How to identify a boxelder tree


Identifying & Removing the Invasive Boxelder Tree


The Boxelder is an adaptable, easy-to-grow maple tree native to North America. Boxelder trees have brittle, weak wood and typically grow near water or river banks.

Known by a dozen or more aliases, including river maple, sugar ash, maple ash, California maple, ash-leaf maple, and Manitoba maple, boxelders spread quickly, grow fast, and are highly prone to breakage.

Boxelder maple trees grow almost everywhere, though they thrive in wet bottomlands. These trees are known to grow fast, with a growth spurt usually occurring in the first 15 or 20 years before the tree slows down for another 75 years. A mature boxelder tree may reach a maximum height of 65 feet.

While these trees help stabilize stream banks and shelter wildlife, they are considered a type of weed in urban areas. Some states even go as far as to consider the boxelder maple an invasive species.

What Does a Boxelder Tree Look Like?

Boxelder tree identification is simple if you know what to look for. These trees look unusual for the maple genus, featuring ash-colored compound leaves, roundish buds, and thick twigs that morph from powder blue to purplish-green throughout the seasons.

The boxelder maple tree has lumber that's distinctly lighter, weaker, and softer than most other maples. It also has a brown bark trunk and, when wet, gives off a foul, unusual smell.

Other distinctive characteristics of boxelder trees include:

  • Winged "helicopter" seeds: Carried by the female tree are seeds enclosed in winged samara fruits. The samaras hang in clusters of pairs, with each pair resembling a mini-propeller. 
  • Flowers: Appearing before or at the same time as new leaves in spring. The appearance of the flowers are what distinguish male vs. female boxelder trees.
  • Compound leaves: Consist of several different parts, or leaflets, joined to a single stem — these groupings of three or five leaves bear an uncanny resemblance to poison ivy
  •  Soft wood: Soft and lighter than typical maple, with streaks of red
  •  Saplings: Young saplings and seedlings have vibrant green stems, setting them apart from other maples. They also have leaf scars or marks left by the leaves after they fall off the twig. These marks wrap around the stem.

Photo Credit: https://nfs.unl.edu/images/wood-plant/summer_4.JPG 

Female Versus Male Boxelder Trees

Male and female boxelder trees are identified based on their flowers.

Male flowers droop downward and resemble wispy green-colored tassels. Individual male flowers have light brown stamens and occur in clumps along the branches.

Female flowers bloom at the same time as male flowers, with lime-green pistils being their most prominent feature. Clusters of them appear on stalk-like, drooping structures.

Only female trees produce samara fruits, and their blossoms become bright green when pollinated. Samara fruits, also called helicopters, have distinctive, V-shaped winged seeds measuring approximately 1.5 inches long. When the tree drops its fruit because of its propeller shape, these wings allow the boxelder's seeds to travel a considerable distance from the parent tree, contributing to the species' rapid spread.

Female boxelder trees are more attractive to boxelder bugs — 1/2-inch-long pests that are either black or red and have thin lines on their backs. While these bugs aren't necessarily a nuisance to the boxelder tree, they tend to invade nearby homes, searching for warmth during the winter.

A Case for the Boxelder Tree

In many ways, you can make a case for the boxelder not being all that bad. Is the boxelder tree good? We wouldn't go as far as to claim the tree is great to have around, but it does provide some benefits, especially for wildlife:

  • The boxelder is great for pollinators since its flowers bloom early.
  • This tree is fantastic for preventing erosion near waterways in that it grows very well — and quickly — near streams and in wet soils.
  • These maples lower their limbs with ease, which in turn provides shelter for small animals on the ground.
  • When a tree's top branches fall, a cavity will form and provide a habitat for species such as woodpeckers, chickadees, titmice, opossums, foxes, raccoons, and other wildlife.

Why Get Rid of the Boxelder Tree?

While this tree may provide a haven for many wildlife species, there are many reasons why you would want to get rid of boxelders on your property if you own or manage a large piece of land. 

Along with being considered unattractive, boxelder trees: 

  • Have weak wood: Because it takes relatively light winds to make these trees split or drop their limbs, they tend to be a landscape maintenance nightmare.
  • Are considered an aggressive tree: These trees germinate easily, meaning they will quickly vegetate if already present. When the boxelder's winged seeds drop, they disperse quickly and take root with ease, leading to its reputation as an invasive "weed tree."  


