How to make a bougainvillea tree
Garden Guides | How to Make a Bougainvillea Standard or Tree
Woody perennial plants such as bougainvillea can be trained as standards which are a tree like form. Because of the bougainvillea rapid growth rate, they can be made into a 3- or 4-foot "tree" in as little as three years, depending on the length of the growing season and the vigor of the plant.
Buy a variety of bougainvillea that will do well in your climate and that will grow to the size wanted. Some varieties known for their use as standards include: Barbara Karst, San Diego, Superstition Gold, Torch Glow, Jamaica Red, Bagen Beauty, Violet, and Double Orange Pink, and there are many more. Don't try to use one of the miniature or dwarf varieties known for their compact growth habits.
Start with a small 6- to 8-inch plant for potting or transplanting into the yard. In USDA climate zones 9 or higher bougainvilleas can be grown outside, but in areas where repeated freezes are a danger they are best grown in pots that can be moved in during the winter.
- Woody perennial plants such as bougainvillea can be trained as standards which are a tree like form.
- Because of the bougainvillea rapid growth rate, they can be made into a 3- or 4-foot "tree" in as little as three years, depending on the length of the growing season and the vigor of the plant.
Cultivate fertile, acidic, humus filled soil that drains well. Their tender roots cannot stand wet soggy soils. Prepare a soil by using equal parts: peat moss, rotted leaves or pine bark, garden loam, and sand, or buy a good tropical plant soil mix. Thoroughly mix up the soil mixture and work it into the ground where the plant will be grown or fill a good sturdy 2-gallon pot with it. By using a larger pot, it won't be necessary to transplant again for several years and the bougainvillea will actually do better as its roots get more crowded.
Training the Stems
Cut off an established plant near the ground to force new flexible growth to occur. It is possible to train one main bougainvillea stem or allow several to grow and twine them together to form a braided trunk. Bougainvilleas can be pruned back at any time of the year in warm winter areas or if grown in pots, as they will respond with vigorous new growth as long as they are well watered and fed. If planted outside in areas with cold enough winters that it needs protection, don't cut the bougainvillea plant back too late in the season. It should not have young tender growth just as the weather starts turning cold. Instead start the pruning process in the spring to give the bougainvillea plant a whole season to grow.
- Cultivate fertile, acidic, humus filled soil that drains well.
- If planted outside in areas with cold enough winters that it needs protection, don't cut the bougainvillea plant back too late in the season.
Place a sturdy stake of some type well into the soil right next to the bougainvillea plant or push the stake into the pot till it touches the bottom and plant the bougainvillea next to it. Depending on how tall the bougainvillea standard tree form is to be, it may take a 4- to 8-foot long stake to allow for enough of it to be sunk into the ground to support the top. Don't use treated poles as the chemicals will affect the plant.
Once the stem or stems to be trained start growing out, tie them to the stake using soft cloth ties or old nylon stockings. Don't use wires or hard plastic ties as the bougainvillea plant will chafe against them and be cut by them. Braid multiple stem together while they are flexible and tie them to the stake to force them to grow together and straight. Cut off any side stems that try to grow out and cut off any thorns on the main trunk to make it easier to handle. Once the stem has reached the height wanted, start pinching back the main terminal bud to get it to branch out and make a bushy top. After the first two or three years there should be a beautiful bougainvillea tree to adorn the property.
- Place a sturdy stake of some type well into the soil right next to the bougainvillea plant or push the stake into the pot till it touches the bottom and plant the bougainvillea next to it.
- Once the stem or stems to be trained start growing out, tie them to the stake using soft cloth ties or old nylon stockings.
Fertilize and water the bougainvillea plant well to keep it growing strong. Bougainvilleas like full sun and lots of heat. Don't use black plant pots as they can get too hot in the full sun.
Training Bougainvillea Vines | Home Guides
By Danielle Smyth Updated December 10, 2020
Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea) is known for its lush, bright and colorful blooms, which are actually bracts and not flowers. Bougainvillea in pots or in the garden can be grown throughout the year in United States plant hardiness zones 9 through 11, and they are particularly popular in the South and in states like Arizona, California, Florida and Texas. Bougainvillea can be trained to grow as a vine, tree, bonsai or in almost any other shape.
What to Expect From Bougainvillea
Master Gardener and bougainvillea expert Charlie Nardozzi claims that bougainvillea can grow up to 30 feet tall and just as wide. The flowers may be pink, orange, white, yellow, red, orange or bi-colored, and the leaves can be green or multi-colored. Some gardeners like to grow bougainvillea in pots or trim them into hedges – but with regular pruning, they can be trained to grow up a bougainvillea trellis. There are also varieties of dwarf bougainvillea, which grow much smaller than their larger cousins.
Joyous Garden reports that bougainvillea require six or more hours of full sun per day to grow successfully. The plant responds well to heat, doing poorly in colder temperatures although it might handle one or two nights of below-30 degree temps.
Bougainvillea are drought-resistant once they are mature. Give your bougainvillea a thorough, deep watering about every three to four weeks. More frequent, shallow watering will not work as well for these plants. Do not overwater; the soil needs to stay well-drained in order to stave off rot.
Growing a Bougainvillea Tree
To train your bougainvillea into a tree shape, start when it is young, according to South Florida Plant Guide. Try picking the strongest main shoot that will eventually become the trunk; this can grow freely. The other main shoots coming up from the crown can be cut right above the soil.
Then, pound a tall, wooden stake into the soil about 6 inches from the trunk. Use twine to tie the trunk you have created to the stake, but do not make the binding too tight. As new shoots form, trim them off with pruning shears. Once the trunk grows high enough, trim the top few inches of its growing tip to aid in lateral growth.
Maintain the bougainvillea tree shape with regular pruning or it will grow bushy and spread out rather than becoming tree-like. Alternatively, group and tie three large shoots together, then stake them. This allows the shoots to act as a trunk of sorts, but be sure to continue to prune the plant to adhere to this design.
