How to make kalam tree


How To Make Kalam Of Mango Tree

Kalam of mango tree is a deciduous tree whose leaves are used in suncream and other cosmetic products. It can grow up to 15 meters tall and is native to India. Kalam of mango has many benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-parasitic effects. The leaves are also rich in vitamins C, B6 and K1.

There are two ways to make Kalam of Mango Tree. One is to use mango bark and the other is to use mango leaves.

The bark method is very simple and involves collecting the bark from the outside of the tree’s trunk. The bark is then dried, crushed, and left in a water-filled container for several hours. After this time has passed, the water can be poured into a container and used as a cleaning agent.

The leaf method is slightly more complicated but not overly so. It involves collecting the leaves from the tree and then pressing them into a mold that has been designed for this purpose.

From there, you will need to wait for the leaves to dry before removing them from the mold. This process can take anywhere from one day up to six months depending on how many leaves are being used

Fertilize your Kalam of mango tree every few months. Use an organic fertilizer to boost the growth of your tree. Organic fertilizers are easy to apply. Dig into the soil and apply them as recommended by the product’s label. Fertilizer is also useful for both new and established trees. The amount of fertilizer that you need to give your Kalam of mango tree depends on its age and size. As the tree ages, its nutritional needs change, too.

Pruning is not necessary for growing a mango tree

The best way to get a great crop from your mango tree is to prune it regularly. The leaves of the mango tree will grow in clusters of ten to twenty leaves, which will change from brown to reddish-purple or dark green and varying shades of green. It is a self-fertile tree. The mango fruit is round, oblong or oval, and weighs from a few ounces to five pounds.

Although the mango tree responds well to pruning, it is important to remove dead branches and fruit to prevent disease next season. It is also a good idea to remove any dead tissue that may have fallen off the tree. Mango trees are prone to pests and disease, so it is important to maintain a healthy ecosystem around your tree. If you fail to prune your mango tree properly, it can die off and leave you with a tree that is impossible to harvest.

It is best to prune a mango tree only when it is young, before it flowers. During the early years after planting, you should prune it so that the lower branches are four feet off the ground, making it easier to water and weed. Ideally, pruning should occur in the springtime. Smaller trees shouldn’t require pruning, but they should still be kept trimmed back to maintain a healthy size.

You can avoid this problem by buying seedlings that have been grafted. These are the easiest trees to grow, but you should always remember to keep the trees small for the first two years. A grafted mango tree is easier to manage and will be fruitful in five to eight years. However, seedling mango trees require watering daily during the first two weeks and twice a week after the second flush. You should also consider watering less frequently during the winter season.

Fertilizer helps to create healthier tree growth

To grow properly, trees need essential nutrients and vitamins, and without fertilization they may not thrive and grow well. Trees that are lacking in certain nutrients may also experience diseases or insect infestations, resulting in reduced growth. Over-fertilization may have the same adverse effects. To avoid causing further damage to trees, fertilize in the right amounts at the right time. There are different types of fertilizers available on the market, and it is important to know which ones will benefit your trees.

To apply fertilizer properly, measure the root area of your trees. A good rule of thumb is to measure the diameter of the trunk at breast height and the area of the soil around the roots in square feet. This will ensure that the fertilizer will reach all the roots. To minimize over-fertilization, measure only the part of the tree that can be nourished by fertilizer. A slow, even watering will help the fertilizer penetrate deeply into the soil.

A good fertilizer should contain at least 1 to 3 pounds of actual nitrogen per thousand square feet. When applying pre-plant nutrient, make sure to use one that is in a natural organic or slow-release form. This will ensure your tree receives the correct amount of nitrogen. This is the most important mineral in vegetative growth and requires a certain rate for proper maintenance. However, if you do not plan on applying fertilizer annually, you may end up doing more harm than good to your trees.

If you are considering fertilizing your trees, there are a number of benefits to this process. Trees need a steady supply of nutrients to develop strong roots, which will protect them from disease and insects. A good fertilizer should also help your trees recover from the stress and disease caused by summer. Using fertilizers regularly can increase their overall health and resistance to environmental factors, making them more durable and resistant to drought.

Mango scab

Mango scab is a fungal disease that affects the fruit of the mango plant. It usually manifests itself as a black scab that appears on the mango fruit. If left untreated, mango scab will cause the fruit to drop and develop unsightly scar tissue. Not only does mango scab ruin the fruit’s marketability, but it also makes it more prone to latent anthracnose infections.

