How to Propagate a Poplar Tree

While the poplar tree does produce seeds, propagation via cuttings is a lot easier.

Take hardwood cuttings in late spring. The cutting should be about 6 inches long, and taken from a healthy stem about a quarter inch in diameter. Use a sharp pair of garden scissors to take a cutting just below a pair of leaves.

Remove leaves from the lower three quarters of the cutting, leaving about 4 or 5 leaves on the top half.

Pot the cutting in a 6 inch pot filled with well draining, fresh potting soil. You can also plant the cuttings in an even mixture of coarse sand and perlite. Firm your chosen potting mixture down and water well.

Place the pot in a shaded, sheltered position, either indoors or outdoors. Mist it regularly, keeping the leaves moist. Water the soil only when it feels dry.

Roots should form within two weeks. To check that roots are present, gently tug the cutting. If you feel resistance it is a sign that roots are forming.

Once roots have formed, transplant the cutting into a 6 inch pot and continue to grow on in a shaded position for up to 3 months. The cutting can be transplanted into its permanent location in the fall, in milder climates, or in the early spring in cooler USDA Zones.

Common Poplar Tree Problems

Borers, bacterial wet wood and canker can all affect the poplar tree. Many varieties will develop stem canker at some point. If allowed to go untreated, this issue can cut the plant’s lifespan significantly.

Canker can cause physical deformities and can be a sign of a serious disease. Initially canker causes dark or sunken areas to form on a branch or trunk. This gradually spreads across the plant. If allowed to cover over half of the plant’s circumference the plant will be almost impossible to save.

Different varieties of poplar tree are prone to different strains of canker. For example the Silver Leaf, Lombardy, Carolina and Simon cultivars are more likely to develop Cytospora chrysosperma or Leucocytospora nivea than other forms of canker.  Lombardy cultivars can also develop Crytodiaporthe populea. Most other poplar tree species are resistant to this issue. White cultivars tend to develop Hypoxylon mammatum. European aspens and pussy willows are also prone to this canker strain.


Regularly inspect your plant for signs of damage or disease. Noticing problems early is vital if you want to keep your plants as healthy as possible. 

While canker can’t be cured, you can stop it from spreading. Weak or sickly trees are more likely to develop this as well as other health issues.

To keep your plant healthy, water only during dry periods and fertilize sparingly. Also take care when pruning and tidying up your plants. Canker is caused by fungi entering the plant through open wounds.

Regularly inspect your plant for signs of disease and canker. Prune away broken or diseased branches as soon as you notice them. Also remember to sterilize your tools before and after use.This helps to prevent the disease from spreading.

If a plant is severely affected, dig it up and destroy it before the disease can spread to other plants. Do not place the plant on the compost heap.


Attractive and easy to care for, these plants bring structure and color to a garden throughout the year. 

Elegant and attractive, the poplar tree is a great way to add structure and definition to a garden. A useful way to introduce shelter or privacy to a space, once planted the poplar tree is also pleasingly easy to care for. By following the advice laid out in this guide you will be able to enjoy the cool shade of the poplar tree for years to come.

Propagation method of white pyramidal poplar (male form) in the culture of isolated plant tissues for landscaping settlements in the Irkutsk region

Method of propagation of white pyramidal poplar (male form) in the culture of isolated plant tissues for landscaping settlements in the Irkutsk region

Poplar is the most suitable tree species for landscaping settlements, as it grows rapidly, forms a large leaf mass, effectively protecting the air from dust and harmful gases. One of the disadvantages of poplar is the formation of fluffy seeds in female plants, which sometimes forces us to abandon its use for landscaping. Among a large number of poplar species, white poplar is of particular interest for landscaping ( Populus alba L.), which has highly decorative foliage, due to which it is called silver poplar. In addition, it is resistant to leaf rust, due to which the most common balsam poplar in the cities of the Irkutsk region sheds its leaves early and ceases to perform a protective function already in August-September.