Bougainvillea Trellis and Other Structures
If you want your bougainvillea to climb, you will need a trellis or other structure on which to tie the vines, explains Garden Services. Put your chosen support about 10 inches from your bougainvillea.
Using nylon stocks or soft plant rope, tie the growing vines onto a trellis attached to a wall or onto a fence, and gently coax the vines in the pattern you want. Check on the vines often to ensure that the bougainvillea is not getting damaged by the ties. You may need to add more ties as the vines spread.
Keep your bougainvillea happy by clipping off dead flowers and pruning the vines. Remove vines that are not growing in the direction you want – this will not affect flower production.
- Gardening with Charlie Nardozzi: How to Grow Bougainvillea
- Joyous Garden: Bougainvillea: Care and Growing Tips for this Flowering Machine
- Garden Services: Thinking About Growing Bougainvillea? What You Need to Know
- South Floriad Plant Guide: Bougainvillea Tree
Danielle Smyth is a writer and content marketer from upstate New York. She holds a Master of Science in Publishing from Pace University. She owns her own content marketing agency, <a href="https://www.wordsmythcontent.com/">Wordsmyth Creative Content Marketing</a>, and she enjoys writing home and DIY articles and blogs for clients in a variety of related industries. She also runs her own lifestyle blog, <a href="https://www.sweetfrivolity.com/">Sweet Frivolity</a>.
How to prune bougainvillea
Bougainvillea: growing and propagating indoor flower
The bougainvillea plant must have been seen by people who are not at all interested in home floriculture, but went (often or even once) on vacation to Turkey, Egypt or the Emirates. There, near popular hotels, you can almost always admire these lush flowering bushes, literally dotted with flowers of various colors. Sometimes they act as charming hedges, because the stems of bougainvillea are armed with rather strong thorns.
Bougainvillea: botanical description
Bougainvilleas belong to the Nyctaginaceae family, their ancestral home is the South American semi-deserts and foothills. They named the genus in honor of the Frenchman Antoine de Bougainville. This remarkable historical character is known for organizing the first sea expedition around the world for his homeland. But he was not only, and not even so much a traveler, but a warrior, scientist, politician! Bougainville was well acquainted with the notorious Madame Pompadour, the thinkers Diderot and Rousseau were fascinated by his activities. It is all the more surprising that he himself claimed: “I will remain in history thanks to a flower!” How he looked into the water!
There are not so many species in the genus - only about 15. The appearance of all bougainvilleas is changeable: they can look like shrubs, small trees and even creepers! Moreover, they are precisely vines, but if the shoots are cut in time, they easily form a crown resembling a bush or tree.
We have already written that bougainvillea growing under normal conditions is always strewn with flowers. Wrote - and misled the reader. The fact is that those bright petals that are visible on the bougainvillea bushes are actually bracts. The flowers themselves of these plants are tiny, inconspicuous, yellowish in color. It is the bracts that remain on the shoots for a long time that give the bougainvilleas a decorative effect.
Most often, the bracts have a purple color of different intensity and shades, but there are also white, and cream, and yellow ... Breeders brought out such a variety of colors that you will not find in nature!
Types of domestic bougainvilleas
Since we are talking about breeders, let's talk about the species diversity of bougainvilleas. Initially, botanists and flower growers adapted two species to the existence in a human dwelling: B. naked and B. wonderful . A little later they were joined by B. Peruvian . Almost all varieties and hybrids of modern indoor bougainvilleas are variations or derivatives of these three species.
The varietal diversity of the flower is amazing! Breeders have created plants with different colors of bracts, with double or simple bracts, with pubescent or bare leaves. Hybrids with variegated foliage and terry bracts are becoming popular. Work is also being carried out in the direction of creating such specimens that would not be prone to branching, easily maintaining the shape of a tree.
Breeders' attention is also paid to the size of the plants. Cultivars have been created that have a very compact but reduced crown. Such varieties resemble tiny, graceful bonsai.
Create suitable conditions for them.
Describing the conditions necessary for the successful development of indoor bougainvilleas, you never cease to wonder: why until recently these flowers were so little common? After all, they can rightfully be called one of the easiest to care for. Of course, they are not as indestructible as, for example, sansevieria, but still ... Let's make sure of this together!
Where to place them, lighting requirements
Bougainvillea is the daughter of the sun! She can hardly tolerate strong shading, but she loves bright light, including direct sunlight. Florists, for whom protecting their pets from harsh sunlight is always a problem, will immediately say: “This is a great advantage and relief if the plant is not afraid of direct rays!”
Therefore - place a pot with bougainvillea on the southern windowsill, or on the western one, and even if you have to shade it, then only on the hottest summer days. And even then, if you do not do this, the flower will not die, but simply its bracts will become paler, and even burn spots may appear on the leaves.
It is clear that this plant will not please you away from the windows, or on the north side of the apartment.
In the spring-summer period, the bougainvillea flower will develop well with a very wide temperature range: from +18 to +30°C. That is, it’s not worth inventing anything special for her during this period, because in our apartments such temperatures are set “by default”. Moreover, if you have an open balcony or garden, feel free to take the Brazilian beauty there, under the summer breeze and rain! She will be happy there, because all Bougainvilleans adore not only the sun, but also the abundance of fresh air.
But in winter, during the rest period, the flower needs cool air. Temperatures from +8 to +12°C will be ideal, but many, especially adult plants, will calmly withstand a drop to +5°C. Indicators close to zero will be critical.
The organization of a cool winter is probably the most difficult moment in caring for this flower. If there is no sufficiently cooled, yet bright room, you can simply install the bougainvillea on the windowsill, protecting it from the room with some kind of screen. As a rule, even in this case, the temperature around it will drop to at least + 16 ° C, which is already tolerable.
Most importantly, remember that a high-quality cold wintering will be the key to lush flowering in the active season!