How to Get Rid of the Boxelder Tree

The most effective way to eliminate boxelder trees is to cut them down to a stump using a mulcher or similar machine before treating the stump with chemicals.

Starting with mechanical removal is most efficient for managing boxelder tree overgrowth. Eradicating boxelder through automated means requires mulching or chopping trees down as close to ground level as possible, extricating saplings by hand, and mowing any visible root sprouts. Mulching using a drum or disc mulcher is a fast and effective method for taking on boxelders. Once the trees are mulched, you can then use a stump grinder to remove the remaining stump.

It can be challenging to eradicate boxelders using mechanical methods alone. Applying a herbicide or other chemicals to the stumps can help eliminate invasive boxelder trees for good. If eliminating a mature boxelder is the goal, a commercial herbicide is inserted into holes cut in the trunk or applied to the wood exposed after frilling or girdling. 

An oil-soluble herbicide spray is generally used to deaden relatively young trees. These herbicides are applied to the bark at the boxelder tree's base and can also be used on cut stumps to prevent regrowth.

A Diamond Mowers customer has successfully used the Diamond Forestry Disc Mulcher to remove numerous invasive trees, including the boxelder, thorn bush, Russian olive, bittersweet vine, Chinese elm, and other problematic species. For this customer, mechanical removal combined with chemical spray proved to be an effective vegetation management solution for their family land. 

Start Removing Boxelders on Your Property with a Reliable Diamond Mowers Attachment

Diamond Mowers offers a range of attachments for skid-steers, tractors, and excavators that would be able to tackle boxelder maple tree overgrowth.  

Contact us or find a dealer near you to learn more about which attachment may be right for your property.  

Boxelder Trees: Types, Leaves, Bark, Fruit (With Pictures)

Boxelder is a deciduous, broadleaved, medium-sized tree with a broad, irregular crown and rounded shape. Its identifying features are bright green lance-shaped ovate leaves with serrated margins, winged seeds called samaras, and dark brown ridged bark. Unlike other trees in the genus Acer, boxelder leaves are pinnately compound, with three to seven leaflets on a petiole. 

Unfortunately, boxelder trees have a poor reputation due to their brittle wood, messiness, susceptibility to boxelder bugs, and vigorously sending up suckers. However, boxelder trees have tremendous value to a landscape because they are fast-growing, have a broad crown, and thrive in wet, poor soils. 

This article is an identification guide of the features of several boxelder tree species. Descriptions and pictures of boxelder leaves, seeds, bark, and growth will help you recognize this native tree in parks, woodlands, or other areas.  

About Boxelder Tree (Acer negundo)

Boxelder tree is a deciduous multi-trunked tree which is cold hardy and tolerates poor wet soil

The boxelder (also written box elder) is a fast-growing, short-lived deciduous tree native to North America. The tree is a species of maple tree in the genus Acer and soapberry family Sapindaceae. Due to their fast growth and suckering nature, boxelders are sometimes considered invasive or weedy.

Boxelder trees grow between 35 and 80 ft. (10 – 25 m) tall. A characteristic of boxelder trees is their multiple trunks that can form dense thickets like huge shrubs. Therefore, regular pruning is necessary to remove suckers. The trunks typically measure 1 to 1.6 (0.3 – 0.5 m) in diameter. However, they sometimes measure over 3 ft. (1 m). 

Boxelders thrive in USDA zones 2 to 10, meaning they are incredibly cold-hardy. However, they are also tolerant of drought and withstand the hot sun. The medium-sized boxelder thrives in full sun or part shade and performs well in most soils. Although it’s drought-tolerant, the hardy tree can withstand some flooding. 

Boxelder trees are classified as dioecious—meaning individual trees can be male or female. The male boxelder trees have more ornamental value because they don’t produce fruit (seeds) and are less messy. 

Other names for boxelder trees include ash-leaf maple, box elder maple, and Manitoba maple tree. 

Being a member of the maple family, boxelder trees also produce a sweet, sticky sap you can make into a syrup called mountain molasses. However, the tree is mainly grown commercially for pulp as the wood is brittle and weak. 

Boxelder Tree Leaves

The pinnately compound boxelder leaves have serrated margins

Leaves growing on the boxelder tree are pinnately compound leaves which differentiates them from other maple trees. The bright green ovate leaves measure 2” to 4” (5 – 10 cm) long and have lobed, serrated margins. Typically, three to seven leaflets grow on a petiole.