In the Central Siberian Botanical Garden of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk), a form named "In Memory of Vavilov" was selected. These are male, non-fluffy, with a narrow pyramidal crown, with leaves that have a dark green surface and a white-felt underside. This gives such trees a high decorative effect. In addition, the foliage lasts a long time in the autumn, as it is resistant to rust. This form is recommended for landscaping Irkutsk (Sizykh et al., 2012). An example of the successful use of white poplar "In Memory of Vavilov" for landscaping is its planting along the perimeter of the "Eye Microsurgery" complex in Irkutsk (Figure 1).

Figure 1. White pyramidal poplar (form "In memory of Vavilov") growing on the territory of the Eye Microsurgery complex in Irkutsk.

An obstacle to the widespread use of this form of poplar is the difficulty of its reproduction, since green and lignified cuttings taken from the crown of an adult white poplar tree practically do not take root (Bakulin, 2012), which was also observed in our experiments.

To overcome the weak rooting of this poplar, a biotechnological method was used - clonal micropropagation. Awakened buds on a branch taken from one of the trees growing on the territory of Eye Microsurgery were introduced into an isolated culture and have been constantly multiplying in test tubes since 2011 (Fig. 2). When they are planted in containers with soil, they form seedlings (Fig. 3). This seedling is used to grow seedlings, which are then planted in a permanent place (Fig. 4).

Figure 2. Clonal micropropagation of white poplar. It can be seen that microplants easily form roots.

Figure 3. White poplar seedling obtained from test-tube plants.

Figure 4. White poplar trees growing for the third year on the territory of the Institute. The height of the person in the picture is 155 cm.

In 2014, about 150 plants were obtained, which are grown on the territory of the institute to obtain seedlings.

Literature cited:

Bakulin V. T. - White poplar in Western Siberia. Nsb, academic publishing house "Geo", 2012.

Sizykh SV and others – Plants for landscaping Irkutsk. - Irkutsk, Baikal-Innovation LLC, 2012.

Innovative aspects of the offer: A method for mass propagation of white poplar using clonal micropropagation has been developed.

The main advantages of the proposal: Mass propagation of white poplar using green and lignified cuttings is impossible, and the proposed method removes this limitation.

Technological keywords: Propagation of woody plants, landscaping of settlements

Type of cooperation required:

1) submission of applications for the production of seedlings in the amount of 100-200 pieces,

2) if there is a greater need, the organization of a joint venture, in which the Small Innovative Enterprise "Center for Innovative Technologies SIFIBR" (LLC "CIT SIFIB") will provide the source material for obtaining seedlings (test-tube plants), and the second institution will use them to grow seedlings.

Current stage of development: Initial technology developed. It is planned to further improve it.

Intellectual property rights: Know-how is issued.

Contact information:

SIFIBR SB RAS, Irkutsk

Address: 664033, Irkutsk, st. Lermontova, 132, PO Box 1243

Hamburg Kim Zakharovich

Physiological Genetics Laboratory

Tel.: (3952) 42-63-03

fax: (3952) 51-07-54

e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You must have JavaScript enabled to view.

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Cultivation, care, planting and propagation of poplar

At one time, poplar was the most common tree planted along roads, in urban areas, parks and squares. It was believed that it not only transformed the appearance of settlements, attracting attention with its power, height, beauty, grace, but also contributed to an increase in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere and minimization of carbon dioxide emitted by industrial enterprises and road transport.

Content

  • 1 History and a brief characteristic of the poplar
  • 2 varieties of the poplar
  • 3 Growing Topol
    • 3.1 Seeds
    • 3.2 Vegetative method
    • 4 Rulation rules
    • 900
    • 5.2 Watering
    • 5.3 Loosening
    • 5.4 Top dressing
    • 5.5 Winterizing
  • 6 Diseases and pests
  • 7 Healing properties of poplar
  • 8 Negative impact of poplar components on humans
  • 9 Fields of use of poplar
  • 10 Conclusion

History and brief characteristics of poplar

A few hundred years ago, poplar was considered a symbol of the struggle for the people's rights freedom and independence. Under it, important agreements were concluded, documents were drawn up, and allegiance was sworn. Based on Chinese traditions, poplar was the personification of opposites: yin and yang, black and white, end and beginning, masculinity and grace.