Attention! Do not be alarmed if your pet begins to lose leaves in winter - this is a normal process. And one more thing: many flower growers use "basement wintering", cutting off the shoots of bougainvillea almost completely and placing the pot in a dark, but always cold basement. In the spring, the plant is returned to its original place, and it restores its crown.
In terms of soil quality, bougainvilleas are extremely unpretentious. At home, they often grow on rocky, depleted soils.
Important! The soil reaction for bougainvilleas should be slightly alkaline, at least neutral, but not acidic!
Ready-made universal mixes available in stores can be used. It is easy to make a substrate yourself by mixing soddy soil, humus, peat and sand in equal proportions. It is only important that the earth eventually turns out to be dense enough; this is especially important for old, mature plants.
A common rule applies here: water generously, but give the top layer time to dry. Bougainvillea reacts approximately equally badly to both excessive waterlogging and excessive dryness of the earth. Yet, perhaps, it tolerates drying better, but after regular flooding, the roots easily rot. Moderate, systematic watering - agree, this is not at all a difficult requirement!
Speaking about air humidity, it can be noted that in the conditions of summer heat it would be nice to periodically spray your bougainvillea with soft, warm water. This will benefit the flower. But if you do not do this, there will be no big trouble.
A special period - winter holidays! At this time, in conditions of low temperatures, watering should be sharply reduced. It is only necessary to ensure that the earthen ball does not dry out completely, remaining slightly damp inside.
If bougainvillea winters in a cold basement, you can not water it at all, sprinkle it with wet sand.
Organization of top dressings
Both organic and mineral complex mixtures are acceptable. Nitrogen should predominate in their composition in the spring, and phosphorus during the flowering period. The frequency of top dressing is about once every two weeks. If the plant was transplanted into new soil in the spring, it is not worth feeding at all until mid-summer.
Planting and transplanting
Bougainvilleas, especially single, tall varieties and species, grow quite powerful roots. Therefore, young plants need to be transplanted twice a year, and old ones - as the roots fully master the space available in the pot. The new pot should be slightly larger than the previous container, be sure to be deep. A good drainage layer should be organized at the bottom - this is important, remembering that our earth is quite dense.
Experience has shown that mature specimens are usually transplanted every 2-3 years, using the transfer method, with minimal root damage. However, if for some reason your new pot is equal to the previous one, you can simply cut off about a quarter of the old roots along with the ground. Bougainvillea will react to such pruning calmly, and it will even be better to bush.
Important! After transplanting, do not water your flower for 2-3 days, especially if the roots have been cut off. Rapid watering can cause root rot.
It is no exaggeration to say that this is the most important element in the care of bougainvillea at home. Recall that this flower is, in essence, a creeper. It constantly puts out long, thin shoots that only become woody with time. Bracts, the main decoration of the plant, are formed on short, brand new shoots. The more such young shoots there are on the plant, the more magnificent it will be.
Therefore, cardinal anti-aging pruning is carried out in spring and autumn. Remove some of the old, lignified shoots, and shorten the rest by half. In the future, even during the summer, do not forget to carry out cosmetic pruning, pinching the tips of the shoots.
Bougainvillea is a very grateful material for the formation of any kind of crown. Craftsmen even create chic bonsai from this flower with thick, fancy trunks. You will never say that in front of you, in essence, a liana!
On the contrary, bougainvilleas are often used to make beautiful “flower waterfalls”, allowing the flower to grow long, falling shoots. These shoots can also be directed upwards, tied to supports in time: for example, specially installed trellises.
Propagation of bougainvilleas
It is usually carried out in two ways: either by cuttings or by creating air layers.
For cuttings, which are best done in late spring or early summer, use small, semi-lignified cuttings. The peculiarity is that only one pair of leaves should be left in the cuttings, and sometimes they are rooted without foliage at all. Before rooting, be sure to soak for several hours in water with stimulants.
A mixture of peat and sand, or even just sand, is used as a substrate. The process of root formation takes place in a greenhouse with a temperature of at least + 24 ° C, bottom heating helps a lot. As a rule, no more than half of the cuttings take root without it.
Propagation by air layering gives practically guaranteed results. Its principle is simple: a long, thin shoot is bent to the ground, and in the place where it touches the surface, several shallow incisions are made in the bark. After that, the “wounded place” is dug into the ground, having previously been treated with crushed coal or a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Successful rooting in this place over time is almost guaranteed! When the roots appear, the twig is separated from the mother plant, carefully transplanted into a new pot, and shortened to 2-3 internodes. A new bougainvillea starts its new life!
Diseases and problems.
Bougainvillea is a very resistant plant, and if you create the right living conditions for it, it practically does not get sick. The most common problem is lack of flowering , or it is rather poor. Almost always, the reasons can be hidden in the following:
- insufficient lighting;
- little fresh air;
- pruning is done at the wrong time, incorrectly, or not done at all;
- the flower is contained in a systematically waterlogged soil (a frequent, by the way, flower growers mistake!).
Pests also avoid bougainvillea. However, mealybugs, aphids, or the ubiquitous spider mite may appear. This is especially true when neighboring flowers have been infected.
If these insects appear, use chemicals available in flower shops. The fact is that with an abundance of small shoots and dense foliage characteristic of bougainvillea, you are unlikely to cope with pests with the help of folk remedies and manual processing.
Good luck with your care of bougainvillea - a beautiful and grateful home flower!
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How to prune and water Bougainvillea - caring for bougainvillea Other features of plant care. plants for landscape design
Bougainvillea, grown as a houseplant, should preferably be kept outdoors under direct sunlight in summer, in late autumn and winter - in subtropical wintering mode, that is, in a very bright, cool (10-15 ° C) room, with poor watering. An adult bougainvillea plant at room conditions blooms profusely on the windowsill all spring and autumn. In autumn, trim the ends of the stems and reduce watering. With the onset of spring, gradually increase the air temperature and increase watering.