Boxelder tree leaves are deciduous, light to bright green. They emerge in mid-April to late May and provide a dense canopy. In the fall, the tree’s foliage turns an unimpressive dull yellow. Therefore, the tree’s fall colors are not showy and don’t have much ornamental value. 

Boxelder Tree Flowers

Boxelder flowers: Male (left) and female (right)

Flowers on the boxelder tree are greenish-white or yellowish and appear in early spring, just before the leaves. The tiny insignificant flowers grow in small, drooping clusters called corymbs. Flowers from male boxelder trees are more attractive and have a yellow-green color, and bear tan or reddish pollen-bearing stamens.

Boxelders are dioecious trees, and male and female flowers don’t grow on the same tree. This is another unique feature of these maples as typical maple trees are monoecious. The drooping racemes or corymbs measure 4” to 8” (10 – 20 cm) long. 

Boxelder Tree Seeds

Boxelder seeds are called samaras and grow in pairs

Seeds on the boxelder tree appear after flowering and ripen in August and September. The boxelder seeds are pale yellow winged nutlets called samaras, growing in pairs in drooping clusters. The dangling clusters often persist on the tree into winter when they turn reddish-brown. 

Individual samaras are 1” to 1.5” (2.5 – 3.8 cm) long. The boxelder seeds are encased in a papery casing hanging in V-shaped pairs. Seeds drop from boxelder trees and can be messy. Additionally, numerous boxelder seedlings sprout in spring, causing extra work to remove the vigorously growing trees. 

The maple seed pods are sometimes referred to as helicopters or whirligigs. This name is due to the spinning action of the “helicopter seeds” as they gently fall to the ground in the wind. These helicopter-like seeds are characteristic of box elders and other maple trees in the genus Acer

Boxelder Tree Fruit

Also called fruit, boxelder seeds are edible nuts in papery casings. To reveal the boxelder fruit, removing the seed’s outer covering is necessary. It is said that maple tree fruit or nuts are tastiest when they are young and green before they ripen and become brown.  

Boxelder Tree Bark

Boxelder bark becomes ridged and scaly as the tree matures

Bark growing on boxelder trees is typically pale gray or light brown. As the tree matures, the bark becomes rough and scaly with deep clefts and interlocking ridges and becomes darker in color. 

New shoots on boxelder trees emerge green and develop a waxy violet or pink coating. Stems tend to remain green and don’t form bark. The boxelder tree’s fast growth means that its branches are somewhat brittle and break easily under the weight of snow or in heavy winds. 

Boxelder Tree Wood

Wood from a boxelder tree is weak and brittle and doesn’t have great durability. In addition, the boxelder tree’s fast growth means it can’t produce robust timber. Therefore, boxelder wood doesn’t have much commercial value, and the tree is mainly used as pulp in the paper industry. 

Boxelder Tree Identification

The identifying features of a boxelder tree are its thick, multi-stemmed growth, irregular canopy, and dense foliage. In addition, this medium-sized tree has bright green, lance-shaped ovate leaves, papery winged samaras that flutter from the tree like helicopters, and small yellow-green flowers that bloom in the spring. 

The Drawbacks of Boxelder Trees

Boxelder trees suffer from brittle, weak wood that doesn’t stand up to strong winds and heavy snow. In addition to this, the tree’s leaves and seeds drop over an extended period, meaning there is a constant clear-up in the fall. Also, its vigorous growth means persistent problems with boxelder saplings springing up near the tree.

Another issue with growing boxelder trees is that they are susceptible to pests, especially the boxelder bug. The black and red destructive pests lay eggs in the crevices of the tree’s bark. Although they don’t cause too much tree damage, large numbers of these pesky creatures can get into homes and become a nuisance. 

Boxelder bug (Boisea trivittata)

The Benefits of Planting Boxelder Trees

Despite its drawbacks, boxelder trees have several endearing qualities. For example, its fast growth and tolerance of poor soil make the tree useful in many landscapes. In addition, the tree has an important use for wildlife, attracting boxelder beetles, pollinators, and moths. 

Due to its robust root system and tolerance to damp, soggy soil, the boxelder tree is ideal for erosion control along the banks of rivers, streams, and lakes. 

Types of Boxelder Trees (With Pictures) – Identification Guide

Boxelder trees are native to North America and grow throughout the United States. There are several kinds of boxelder trees, each with identifying characteristics and features. Please read on to learn more about recognizing a boxelder tree in the landscape. 