Since ancient times, poplar has been considered a delicate and delicate creature. There were legends that the tree is able to absorb negative energy, to protect the home from ill-wishers and evil spirits. For small and large settlements, they were identified with the guards. Many people believed that when passing by a poplar, a person became better, cleaner, evil thoughts disappeared, and only positive remained.

There is an opinion that the original name of the tree is Popol, from the Latin "populous" (people). Has more than 90 species, some are considered rare (black poplar) and are listed in the Red Book. The halo of distribution is extensive: the North-Western part of Russia, Siberia, China, Mexico, America, the Far East, East Africa.

The tree grows rapidly. The maximum age officially registered is 150 years. There is information about the presence of Black Poplar, whose age exceeds 400 years.

The height of the tree reaches from 10 to 40 meters, the width (including the crown) - from 2. 5 to 12 meters. A trunk with a diameter of 4 meters was fixed. Belongs to the category of deciduous. It has a strong root system. It is not afraid of severe frosts, and therefore grows under various climatic conditions. It has no complaints about the composition of the soil. Suitable cool garden soil.

The crown is dense and wide. Over the years, the branches begin to dry out. The bark is gray, becoming cracked over time. Belongs to the type of dioecious. In the summer, females annoy with their abundant fluff, which people suffering from allergies are so afraid of. Flowering occurs at the end of April - mid-May, depending on the temperature and region. In the Far East, poplar fluff is observed in late May-early June. The high content of pollen in flowers makes poplar an excellent honey plant. June - July - the time of ripening of fruits that are carried by the wind over long distances.

One of the few trees that can change its gender. Male specimens produce earrings characteristic of female species. Scientists suggest that this is due to high air pollution and environmental degradation.

Poplar, in addition to positive qualities, contains some negative characteristics. The presence of fluff makes allergy sufferers leave their homes for a certain time and move to countries where there is no poplar. The brittleness of the tree poses a great threat to private homes. Even with slight gusts of wind, dry branches are separated from the trunk and can pierce the roof, damage the asphalt pavement, and cause damage to a car standing in the immediate vicinity.

Poplar varieties

There are many varieties of poplar, and each deserves special attention: gray, white, Berlin, Petrovsky, balsamic, fragrant, Bollean, bay leaf. Thanks to the fruitful work of breeders, a lot of hybrid varieties have been bred that do not differ in winter hardiness. Some species have found their application in industry. Biological fuel is obtained from Tronko, Kaliberdzhinsky, Strelovidny and Gulliver. Let us dwell on the main varieties and give them a brief description.

White poplar "Richardii" Low growing, slow growing, underdeveloped root system. The leaves have a unique color: they are snow-white below, yellowish-lemon above. When planted on a stump, it reaches a height of one and a half meters with large and hard leaves. Not afraid of severe frosts and flooding.
Large-leaved poplar (Ontary) "Aurora" Grows up to 9 meters. Does not tolerate severe frosts. The twigs may freeze slightly, however, large leaves are formed on the overgrown shoots, reaching a length of 10 centimeters, on which pinkish or cream spots are visible. By the summer, their color changes to light green.
Trembling poplar (Aspen) In the season it grows up to 1 meter. The leaves are honey-yellow. Does not require special care, perfectly tolerates harsh winters. In severe drought needs abundant watering.
Pyramidal poplar Originally from Afghanistan. The average height is 30 meters. Slender, in appearance it looks like a column. The leaves are diamond-shaped or in the shape of a triangle. Blooms early, leaves fall in mid-autumn. Planted in large cities, creating green areas.
Black poplar (Osokor) With a developed root system that goes deep into the ground. Listed in the Red Book. Belongs to the category of phytoncidal. Designed, among other things, to combat harmful microbes that cause problems to the human body. They become protection for apple trees, pears and other fruit trees growing in the immediate vicinity of the Black Poplar. Propagated by root offspring. Used for landscape design.
Italian poplar It is necessary to choose the right site for planting. The presence of groundwater closer than 4 meters is not allowed. Too much frost is negative. Withstands maximum temperature drop down to -28 degrees. Grows up to 40 meters. The trunk reaches a diameter of a meter.