Bougainvillea requires repotting twice every five years. Bougainvillea is transplanted into the largest possible container.
PRODUCTION OF BOugainvillea
Bougainvillea is propagated by cuttings. To do this, at the beginning of spring, a semi-lignified shoot of Bougainvillea is cut off and planted in moist soil at a temperature of about 25 ° C - 26 ° C. The grown rooted stalk of Bougainvillea must be transplanted into the soil, cut and docked so that they form flower ovaries next year.
Bougainvillea is attacked by aphids, scale insects and mealybugs.
Leaves fall on Bougainvillea. Bougainvillea is used more as a large plant; very much appreciated for the colorful bract, which, depending on the variety, can be of a different shade of red. The room with Bougainvillea should be regularly ventilated, but drafts should be avoided.
Caring for bougainvillea
In central Russia, bougainvillea is best kept indoors or in winter gardens.
Brazilian bougainvillea requires very bright, sunny places, even in summer it sometimes lacks heat. In winter, it is kept cool and watered just enough so that the earthen ball does not dry out completely. In a heated room - sprayed.
Bougainvillea, grown as a houseplant, should preferably be kept outdoors under direct sunlight in summer, in late autumn and winter - in subtropical wintering mode, that is, in a very bright, cool (10-15 ° C) room, with poor watering . An adult bougainvillea plant at room conditions blooms profusely on the windowsill all spring and autumn. In autumn, trim the ends of the stems and reduce watering. With the onset of spring, gradually increase the air temperature and increase watering.
Bougainvillea pruning :Pruning bougainvillea in autumn or early spring encourages the development of profusely flowering side shoots. In the summer, you can also do a little cosmetic pruning of the main branches.
Very long shoots of bougainvillea to be pruned in autumn; spring pruning of bougainvillea shoots contributes to the formation of a bush and active flowering.
Stagnation of water in pots and keeping in a cool place together cause yellowing of the leaves. In the shade, the bracts do not turn into their bright colors. The lack of nutrients also leads to "greening" of the bracts.
Don't worry if the bougainvillea sheds its leaves: in a warm sunny place with regular watering it will quickly recover and produce many young shoots. In summer, bougainvillea requires abundant watering and weekly fertilizing with fertilizers with a high phosphorus content.
Outdoor bougainvilleas tolerate short-term winter temperature drops to 0 °C and even rare night frosts without problems. White bougainvilleas are the least resistant to cold winters, but plants with purple and red bracts do not tolerate adverse conditions.
Bougainvillea – Tropicana and its characteristics
The plant got its name in honor of the French navigator L. Bougainville, who became famous for his expedition in search of new lands for France.
He was accompanied by the botanist F. Commerson, who brought bougainvillea from South Brazil to Europe. 14 species are known, only two are popular among flower growers - naked and wonderful.
Bougainvillea naked is grown mainly as an indoor or tub culture, grows in open ground in the subtropical regions of the Caucasus. The plant often reaches a height of 5 m. The greatest decorative effect is achieved due to bracts. They can be purple, purple, red, pink or white, with yellow flowers inside. Bougainvillea naked blooms in April-June. One of the most popular varieties is Sanderiand, Alexandra is also good.
Beautiful bougainvillea is much higher than its close relative, this fast growing liana can be up to 10-15 m. Leaves are broadly ovate, pubescent, up to 12 cm in length. The flowers are collected in paniculate inflorescences at the very ends of the branches. Bracts have a wide range of colors. Blooms from April to October.
Bougainvillea loves a warm, sunny position, sheltered from the wind. She needs support in the form of a trellis or Wrought iron grating” > grating. During the period of active growth, it needs abundant watering. Fertilizers are applied weekly until August. Prune bougainvillea regularly, but in moderation. After the end of active flowering, young growths need to be shortened by half, which stimulates the formation of new side shoots and flower buds. It is important for the plant to provide the necessary wintering in a bright and cool room at a temperature of 8-10 degrees. Long branches should be shortened a little. Watering should be reduced immediately after the leaves fall. To prevent root rot, do not place the plant on a cold floor. In March, put the bougainvillea closer to the window, then the plant will bloom earlier.
This plant can be propagated from semi-woody cuttings in spring or summer.
Bougainvillea during the period of active growth and flowering takes us to the unique world of the tropics, to the nature that we imagine from the Brazilian TV series.
Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea). Types and features of care.
Lighting: Bougainvillea is very photophilous, a lot of light in particular is required for flowering bougainvillea. The leaves of this plant are tender, so it is still worth protecting from the scorching sun.
Temperature: After flowering, bougainvillea enters a dormant period, during which time the plant may shed its leaves partially or completely. In winter, the temperature for bougainvillea should be 10-15 ° C.
Bougainvillea bracts can be of different colors.
Humidity: In the warm season, bougainvillea should be watered abundantly with settled, non-cold water. In the autumn-winter period, especially if the plant is kept cool, bougainvillea is watered sparingly, in such a volume that the roots do not dry out.
The leaves of the plant should be sprayed periodically.
Top dressing: Start top dressing in early spring after the appearance of new leaves, and stop after flowering.
Transplanting: In the spring, as early as possible, the plant is transplanted into fresh, fertile soil. You can use ready-made soil mixture for flowering plants.
In warm areas where the temperature does not fall below 10 degrees in winter, bougainvillea is grown as an outdoor plant.
Soil recipe: Optimum acidity (pH) for growing bougainvillea 6.7 - 7. Soddy : leaf soil : sand = 2 : 2 : 1.
Propagation: Bougainvillea is easily propagated from cuttings. At the same time, the cuttings are cut in the spring, it is imperative that the cuttings are semi-lignified and not shorter than 7-9 cm. At other times of the year, rooting cuttings can be difficult.
Bougainvillea is native to Brazil.
