How to grow tree collards
Learn - Project Tree Collard
While it is relatively easy to start tree collards from cuttings it takes a few minutes of DAILY attention until the plants have rooted. They are usually sold in bundles of 3 or 4 cuttings because often not all cuttings will make it. Some customers are unable to successfully root any of them. For this reason, we do NOT recommend that beginner gardeners buy cuttings because it may be easier to start with a rooted plant. Once the plant is a 3-4 months old, the beginner gardener can try their hand at rooting their own cuttings from their own plant. This mitigates the financial risk. We have a complete tutorial on how to propagate tree collards from cuttings below. Starting tree collards from cuttings usually requires daily watering and/or daily moisture checks, which is a similar commitment one needs to grow plants successfully from seed. It is important to not overwater them, while still keeping them moist enough to root. Depending on the time of year and climate, it can take anywhere from 4 to 8 weeks. In temperate climates that rarely freeze or get hot, cuttings will root easily all year. However, cuttings do not root well in the coldest nor the warmest months in areas with 4 seasons. In these areas, it is best to order cuttings in spring or fall when temperatures are in the 50s to 70s.
If you order tree collard cuttings in the mail, we recommend our simple directions included to help make sure that your collards get off to a great start. It requires only potting soil, containers, and cuttings and is the same way we propagate our plants for sale. You may find other information/techniques for rooting including: water cloning machines, using rooting hormones, and rooting in water. While these may work sometimes, we have not found these methods to work as consistently. Even one happy plant can get you started and you can take more cuttings of it once it has taken off.
The basic steps for rooting a tree collard are: take a cutting, plant it in a container with potting soil, keep the soil moist in appropriate lighting, and wait patiently for your new plant to grow. Below is an updated video we made in 2020 on propagating tree collards from cuttings, followed by a more detailed written explanation.Take a Cutting
You want to take your cuttings from fresh growth on the tips of an existing tree collard, making sure they are four to six inches long. The cut on the bottom should be cut at an angle. Next, cut off all of the leaves, except for 2-3 tiny ones on the very top of the cutting. Leaves respire a fair amount of water so you need to remove them. It is fine if a cutting isn’t particularly straight as tree collards eventually get curly growth. The diameter of the cutting should be at least as wide as a pencil. Wider cuttings usually take off more quickly, but not always.Plant cutting in a container with potting soil
We suggest using a second hand 4 inch or one gallon sized nursery container. If you don’t have one, an alternative is to create 4-5 quarter inch holes in the bottom of a quart yogurt container or something similar. Holes on the bottom are critical for proper drainage or the cutting may rot.
Fill the container with a high quality potting soil. We have used “Recipe 420” potting soil by EB Stone and Happy Frog Potting Soil by Foxfarm, but any organic and natural potting soil available in your area will be a good choice. A good potting soil will hold on to a lot of water but will still drain well. If you don’t have access to potting soil, you can also use perlite, vermiculite, and all purpose sand mixed with some compost. Garden soil on the other hand can be very ‘heavy’ and not drain very well in a nursery can but if you don’t have any other options, try using garden soil that is very high in organic matter (for example, collect soil from under a pile of rotting branches and leaves).
Tap your container with the potting soil down on a hard surface to help it settle. Then stick the cutting two thirds or even further in your soil. Gently press your fingers or fist down around the cutting. Now it is time to water it.
Keep the cuttings moist but not waterlogged. Depending on the temperature and sun exposure, you will likely need to water the cuttings daily.
During a warm time of year you’ll want to keep your cuttings in containers somewhere semi-shady that is protected from full sun. They do need some sun daily, so dappled or filtered sun is good. Morning sun is less intense than afternoon sun. During cooler months, shade isn’t critical, in fact your plant will root faster in the sun as long as it doesn’t get too hot and dry out. Tree collards can tolerate some freezing weather once established, but it is best to protect your cuttings from hard freezes until they have roots and are planted in the ground. In warm times of year you’ll want to water the cuttings at least once a day. Again, it is best to root cuttings in temperatures of 50s to 70s.Have patience
Besides keeping the soil around the cuttings moist, you should leave them alone. Don’t pull them out to check for roots. They might be there and you might accidentally break them off when you’re trying to check on them. Wait for the tree collards to start growing new leaves. Once your tree collard plant have a fair amount of new growth and you can perhaps see a couple roots poking out your pot’s drainage holes, you’ll know it’s time to plant it in the garden. Four to six weeks is a fairly common wait time, though it can take longer.