‘Auratum’ Boxelder Tree (Acer negundo ‘Auratum’)

‘Auratum’ boxelder tree has yellowish-green leaves

The ‘Auratum’ boxelder maple tree is a small multi-stemmed shrub-like tree with yellow-green leaves and smooth undersides. The golden yellow leaves grow on reddish stalks, providing visual interest in the summer. Its attractive, spreading crown and deep rooting system make this boxelder species an excellent landscape tree in parklands. 

Acer negundo ‘Auratum’ leaves and flowers

‘Auratum’ boxelder has an average growth rate and it matures at 16 to 22 ft. (5 – 7 m) high. Its identifying feature is its yellowish lanceolate leaves with small lobes on the leaf’s apex end, drooping reddish flowers, red stems, and an open, egg-shaped crown.

Also called the ‘Auratum’ ash-leaved maple, the shrub-like tree forms multiple trunks. Its inconspicuous clusters of pendulous flowers bloom in April. After flowering, the ‘Auratum’ boxelder tree produces multitudes of winged seeds that get blown away in strong winds. 

‘Aureomarginatum’ Boxelder Tree (Acer negundo ‘Aureomarginatum’)

‘Aureovariegatum boxelder tree is identified by its green leaves with yellowish margins

The ‘Aureomarginatum’ boxelder tree is a variegated maple species with bright green leaves and creamy yellow margins. The fast-growing deciduous boxelder cultivar is unique among the species due to its yellow and green leaves. As a result, the tree’s leaves can sometimes appear entirely creamy-yellow with only small patches of green. 

The variegated ‘Aureomarginatum’ boxelder is a small multi-trunked tree suitable for residential gardens. The maple tree typically grows 20 to 32 ft. (6 – 10 m), and its rounded crown provides shade. With some pruning when the tree is young, you can train the shrub-like tree to grow as an attractive single-stem landscape tree.

Like all boxelder trees, the distinguishing feature of the ‘Aureomarginatum’ cultivar is its leaf color. The green leaves with their creamy-yellow margins provide visual appeal when planted next to dark-leaved trees.

Thanks to the boxelder ‘Aureomarginatum’ attractive foliage, relatively short height, and oval shape, it can be an excellent choice as a specimen, accent, or shade tree. 

‘Flamingo’ Boxelder Tree (Acer negundo ‘Flamingo’)

‘Flamingo’ boxelder tree has variegated green and creamy-white leaves with hints of pale pink

The boxelder ‘Flamingo’ cultivar is a spectacular landscaping maple tree due to its eye-catching variegated cream and green leaves with hints of pink blushing. The beautifully colored boxelder leaves emerge pink and mature to green and white before turning yellow in the fall. ‘Flamingo’ boxelder grows 30 to 50 ft. (10 to 15 m) tall.

Like many varieties of boxelder trees, new stems emerge reddish before turning green. The pink and green leaves are compound, growing in groups of three to seven. Additionally, yellowish-green inconspicuous flower clusters appear in spring before the female tree develops helicopter-like winged samaras. 

Thanks to its colorful leaves and low maintenance, this small to medium-sized maple species is ideal in a garden landscape. The striking pink and cream leaves that turn pink and green provide visual interest in spring and summer. Then golden yellow colors adorn the tree’s canopy in the fall. 

‘Variegatum’ Boxelder Tree (Acer negundo ‘Variegatum’)

‘Variegatum’ boxelder tree has green and creamy-white variegated leaves

The ‘boxelder ‘Variegatum’ cultivar is a large multi-stemmed deciduous tree with eye-catching creamy-white and green leaves. The compound leaves have three to seven variegated leaflets giving the foliage an overall bright appearance. Dangling clusters of V-shaped samaras cover the tree in late summer and fall. 

The ‘Variegatum’ boxelder tree grows 40 to 50 ft. (12 – 15 m) tall and up to 35 ft. (10 m) wide. Its attractive foliage and open, spreading, rounded canopy give this boxelder ornamental value in a landscape. The ‘Variegatum’ boxelder is a good landscaping choice thanks to its low maintenance and minimal pruning requirements. 

As with all boxelder species, the ‘Variegatum’ cultivar has a few undesirable traits. First, its branches are relatively weak and brittle, and the tree has a short life. In addition, the tree may attract boxelder bugs to your garden, causing pest problems in the fall when they come indoors.