Bougainvillea is a magnificent plant that cannot leave anyone indifferent, and even those who are not interested in indoor plants. With sufficient lighting and proper care, flowering occurs several times a year, almost without interruption. In the southern regions (where the temperature is at least +5 ° C) it can grow in open ground. It is desirable to form a crown, otherwise the plant will grow "liquid" - without pruning, bougainvillea branches very poorly. For example, in two years without pruning, bougainvillea grows 4-meter shoots, but they will branch a little, and there is also little attractiveness in such a plant. Bougainvillea is used as a large tub flowering plant: it is especially valuable for bright bracts, which are dependent from the variety come in different shades of red.
Bougainvillea glabra (Bougainvillea glabra)
Climbing or climbing lignified liana with bare, sometimes spiny, profusely branching stems. It is often cultivated as an upright undersized shrub. Leaves are 10-15 cm long, 4-6 cm wide, short-petiolate, alternate, pointed, oval, glabrous, entire-marginal, glossy leaves. The length of the flowers is 2-5 cm, often collected or solitary, surrounded by two or three leaf-shaped large ovoid pinkish-red or purple bracts, slightly fading with age. Tubular perianth yellowish-green. Homeland are the tropical regions of Brazil. The plant grows on carbonate soils, on rocky places. Garden forms are known, which differ in the color of the bracts: lilac, apricot, lemon yellow, red, orange, pink, white.
Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd
Differs from the previous species in the hairy drooping of the edges of the leaves, petioles and stems, greater spininess of the shoots, velvety drooping of the surface of the leaf blades, as well as large bracts. Homeland are the tropical regions of Brazil. Grows on rocky open slopes. From the 1st half of the 19th century in culture. The garden form "Lateritia" has brick-red bracts.
Housing and Care
Bougainvillea needs bright light without shading in the summer, good ventilation. Flowering is expected from spring to late summer if the plant is located in a sunny, warm location, preferably not indoors. In the rainy cold summertime, the bracts do not stain, because the bougainvillea is very sensitive to frost, there is no need to delay moving it indoors in the autumn. during dormancy in winter they are placed in a cool place (12-14 ° C) - this has a significant effect on flowering in spring. Bougainvillea does not tolerate movement (especially if the light conditions are worse there) and does not like changes in the orientation of the shoots (i.e. it is easier to cut off the shoot than to “twist” around the support). At the same time, it stops growing for a long time and begins to shed some of the leaves. If necessary, cut the plant by half or a third: before the onset of winter in large plants, in smaller ones before the formation of shoots. Drops leaves in autumn. For flowering plants, fertilization is applied once a week from March to October.
Lighting Bougainvillea requires bright lighting.
Watering Watering should be very plentiful in summer, as the drying of the earthy clod can lead to the dropping of flowers. In winter, you need to water less, but you need to make sure that the earthen ball does not dry out. Humidity is high. On hot summer days or in a heated room it is necessary to spray. Repotting Bougainvillea should be repotted every 2 years. Transplanted to a higher container. Loamy soil is used for flowers.
Bougainvillea is propagated in summer by stem cuttings. For rooting, they are treated with a growth stimulator, after which they are placed in a wet mixture of sand and peat, placed in a bright place at a temperature of more than 25 ° C, then covered with a film. Yellow leaves are a sign of excessive moisture, winter "leaf fall" is natural.
bougainvillea pruning , bougainvillea photo , care for bougainvillea
What the plant looks like
Bougainvillea, which every gardener can plant and care for at home, comes in different varieties. This plant is native to South America. Here it is found in the form of small trees or creepers. However, most often bougainvillea is a shrub with clinging, climbing and creeping shoots. The branches of the plant are covered with thorns. With their help, the shoots cling to the support. It is worth noting that bougainvillea grows very quickly. Shoots in length can reach five meters. In the climate of our country, this plant can only be grown in a greenhouse or in a room. Blooming bougainvillea looks very beautiful indoors. Home care gives excellent results. The growth of shoots is on average 1.5 meters. Of course, if the plant is properly planted, water and feed on time.
Bougainvillea: care at home
Gardener's feedback shows that a particular variety of plant requires special conditions. In fact, bougainvillea belongs to the Nyctaginaceae or Nightflower family. This genus is represented by only 15, and judging by some sources - 18 species. However, only a few can be grown indoors. First of all, it is naked bougainvillea and wonderful bougainvillea. Such varieties were obtained as a result of the painstaking work of many breeders. Some of the species are distinguished by decorative bracts, as well as variegated leaves.
Choosing a place
This plant was brought to us from the tropics. Therefore, he needs bright light and, of course, space. A striking example in this case is the bougainvillea "Sabina". Home care for such a plant begins with choosing a suitable place. Of course, creating ideal conditions indoors is unlikely to succeed. To grow a healthy plant, you need to fast with patience and a certain amount of knowledge.
Bougainvillea is best grown in a greenhouse. After all, it is here that there is enough space and light. At the same time, it is possible to regulate the temperature and humidity of the air. And this is also important, especially if Vera bougainvillea is grown. Home care allows you to grow a beautiful flowering plant. Subject to all the rules in the greenhouse, shoots in a year can give an increase of several meters.
For the cultivation of the light-loving Brazilian, it is better to use large containers. Tanks should be installed along the south wall. Only in this case it will be possible to obtain lushly flowering large specimens.
Light and temperature
Light is very important for this plant. Only in this case will bougainvillea grow normally. Home care is one of the components of a good plant development. The southern beauty will feel great not only in the greenhouse, but also on the insulated and glazed loggia. The main thing is that the air temperature here does not fall below 10 ° C in winter.
The placement of bougainvillea indoors is very important. Pots with a plant should be installed so that the sun's rays fall on them. Bougainvillea should take such baths for 5 hours daily. Thanks to this, the plant will develop normally and bloom regularly.
If the sunlight is not in the required amount, then the shoots will begin to stretch strongly. This will stop flowering, and the leaves will become pale. Bougainvillea, for which home care is very important, will take on an unhealthy look and cease to be a decoration of the house. It is worth noting that this plant does not tolerate drafts.