Cultivation of poplar

Two methods of propagation are known: using seed material and cuttings. Let's consider each method separately.

Propagation by seeds

Used in exceptional cases, as all sorts of difficulties can arise. Seeds must be used freshly harvested or stratified in specialized nurseries. As soon as the seeds are collected, they must be planted in the coming days. Otherwise, their germination tends to zero every day.

When purchasing stratified seeds, you need to take a small container, fill it with special soil, which is a mixture of peat and sand, and plant the seeds for germination. A preliminary stratification process is required. Young shoots appear after a few months.

Vegetative method

Poplar twigs take root quickly and easily without much effort. You need to take a container with some water and put them there, or insert them into moist soil. The cuttings are one-year-old poplar twigs, cut in early spring or late autumn, when the juice does not flow down the trunk yet. Preference should be given to thin branches cut from larger branches. They should have kidneys on them. The length of the handle is about a meter.

Cuttings are planted in the ground in autumn or spring. During this period, they take root best. In spring, the planting period falls at the time when the last snow has melted. In autumn, it is necessary to wait for the leaves to fall from the trees.

One-year-old twigs, immediately after cutting, are divided into pieces of 17 - 20 centimeters. The main thing is that each cutting has live buds. The stalk is immersed in abundantly moistened soil with the top towards the sky. Moreover, at least 7 centimeters of the cutting with buds should remain on the surface. Cuttings are planted at a distance of 15 centimeters. Watering is carried out regularly. Proper care will enable the emergence of new shoots from the kidneys. In a short time, their length will reach 15 centimeters. By September, the young tree will grow to 1 meter.

The choice of seedlings must be taken seriously. There should be no stains, mold, plaque on the roots, which is a sign of improper care. Healthy seedlings have a well-developed root system. A year later, the cuttings are planted in a permanent place of growth.

Landing rules

The main condition is to choose the right place for landing. Poplar belongs to the category of light-loving plants, so for planting it is worth choosing a site without a permanent shadow. It is desirable that drafts do not walk there, given the fragility of the branches and the possibility of their falling. The composition of the soil does not play a big role. Feels great on depleted and dry soils. However, rapid growth is observed in moist and rich lands.

When planting the most common pyramidal poplar, it is necessary to observe the following distance between seedlings: one and a half by three meters or two and a half by four meters. The depth of the planting hole should be 1 meter, due to the presence of a powerful root system, even in young trees.

It is imperative to make a high-quality drainage system. To do this, gravel, broken brick or construction waste is poured into the bottom of the hole. The root neck is deepened by 1.5 - 2 centimeters or placed flush with the ground. Exact information can be obtained from specialists in the nursery. It must be remembered that the distance between the holes depends on the selected type of poplar. The parameters must be observed, as this will affect the rate of growth and development of the tree.

The sides and bottom of the pit must be finished and have a loose structure. This will favorably affect the growth of the seedling. First, a peg is placed in the pit, and then a seedling. The released earth is returned back to the pit, carefully compacted, and sides are formed for easy watering. Instead of the released land, you can use a soil mixture consisting of sand, peat and earth in a ratio of 2:2:3. In the process of planting, it is advisable to add nitroammophoska or kemira - station wagon (120 g per 1 sq. m. of area). The trunk of the tree is tied to a support.