Growing and Care in open ground, landing, harvesting, illness, illness and pests
- Culture Features
- Growing cabbage from seeds
- Casting of cabbage
- Picking of seedlings 9000
- Planting cabbage in open ground
- When to plant
- Suitable soil
- Planting rules
- Cabbage care
- Cabbage processing
- Diseases and pests
- Cabbage harvesting and storage
- Popular types and varieties of cabbage The agrotechnics of the crop is complex, but the correct execution of all its stages ensures an excellent harvest. How to grow large cabbage to the envy of all neighbors? Read our article!
Characteristics of culture
Cabbage is a cold-resistant, photophilous plant that needs a lot of moisture. The peculiarity of the culture is its unpretentiousness to the composition of the soil, however, it needs regular complex feeding with nutrients. A good harvest cannot be achieved without fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Growing cabbage from seeds
Sowing seeds and properly growing seedlings is the key to strong and healthy plants. Let's figure out how to plant cabbage.
Sowing seeds begins with calibration - rejection of small and weak seeds. To do this, all the seeds are placed in lightly salted water for 15–20 minutes. The floating seeds are discarded. The rest are dipped in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect. After that, the seeds are laid out on a damp cloth, sprayed with any growth stimulant and left to swell for three to four days. Also at this stage, it is recommended to remove the seeds overnight in the refrigerator. This procedure is called hardening and helps the plants become stronger.
Cultivation of seedlings of cabbage
Cabbage seeds are planted in moist, but not wet soil to a depth of 2-3 cm. Subsequently, the soil is regularly watered, preventing waterlogging and drying out. The most important thing at this stage is to maintain the temperature regime and monitor the duration of daylight hours.
- for seedlings - +20 °C;
- for seedlings in the first week - +10 °C during the day, +8 °C at night;
- for sprouts - up to +17 °C during the day, +10 °C at night
How to grow good cabbage in the open field? Remember a small but important secret: the cabbage root system does not like to be disturbed. The sooner the picking of the sprouts occurs, the better they will take root during planting. The best time is immediately after the appearance of two true leaves.
Planting cabbage in open ground
Prepare seedlings for harsh summer conditions: feed with fertilizers and send the pots to the balcony in a couple of weeks so that the young shoots get used to temperature changes and are not capricious in the beds.
When to plant
The planting time for cabbage depends on its variety. Early cabbage is planted from the end of April to the May holidays, late varieties - from the beginning of May to the end of the second decade. The sooner the plants are planted, the faster the leaves will begin to grow and the more powerful the root system will be. In the middle lane, including in the Moscow region, cabbage planting dates fall at the beginning of May, after a steady warming.
The plant grows well in all but clay and peaty soils. Cabbage is very fond of “tasty food”, so prepare beds for it on the sunny side in advance. Acidic soil must be alkalized with lime. Add 6–7 kg of humus, superphosphates and potassium chloride (1–2 tablespoons each) per square meter of beds.
To calculate the required amount of space for plants and understand at what distance to plant cabbage, use the following diagrams:
- early-ripening varieties are planted in open ground at a distance of 30x30 cm;
- mid-season plants are planted according to the scheme 45x45 cm;
- late varieties grow stronger and require a minimum distance of 60x60 cm between plants.
Beginner gardeners will find this guide explaining how to plant cabbage step by step:
- Prepare wells and flush with plenty of water.
- Place a handful of ashes in each hole.
- Remove seedlings with a clod of earth and place them in the ground, falling asleep under the first leaves.
- If the weather is clear, cover the plants with hoods to protect them from the sun for a couple of days.
Caring for cabbage
Planting cabbage in the country is not difficult, but getting a good harvest is not an easy task. Proper cultivation and outdoor care of young plants will provide you with strong and tasty cabbage heads by autumn.
Growing any variety of cabbage outdoors, be it white cabbage, Brussels sprout or kohlrabi, is inextricably linked with regular abundant watering. Cabbage loves warm water, so never use the central water supply for irrigation: low temperatures are detrimental to plants. Water the cabbage from a scoop or bucket, as the water from the hose is supplied under high pressure and can harm the root system.