How to feed
The plant should be fed about once every 10 days. In this case, complex mineral fertilizers and organic fertilizers should be alternated. As the reviews of experienced gardeners show, from the beginning of May until the end of August, it is worth applying top dressing, which is dominated by potassium and phosphorus. It is worth limiting the amount of nitrogen, as this substance stimulates the growth of shoots and prevents the plant from blooming. In winter, bougainvillea is usually not fed. If the room temperature is below 15 ° C, then the plant is not even sprayed.
Pay special attention to watering. During hot periods, the plant should be watered as needed 1 - 2 times in 7 days. It should be borne in mind that in its natural environment, bougainvillea grows on mountain slopes, where the soil is rocky. The plant does not tolerate stagnant moisture. After watering, it is necessary to drain the water from the pallets. Otherwise, the roots will begin to rot and bougainvillea may die.
Reduce watering in winter. At this time of the year, you should simply moisten the substrate so that it does not dry out. Watering can be done once every 10 to 15 days. In this case, it should be taken into account that the lower the temperature in the room, the less water is needed. If, for example, bougainvillea "Alexandra", which requires a lot of patience to care for at home, shed all the leaves, then soil moistening should be stopped.
For planting bougainvillea at home, small containers should be used initially. For this, pots of 1.5 - 5 liters are suitable. It is worth noting that in containers with a large volume, the southern beauty grows intensively, but practically does not color. In containers, bougainvillea can only be grown in a greenhouse. After all, these containers have a large volume and the plant grows rapidly.
The substrate for planting can be prepared by yourself. To do this, you need turf and leafy soil, as well as coarse sand. You need to take the components in equal parts. In the resulting composition, it is worth adding small shards, vermiculite or expanded clay.
The soil must be sufficiently nutritious and light. However, do not make it moisture-intensive. As for acidity, the soil should be slightly acidic or neutral: pH 6.8 - 7. Drainage should be done at the bottom of the tank. To do this, you can use foam, shards, small pebbles or expanded clay. In this case, there is a certain rule. The larger the container, the thicker the drainage layer should be.
Pruning should be done every year. Usually such a procedure is carried out at the beginning of winter or in the fall. In this case, the shoots are shortened by ½ length. This allows you to enhance the growth of side shoots.
Pruning in the spring also has a positive effect on the condition of the bougainvillea. In this case, poorly located, thin and twisted shoots are removed, and too long branches are shortened.
In summer, young branches are usually pruned immediately after flowering. This stimulates the emergence of new inflorescences. Experts do not recommend touching shoots that are 3 to 4 years old. On old branches, a small number of buds awaken. As a result, new lateral processes are not formed.
So, how bougainvillea reproduces. Bougainvillea, home care for which consists not only in regular watering and top dressing, is propagated by cuttings. At the beginning of summer, when it is already warm enough, you should take a half-lignified cutting, the length of which is 10 centimeters, and plant it in the soil. The soil can be taken the same as for an adult plant. However, experts recommend making the composition less nutritious and a little lighter. Therefore, humus should be replaced with peat.
Prepare cuttings before planting. To do this, they must be placed in a little warm water for three hours, and then placed in a stimulator for a while. Planting material after such manipulations should be dipped, for example, in root root powder or in heteroauxin.
Bougainvillea - home care
Bougainvillea, a flower that is not very common in the collections of amateur growers. This plant is considered capricious and difficult to care for. But all this is idle speculation. Caring for bougainvillea at home is not as difficult as it is described. Of course, if nothing is done to create optimal growing conditions for it, then nothing good will come of it.
A little about the plant
Bougainvillea native to South America. The genus Bougainvillea includes only 14 species (according to other sources -
18). Among them are trees, shrubs, and vines. In open ground, it also grows in our area, but only in the south. On the South Coast, bougainvillea can be found everywhere. The plant is evergreen and, depending on the species, can have both pubescent and smooth leaves. As strange as it sounds, bougainvillea blooms with small and inconspicuous flowers. And there is nothing strange. What is perceived as luxurious large flowers are actually bracts. In nature, such flowering can continue throughout the year. But at home, bougainvillea takes time for a dormant period. With a greenhouse content, it may not be very long, and the plant will be able to please you with this peculiar flowering more than once a year.
Caring for indoor bougainvillea
Lighting and location
Bougainvillea does not like to move around often. It is not recommended to rotate it relative to the light. Therefore, when choosing a place for her, keep in mind that you are choosing it for a long time. The only acceptable movement can be considered its movement to fresh air with the onset of summer heat. During this period, this is the best place for bougainvillea.
Wherever you have a plant, outdoors or indoors, it needs maximum light. As practice shows, even direct sunlight is not terrible for her. More damage can be caused by a lack of sun. During the dormant period, bougainvillea also prefers bright light.
Bougainvillea prefers warm conditions during its active period. The optimum temperature is + 20-25 degrees. But with the onset of a dormant period, the temperature should be reduced. This is necessary so that the plant can lay the largest number of flower buds. The most favorable temperature will be in the range of + 12-16 degrees.
Watering and air humidity
During the growing season, which in most cases falls on the summer, bougainvillea requires regular watering. The earth in the pot should be constantly wet. Overdrying is not allowed. But too much moisture content in the soil is unacceptable. If you are a beginner florist, and you cannot yet determine the time of the next watering, then it is better to let the topsoil dry slightly and only then water. During the dormant period, watering is reduced to a minimum. Reduce watering bougainvillea should be gradual, starting in the fall, when the plant begins to move to a dormant state.
It is desirable to maintain high air humidity throughout the year. Usually it is supported by spraying. But during the flowering period of bougainvillea with spraying, one must be very careful. Moisture on flowers and bracts is highly undesirable. It is better to solve this problem in another way. The most common is to place the plant pot on a layer of wet pebbles, sand, expanded clay, etc. During the dormant period, air humidification for bougainvillea does not stop. At this time, it can also be sprayed with warm water.