‘Aureovariegatum’ Boxelder Tree (Acer negundo ‘Aureovariegatum’)

‘Aureovariegatum’ boxelder tree has variegated green and creamy pale yellowish leaves

The boxelder ‘Aureovariegatum’ cultivar is a tall deciduous tree with creamy yellow and green variegated pointed leaves and greenish-red flowers. Like all boxelder species, the ‘Aureovariegatum’ tree has lanceolate leaves with shallow lobes. The striking green and creamy yellow leaves grow in groups of five or seven leaflets on reddish stems. 

‘Aureovariegatum’ boxelder trees grow 32 to 82 ft. (10 to 25 m) high and have an irregular oval crown of light green foliage. Although the fast-growing shade tree has some unwelcome characteristics, it grows almost anywhere and is highly adaptable. It is also drought-tolerant when established. 

The ornamental value of ‘Aureovariegatum’ boxelder to a landscape is its light green lance-shaped leaves with golden yellow patches. 

The medium-sized tree is suitable for growing in USDA zones 5 through 9. It’s also tolerant of urban conditions, pollution, and drought.

‘Winter Lightning’ Boxelder Tree (Acer negundo ‘Winter Lightning’)

‘Winter Lightning’ boxelder tree has yellow twigs during fall and winter

Also called yellow-twigged boxelder, the ‘Winter Lightning’ cultivar is a sizable shrub-like tree with dark green lobed leaves, creamy-yellow or pale green flowers, and a spreading canopy. The outstanding feature of this boxelder is its showy yellow twigs that appear in the fall and winter. 

Boxelder ‘Winter Lightning’ grows 20 to 30 ft. (6 – 12 m) tall and up to 25 ft. (7.6 m) wide. The tree’s foliage is green from spring until late summer when the leaves turn a dull yellow in the fall. The ‘Winter Landscape’ boxelder adds plenty of color to a barren landscape due to its ornamental stems. 

Like all boxelder tree species, the ‘Winter Lightning’ cultivar has compound leaves with three to nine leaflets growing on yellow petioles. 

How to Prune Boxelder Trees

Boxelder trees require regular pruning to prevent the sizable shrub-like tree from growing into a dense thicket. This is because the weak branches droop as the tree matures. Therefore, it’s necessary to remove drooping branches to retain space under the tree’s canopy. Also, because the branches are particularly brittle, they are prone to damage after strong winds, ice storms, or heavy snowfall.  

Boxelder seedlings are also something to look out for. Seeds from the maple trees fall in significant numbers in late winter and spring and quickly germinate and sprout. Therefore, it’s not uncommon for many seedlings to grow in the proximity of boxelder maple trees. So, you should remove those to prevent a small woodland from growing in your backyard. 

Related articles:

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  • Small Flowering Trees for your Garden

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"Turned the best boxer in the world into a helpless one." Experts on Bivol's victory The Russian defended his WBA super champion title.

How experts assessed his victory - in the RBC Sport selection

Read us in

News (Photo: Global Look Press)

Nikolai Valuev, ex-WBA heavyweight champion (2005–2007, 2009) and member of the State Duma of the VI and VII convocations

“Dima did a great job, this is the greatest victory, one of the greatest in the history of our boxing, yes, in principle. The almost invincible Alvarez was still defeated by Bivol. This is a great victory that will inspire a lot of young guys, young boxers. I can only admire and congratulate Dima once again on his victory,” Valuev told RBC Sport.

Konstantin Tszyu, former undisputed world boxing champion

“Both fighters announced a rematch. If it is spelled out in the contract, I think it will definitely be. There is such an expression: sequence. This is what I liked the most: that plan, that strategy that was chosen, were implemented. There are always chances. Dmitry showed today that he is a good fellow. I'm very happy for him. But Alvarez is not in vain considered the best count to count boxer. The Mexican will try something next time. I hope that at this moment Dmitry will come up with something new. And, if this fight takes place, Bivol will win the rematch, ”Championship” conveys the words of Tszyu.

www.adv.rbc.ru

Grigory Drozd, former WBC world boxing champion (2014-2016) and sports functionary

“A great fight before a great holiday. Dima is just great, he did not leave a single chance to Alvarez. I was a little surprised how helpless Alvarez looked in this fight. Dima turned one of the best boxers on the planet into a helpless one. First of all, Dima built a very good defense, Alvarez had only a couple of shots on target, the rest missed or in gloves. Dima showed boxing of the highest class, he is an invincible champion by right. Even if there is a revenge, then only on Dima's terms, with a flag, an anthem. But in this rematch, Alvarez will have few chances, ”RBC Sport quotes Drozd as saying.