To water your cabbages less often, use a trick: mulch the soil in the beds with straw or hay. This will save you from regular cabbage care - weeding and loosening the soil. When the heads of cabbage begin to ripen, reduce watering, otherwise they may crack badly.
Top dressing is also important when growing cabbages outdoors. When a plant is actively developing, it absorbs nutrients like a sponge.
Mandatory from the moment of planting until the formation of heads once every one and a half to two weeks, cabbage is fed with potassium at a dosage of 10 g per 1 m2. Complex fertilizers are used with the same regularity.
Cabbage attracts insects and pests like a magnet. Therefore, caring for cabbage necessarily includes preventive treatments of beds with plants.
Protective measures are carried out according to the following scheme:
- In early spring, cabbage is sprayed against cruciferous fleas and cabbage flies. The first treatment is carried out after disembarkation, the second - a week later.
- At the beginning of summer, cabbage should be protected from fleas, cabbage flies and aphids. Spraying is carried out once every two weeks.
Diseases and pests
Growing cabbage outdoors is always associated with the danger of diseases and pests. To protect plants from them, you should adhere to the technology of growing cabbage - proper watering, top dressing, enough space and light. This increases the resistance of the plant and helps it to cope with these misfortunes more easily.
The most common cabbage diseases are bacteriosis, gray and white rot, black leg, phomosis.
It is better to protect against diseases than to cure. Harden off seeds and seedlings and do not plant cabbage in one place more than once every 3 years.
Most of all they like to eat cabbage: bugs, aphids, cabbage flies and fleas, leaf beetles, secretive botanists. Insecticides and careful pruning and destruction of all affected leaves will relieve them.
Harvesting and storing cabbages
Harvest cabbages when the cabbages are firm and springy to the touch. Early cabbage is harvested without stalks in order to grow a second crop from them. The later one is pulled out entirely.
Heads are stored at temperatures down to -1 °C, without removing the top sheets, on wooden shelves. It is best to lay out the cabbage next to each other, and not to store in a pile.
Popular types and varieties of cabbage
When choosing a variety for growing cabbage, we recommend paying attention to the following types:
- mid-season: "Belarus", "Nadezhda", "Slava".
- later: Amager, Krumont, Extra.
cultivation, planting, care in the open field
Before you start growing cabbage, you need to decide what you need it for. If you are going to use it in the summer for salads, cabbage soup and pies, then you need to choose early varieties. For fermentation and twists, mid-ripening ones are ideal. But only late varieties are suitable for winter storage.
Cultivation of cabbage
White cabbage can be grown from seedlings, but this is a troublesome task. Cabbage is a cold-resistant plant, so in most regions of Russia it can be sown immediately in open ground.
It is useful to pre-soak the seeds for a day in warm water, and then wrap them in a damp cloth. As soon as they hatch, the fabric must be unfolded, put together with the seeds in a plastic container and sent for a week in the refrigerator. And then get it, stand for a day in a warm room and only then sow.
Such hardening will help increase the resistance of seedlings to spring frosts. Yes, they can already easily tolerate a drop in temperature to -5 ° C (1), but after a week in the refrigerator they will also withstand more serious cold snaps.
The place for cabbage should be chosen taking into account the predecessors. It is best to sow it after potatoes, cucumbers, carrots, onions, garlic or legumes - peas and beans (2). And in no case should it be planted after radish, radish, turnip and swede - they are all from the same Cruciferous family, they have common diseases and pests.
If the spring is early and warm, cabbage seeds can be sown already in mid-April. If the spring is long and cold, then at the end of the month.
- It is better to sow them in holes with a diameter of 50 cm. In each - 3 seeds at a distance of 10 cm from each other and at a depth of 1 cm, advises agronomist-breeder Svetlana Mikhailova. - Beforehand, it is useful to add 1 bucket of humus to each well. After sowing, it is useful to powder the holes with ash - it will protect the seedlings from diseases.
When the seedlings have their first true leaf, they need to be pulled through, leaving one of the strongest shoots in each hole. In no case should you leave all three - heads of cabbage in such tightness will not tie.