Both mineral and organic fertilizers can be applied. The main condition is an increased content of phosphorus, potassium and iron. Nitrogen fertilizers are unacceptable. An excess of nitrogen will stimulate the growth of green mass of bougainvillea to the detriment of flowering, and therefore decorative. Most fertilizers for flowering plants meet these requirements.
The future flowering of the plant will largely depend on how timely and correctly you cut the plant. The main pruning occurs in spring and autumn. In the spring, mainly hygienic pruning is carried out. Dried, damaged, underdeveloped shoots are removed. The main pruning is in autumn. Try to be sure to keep the shoots that have grown in the current year. They will give the bulk of the flowers next year. They should also be shortened, but in such a way that at least 5 centimeters of shoot remain (shoot with 7-8 buds). At the same time, the formation of bougainvillea is also carried out. Depending on the type of plant, it can be given any shape. It is usually given once at a young age and then maintained. Cosmetic pruning is carried out in the summer. Damaged shoots, faded flowers and bracts are removed.
Transplantation of bougainvillea
Since this plant is difficult to tolerate transplantation, they are carried out only by transshipment into a larger pot. Moreover, each subsequent pot for transplanting bougainvillea should be only a couple of centimeters larger than the previous one. Young plants will need to be repotted more frequently, every year after the end of the dormant period. With the growth of bougainvillea, it can be transplanted less often, guided by the need for a transplant. When choosing a pot, in addition to size, one should also be guided by the fact that it should be tall, with good drainage holes, and for adult plants it should also be quite stable.
Land for planting - transplanting bougainvillea is easy to make yourself. Its components are simple and easily accessible.
- Sod land (meadow) - two parts;
- Leaf land (forest, garden) - two parts;
- Humus (greenhouse soil) - one part;
- Sand (coarse-grained river or agro-perlite) - one part.
Propagation of bougainvillea
The easiest way to propagate bougainvillea is from cuttings. It is not only reliable, but also allows you to save all the species and varietal characteristics of the plant.
Propagation of bougainvillea by cuttings is best done in late spring - early summer. To do this, semi-lignified cuttings 8–10 centimeters long are cut from the mother plant. To speed up and facilitate rooting, the cuttings can be held in a solution of any root formation stimulator or, immediately before planting, dip the cut of the bougainvillea cuttings in root root powder. You can root the cutting in the soil used for planting adult plants, slightly diluting it with peat to facilitate. Cover the stalk from above with a glass jar and place in a warm, bright place.
Bougainvillea home care pruning and propagation
Bougainvillea is native to the humid subtropical forests of Brazil. But the name of the plant was French in honor of the navigator Louis Antoine de Bougainville, and nevertheless it is successfully grown when caring for at home in central Russia.
There are about 14 species of nocturnal plants, they are most common in the tropical regions of South and Central America, where they grow as shrubs and small trees.
Bougainvillea at home is charming, it is able to turn the head of any person with its French charm and aroma.
The bougainvillea plant is a climbing evergreen shrub with oval, slightly pointed leaves and spiny, profusely branching shoots that reach in some cases up to 5 meters in length. In the southern latitudes, the plant is used to decorate walking archways in squares and parks, gazebos, high fences of houses and patios.
Decorative plant forms not tubular flowers of small size, but three bracts surrounding them, bright color. Under natural conditions, the plant usually has these leaves have purple tones. But the colors of cultivated forms are much more diverse: from yellow and pure white to pale pink, as well as purple, dark purple and brick.
Varieties and Species
Of the most known climbing and shrub species of bougainvillea, two types of lianas are most often grown: naked bougainvillea and bougainvillea wonderful and many hybrids of these two varieties and also many hybrids of these two varieties.
In particular, there are hybrid varieties of naked bougainvillea with many double bracts, colored mainly in purple. A large cluster of these bracts almost covers all the greenery of the foliage.
These fairly lush climbers, which reach up to several meters in height and over 20 meters in length, are most often found throughout South America: near residential areas and in parks.
As a miniature garden form, Bougainvillea Mini Thai has proven itself well, which was bred as a result of crossing naked and Peruvian bougainvillea. It is grown as a bushy plant with light pink bracts, in some cases orange in hybrid forms.
Bougainvillea home care
When living in central Russia, it is better to keep the plant in winter gardens and at home.
The plant is very demanding on lighting, it needs to find a fairly bright, sunny place, even in summer it sometimes lacks heat.
In winter, it needs a cool maintenance and moderate watering, not allowing the substrate to dry out completely. If the plant is placed in a heated room, then regular spraying is necessary.
And in the summer, the plant needs abundant watering and fertilizing, fertilizing once a week with fertilizers containing a large amount of phosphorus.
When growing bougainvillea as a houseplant, in summer it must be kept outdoors, under direct sunlight, and in late autumn and in winter it must be kept very light in a cool room, at a temperature of 10 to 15 degrees, with moderate watering.
Flowering plants in room conditions occurs abundantly in spring and autumn. In the autumn, it is necessary to prune the stems and reduce watering. And already with the onset of the spring period, gradually increase the temperature conditions and increase watering.
How to properly prune bougainvillea
At the end of the flowering period, bougainvillea is cut back to half of the young stem growth, thus stimulating the plant for the next flowering. And after the end of the growing season, in the fall, they carry out a strong pruning of bougainvillea.
Light shaping pruning is carried out during the summer period. To stimulate the growth of young stems, pinch out old shoots.
It is also possible to nip young shoots, immediately after the end of the flowering period, pinch out growth points with a soft structure. In the spring, all shoots that have grown over the winter are shortened, leaving 4-7 internodes.
Bougainvillea propagated by cuttings
In spring and summer, bougainvillea can be propagated by cuttings. For their rooting, the temperature regime of the soil is maintained at least 25 degrees.