Experts recommend planting poplars in the spring. When planting in the autumn, the seedling can hurt and grow poorly. There is a possibility of non-survival.

As soon as planting is completed, the seedling is watered abundantly with settled water. The ground around the trunk is mulched with sawdust and peat to avoid excessive moisture evaporation.

Poplar care

Poplar does not need special care. However, it is necessary to monitor its growth and development, water, cut, feed.

Pruning

Pruning is of two types: shaping and sanitary. The differences between them are as follows:

Forming pruning After planting a young tree, only one vertical shoot remains intact, thanks to which the plant will stretch upwards. Crown formation is the main condition. It should be smooth, well-groomed, without branches sticking out in different directions. Columnar poplar does not need forming pruning.
Sanitary pruning Poplar pruning is not dangerous, so you can safely rejuvenate a tree after 30-40 years. To do this, the top is cut off (1/5 of the total height of the tree). It is also necessary to free the tree from dry and damaged branches in a timely manner.

The best time for pruning is early spring or early winter. In any case, there should be no movement of juices. The cut points are treated with a special garden lubricant. At the end of pruning, the tree must be fed, watered thoroughly, and the soil around the trunk is dug up. If necessary, cut the tree down to the stump. Soon, young shoots will appear on it, which must be cut and shaped at your own discretion.

Watering

In the first year of life, the poplar is watered regularly (at least 3 times a month) and plentifully, using clean settled water. At least 2.5 buckets of water are used per tree. During the dry season, the amount of watering increases.

Loosening

During the first calendar year after planting a young tree, the soil around its trunk must be loosened at the end of each irrigation so that moisture freely enters the soil, lingers there, and a hard crust does not form on the surface. At the end of the snow melting, the ground around the tree is bayoneted to a depth of 15 cm. The same is done in autumn. From the age of six, poplar does not need loosening. You can plant lawn grass around the tree.

Top dressing

The first top dressing falls at the time of planting the seedling. Subsequently, it is worth fertilizing the land around the tree with nitrogen fertilizers.

Preparation for winter

Special winter preparation is not required for poplar, due to its sufficient winter hardiness. However, some actions need to be taken. Before the onset of frosty days, the soil around the tree trunk is pierced to a depth of up to 15 centimeters. The young root system is insulated with fallen leaves, mowed grass. Mulching should be done using peat and sawdust.

Diseases and pests

Poplar is resistant to diseases and pests. However, there are insects and diseases that can harm the plant. These include:

  • necrosis;
  • tree cancer;
  • small insects that eat young leaves.

Intraplant insecticides help against poplar gall psyllid. In the fight against poplar-spruce aphids, karbofos (spraying) helps. Organophosphorus insecticides are considered to be an effective remedy against poplar moth. It is necessary to resort to his help in the event that a large number of caterpillars appear on the tree. Scab and rust are able to defeat colloidal sulfur.

Healing qualities of poplar

Traditional healers collected poplar bark, buds and seeds to treat many diseases. The bark contains tannins, alkaloids and glycosides, which give the decoctions a sedative effect. In addition, taking them inside, they are able to calm the nervous system. Due to the presence of astringents, decoctions have long been used for indigestion.

Decoctions based on poplar buds can stop the inflammatory processes occurring in the human body, increase immunity, make the work of internal organs more harmonious.

An infusion of poplar leaves was used to heal wounds by applying gauze bandages to damaged areas of the skin. Preparations containing poplar have a beneficial effect on the human nervous system, soothe, remove depression, apathy, and normalize sleep. Dried and powdered poplar buds, mixed with other ingredients, are used to strengthen hair, give it youth and beauty. This mixture has a positive effect on the hair follicles, strengthening them and stimulating hair growth.

Negative impact of poplar components on humans

In case of problems with the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to exclude the use of preparations based on poplar, due to the presence of tannins in them. It should be borne in mind that any drugs must be used as directed by a doctor and only after consultation with him.


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