Cabbage planting pattern depends on the ripening period of varieties:
- early – 30 cm in a row, 40 – 50 cm between rows;
- mid-season - 50 in a row, 50 - 60 cm between rows;
- late - 60 - 70 cm in a row, 60 - 70 cm between rows (3).
Outdoor cabbage care
In order to get a good head harvest, the plants must provide 3 important conditions.
Watering. White cabbage is one of the most moisture-loving vegetables. It needs to be watered once every 2 weeks, 3-5 liters per 1 sq. m. If the weather is hot and dry, the watering rate is increased to 10 liters per 1 square. m.
Once a week it is useful for cabbage to take a refreshing shower from a watering can directly over the leaves - 0.5 liters per 1 sq. m.
- Early and mid-season varieties should be watered immediately before harvesting, says agronomist Svetlana Mikhailova. - Watering late from the beginning of September should be reduced in volume by 2 times, and 20 days before harvesting should be stopped altogether.
Top dressing. During the summer, white cabbage should be fed 3-4 times (depending on the variety):
- 3 weeks after germination: mullein infusion (1:10) - 0.5 l per plant;
- 2 weeks after the first: 1 tbsp. a spoonful of nitrophoska per 10 liters of water - 1 liter per plant;
- 2 weeks after the second: in 10 liters of mullein infusion (1:10) add 2 tbsp. spoons of double superphosphate and potassium sulfate - 1 liter per plant;
- 20 days before harvest (for late varieties): 2 tbsp. spoons of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water - 1 liter per plant.
The last dressing makes the heads tastier and increases their shelf life.
Pest protection. The main enemies of white cabbage are caterpillars of white butterfly and cruciferous flea. To destroy them, there are a lot of drugs, but they do not always give the desired effect. The most reliable way is to wrap the heads of cabbage with non-woven fabric and tie it tightly on the stalk so that pests do not have the opportunity to get inside.
Early varieties can be harvested as needed.
Mid-season varieties are usually harvested at the end of September. They can be immediately chopped and fermented, and if there is no time, put in the refrigerator or cellar. But remember, they do not last long, only 1 - 3 months.
Don't rush to harvest late varieties. It is important that they stay in the beds for some time at low temperatures, about 0 ° C. Only in this case they will lie for a long time. This weather usually happens in the first half of October.
– Harvest in dry, clear weather. The air temperature should not be higher than 7 °C (if it is warmer outside, the heads of cabbage will not lie for a long time), - explains agronomist Svetlana Mikhailova. - You need to cut them so that a stump about 3 cm long remains. Cut cabbage should be put away in the cellar or refrigerator as soon as possible - in the open air without roots, it quickly withers and then is stored worse.
Carrying and storing heads of cabbage should be done carefully so as not to damage the protective leaves, because every wound is a gateway for infection. It makes no sense to clean cracked heads of cabbage in the cellar - they will rot very quickly. They must be eaten as soon as possible.
Cabbage storage rules
Optimal cabbage storage conditions are as follows:
- temperature - 0 - 1 °С;
- air humidity - 95%.
Higher temperatures reduce the shelf life of cabbage. And at 4 ° C, heads of cabbage begin to germinate.
The varieties stored the longest are: Amager 611, Belorusskaya 445, Zimovka 1474, Gift (4).
Popular Questions and Answers
We talked about growing cabbage with agronomist-breeder Svetlana Mikhailova.
Should cabbage seeds be soaked before sowing?
Cabbage seeds do not need to be soaked - wet ones are more difficult to sow, and they germinate well even when dry. Moreover, cabbage is sown in the second half of April, and at this time the ground is still wet.
Should cabbage seeds be germinated before sowing?
Seeds are germinated so that they quickly take roots in deeper layers of the soil - this is important when sowing is done at the end of May. At this time it is already warm, and the soil dries out very quickly. A bush is sown in April, when there is a lot of moisture. So there is no need to germinate cabbage seeds. Moreover, they are small and it will be extremely difficult to sow from roots.
Should I mulch the soil under the cabbage?
This will be a huge plus! Cabbage consumes a lot of water, and moisture from the soil evaporates strongly in summer, when it is hot. As a result, plants suffer from drought.