Cuttings cut from the floor of lignified shoots are dipped in warm water for 1.5-2 hours, after which they are treated with a growth stimulator and only after that they are sent for rooting in a warm substrate. The soil is made up of equal parts of soddy and leafy soil, as well as ½ of sand and ½ of peat.
- Care should be taken not to let the plant stand in water in the container and keep it in cool conditions, these cumulative actions can cause yellowing of the leaf cover .
- When the plant is grown in the shade, the bracts do not turn into bright colors , and with a lack of nutrients they turn green.
- Don't worry if your plant sheds its leaf cover , with regular watering and keeping in a warm and sunny place, bougainvillea quickly recovers and produces many new shoots.
Home grown bougainvillea can withstand short-term drops to 0 degrees in winter, and even occasional night frosts. Less resistant species to cool winter periods include white bougainvilleas, as well as hybrids with red and purple bracts.
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Pruning bougainvillea in spring, autumn, after flowering
Pruning bougainvillea is the most important element in home flower care. This flower, in essence, is a creeper. It constantly puts out long, thin shoots that only become woody with time. Bracts, the main decoration of the plant, are formed on short, brand new shoots. The more such young shoots there are on the plant, the more magnificent it will be. Learn more about how and when to trim.
When to prune
Bougainvillea becomes disheveled and unkempt if left uncut. Haircut is done at any time of the year. In autumn, before leaving for winter rest, the branches are shortened by half. Thanks to this, the bush is rejuvenated, and the side shoots grow more actively. Pruning in the spring is a healing procedure. Extra, weak, uneven branches are removed, too long ones are made shorter. In summer, wilted brushes are removed, such pruning stimulates new flowering.
It is not recommended to prune adults, older than 3 years, lignified branches. With age, the number of dormant buds decreases. And by cutting off old shoots, you risk: young side branches may not appear.
Bougainvillea is favorably pruned. And its branches are very plastic. Therefore, without much effort, they can be given an interesting shape. For example, plant plants with differently colored bracts in one pot and intertwine them. Place the vine on a support of some form, grow a fluffy bush or stem. Patients can experiment, I form bonsai from bougainvillea.
For pruning bougainvillea, prepare thick gardening gloves, garden shears and a disinfectant such as bleach or rubbing alcohol.
Wipe the clippers with a disinfectant to prevent diseases from infecting the bougainvillea.
After pruning diseased shoots, disinfect the clippers before pruning to prevent infection.
- Do not shorten the bougainvillea too much and cut it too low to the ground. This may cause flowering to stop.
- Don't forget to remove wilted flowers. Leaving wilted flowers on the plant inhibits the formation of new flowers.
- Never try to trim a bougainvillea without gardening gloves on. Thorns and thick branches can hurt your hands.
Pruning in spring and autumn
In spring and autumn, cardinal anti-aging pruning is carried out. Remove some of the old, lignified shoots, and shorten the rest by half.
- Start pruning off dead, damaged or diseased parts of the bougainvillea.
- Remove large and obstructing branches and those branches that have been deformed during the bougainvillea pruning process.
- Step back to inspect the bougainvillea and continue trimming to the desired shape.
In the future, even during the summer, do not forget to carry out cosmetic pruning, pinching the tips of the shoots. Repeat pruning as needed, or every 4 to 6 weeks during the growing season to encourage new flowers.
Bougainvillea is a very grateful material for the formation of any kind of crown. Craftsmen even create chic bonsai from this flower with thick, fancy trunks. You will never say that in front of you, in essence, a liana!
In the intervals between regular pruning, carry out the so-called pinching, tearing off the withered tops of the inflorescences with your fingers. Fertilize bougainvillea after pruning a lot of branches to replenish the plant's strength.
Pruning after flowering
In autumn, after flowering, Bougainvillea also needs to be pruned. When the bracts lose their decorative effect, its young shoots are shortened by a third of the length, leaving 6-8 buds on each. Extra young shoots spoiling the appearance are cut to the trunk. It is better not to touch old branches, aged three years or more - there will be no great effect, and the injury to the plant will be noticeable.
At the same time, before the onset of the dormant period, Bougainvillea is given the desired shape. You can form a flower in the form of a multi-stemmed bush. You can leave shoots in the form of vines so that on the support you can give them any fancy shapes, for example, in the form of a heart or a ring. No less interesting are the compositions where the branches of Bougainvillea twine curly frames, trellises and decorative lattices.
We draw your attention to the fact that during pruning it is necessary to leave a sufficient number of buds of the young shoot of the current year, since dormant buds on old shoots wake up with difficulty, and you may be left without new shoots.
Bougainvillea is winter hardy and can withstand any type of pruning. When pruning bougainvillea, you can give it a variety of shapes. Cut off the lower branches to give it an interesting look, making it look like a tree.
Bougainvillea can be made into a tree with one stem and several branches, in the form of a bonsai. How it is done:
- Two or three selected branches are left on the plant, the rest are cut off.
- This species is maintained for quite a long time until the plant becomes woody.
- Then a cardinal pruning of the central branches to the stump is carried out.
- They are waiting for Bougainvillea to give new shoots - they should also be controlled in growth: extra - remove, long ones - pinch and trim, deviated from the desired direction - correct with a wire.
- When the branches are woody in the desired position, the wire is removed.
We remind you that bonsai are formed before the start of the dormant period, so that Bougainvillea has time to release new shoots and lay flower buds on them. Then, next spring, your mini-tree will delight you with bright and lush flowering.
Sometimes the bare branches below the bonsai look unsightly. We recommend that you graft cuttings on bald branches. To do this, cut off a young green stalk from the flower crown, remove all leaves from it. Just be careful not to damage the kidneys. Choose a place on the branch for vaccination. Take a drill with a suitable size drill bit, drill a hole and insert the handle into it. Treat the vaccination site with medical glue.