Dmitry Kudryashov, Russian boxer and champion belt holder WBC Silver (2016-2018), WBA International (2014-2016)

“Of course, this is a sensation! Alvarez was considered the best boxer in the world. Dmitry is now in the sports phase of his career, he will earn money. I think that's what he was aiming for. For Bivol, this victory is a breakthrough in his career,” Kudryashov told Sport-Express.

Oleg Taktarov, the first Russian UFC champion

“The last two rounds are something, great attack, excellent defense. All I saw was an improved version of Rocky Marciano. Bivol's technique is even better than Rocky's. He did an excellent job tactically. Bivol is just a genius, one of the smartest boxers in history. I'm just in shock, I thought that such a box remained in the 70s, but here it is right in front of me. Just fantastic,” Taktarov told RBC Sport.

Vadim Nemkov, reigning Bellator MMA light heavyweight champion

“Alvarez couldn't do anything! Bivol's second victory in a rematch? Of course, the Russian will be able to do the same, outplay in all respects. In general, this is a very important victory for Russian boxing. Bivol beat one of the strongest fighters in the world. Important victory! This is very good, ”Nemkov said in an interview with the Championship.

Andrey Ryabinsky, promoter of Dmitry Bivol

“I had no doubts about Dima's victory. Of course, he was opposed by a strong opponent. This is a real star. But Bivol is a very smart athlete, he has good technique, good footwork. Honestly, I don’t understand how today you can outplay or defeat Dmitry Bivol. Bivol is technically superbly equipped,” said Ryabinsky Match TV.

Boxer - Dog breed - Information and characteristics

Clever and devoted friend, the boxer has a need for communication and movement. He does not feel well if he is regularly left at home alone.

Boxers are stocky, muscular and strong dogs.

Males grow up to 65 cm and weigh 30 to 36 kg, females are usually slightly smaller.

The head of the boxers is of noble, well-defined shape. The lower jaw protrudes forward, the muzzle is blunt. They have a broad, deep chest and a relatively short, strong back. Boxers' ears hang naturally, but traditionally they were cropped to stick up. The tails are usually docked and set high. The paws are compact, the toes are arched.

Boxer coat is short and sheds moderately. The color of some dogs is richly red, while others are brindle. The muzzle of boxers or the so-called "mask" is usually black, but there may be white markings on the muzzle, as well as white spots on the chest and legs.

Character traits:

Boxers are smart, very energetic and playful dogs that do not like to sit idle. Their temperament was formed as a result of breeding and selection. They prefer to be in the company of their owners and are loyal friends and protectors who will fiercely guard their family and home from outsiders.

If a boxer has grown up in a house with other animals, he gets along well with them. However, boxers are also notorious for attacking neighborhood dogs and cats if left unattended, so boxers should never be allowed to roam the area freely.

Boxers are hardly prone to excessive barking. If a boxer barks, there is probably a proper reason for it. However, many boxers are by no means silent and like to growl, which is really just a dog's way of talking.

Maintenance and care:

Boxers have a high need for communication and physical activity. If their needs are ignored and left alone at home, they can exhibit destructive behavior. This breed is ideal for those who prefer to stay close to their pet, or for large, noisy families whose home is almost never empty. Boxers can thrive both in the country and in a city apartment, if only they are allowed to move, frolic and waste their energy. If you live in the city, regular walks are a must.

Boxers can't stand the heat so care must be taken to keep them from overheating. But because of their short coat, they also need protection from the cold. However, their coat is very easy to care for, and will always be shiny and bright if the dog is properly fed, bathed occasionally and brushed regularly with a special mitt or rubber brush.

Some boxers drool excessively, some snort and snort. Like other large dogs, Boxers are not long-lived. Their life expectancy is seven to ten years.

History:

Boxers are descended from the crossbreeding of the extinct Bullenbeiser breed with Mastiffs, Bulldogs and possibly Great Danes and even Terriers. The breed was bred in Germany in the 19th century, initially for bull-baiting, and later as assistant butchers to manage cattle in slaughterhouses. Some breed historians believe that the name "boxer" comes from the German word boxl, as the dogs were called in slaughterhouses.


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