To identify mango scab, you need to collect plant material that has the disease, culture the organism and conduct microscopic examination. Identifying the organism is difficult without proper knowledge of the fungus and plant. To make mango scab, you need a specimen with lesions on the young plant material. You can get this information by consulting a plant pathologist. You can also try applying a copper fungicide. Blue Shield(r) is registered for use in mangos.

In order to prevent mango scab, you should spray the fruit. Mango scab is caused by a fungus called Elsinoe manganifera. In its early stages, the disease looks like anthracnose, a fungus that attacks the leaves of mango plants. In addition to affecting young fruit, mango scab can also attack seedlings. If you don’t want to risk the fruit’s loss, you can apply sulfur to the affected area.

In addition to copper fungicides, you should also prune affected limbs of mango trees. It’s not recommended to treat mango scab directly, but copper fungicides can prevent algae spot and fungal infections. You should apply these fungicides during the summer months, when the fruit is in bloom. Also, you should remove dead plant material that could be a source of the disease. Fortunately, this is a simple solution to mango scab.

Verticillium wilt

If you’re wondering how to make Kalam of mango tree, the best way is to prevent it from occurring in the first place. The disease, also known as verticillium wilt, causes sudden wilting of the leaves. In addition to killing the leaves, it also affects the plant’s growth and productivity. The disease’s symptoms are similar to those of other plant diseases, such as yellowing leaves and droopy stems.

Symptoms of verticillium wilt in mango trees include wilted and yellowing leaves. The affected branches are brown, but still attached to the trunk. Infected trees also show brown discolouration on the wood under the bark. While the disease occurs world-wide, it is considered to be an epidemic in Pakistan. To protect your mango trees, be sure to prune them regularly. And never replant them in the same location.

Verticillium wilt is a soil-borne fungus that attacks mango trees. The symptoms of verticillium wilt in mango trees include brown patches on the vascular tissues. Severe cases can even cause the tree to die. Symptoms of mango scab can also occur. Both of these diseases lead to browning and wilting of leaves.

If you’ve noticed symptoms of verticillium wilt, the best way to treat the disease is to prevent it from recurring. To prevent verticillium wilt in mango trees, apply copper fungicide on the fruit. Apply the fungicide during the spring when flower clusters emerge. Do not overdo it; fungicides should be applied regularly.

Mango rust

The best way to protect your mango trees from fungi is to apply copper spray. Copper fungicide will kill the fungal spores that cause cracks in the leaves and wilted fruit. However, you must be careful not to over-fertilize your mango trees. In some cases, over-fertilization may lead to soft-nosed mangoes. If this happens, it is best to use copper spray or insecticidal soap. The treatment must be repeated at different intervals to prevent fungal infection.

The mango tree is an evergreen tree that can live for more than 300 years. It is native to southern Asia, eastern India and the Andaman Islands, but has been cultivated in a number of different parts of the world. The fruit is a member of the Anacardiaceae family, which is renowned for its toxins. It has a large range of uses in English and other languages, and is even known as “mangou” in certain parts of Africa.

It is possible to grow a mango tree at higher elevations, but you should know that it can be affected by cold. The amount of rainfall does not matter as much as the timing. Mangoes grow best in 30 to 100 inches of rainfall over four months in the summer and 8 months of dry weather. Similarly, they do well in irrigated regions, such as Egypt. In the United States, mangoes are cultivated in southern Florida where rains are frequent and often heavy during the summer months.

If you are planning on planting your mango tree in the ground, be sure to clear the area of any vegetation around it. Make sure the area is three feet wide and four feet deep. Then, dig a hole about three times larger than the container you planted the tree in. The larger the hole, the looser the soil surrounding the taproot. Then, fill it with soil and water the mango tree.

In conclusion,

KALAM popularly known as mango tree is the most common fruit grown all over India. The tree is very strong and can withstand strong winds but the fruits are vulnerable to winds. Mangoes are very juicy and pulpy fruit with a pleasant taste. The different varieties have different taste, color, shape and size of the fruit.

The Difference Between Seedling, Grafted and Cutting Grown Fruit Trees – Deep Green Permaculture

Fruit trees naturally reproduce themselves from seeds, but most fruit trees that you buy are not produced that way for very good reasons. There are many ways to propagate fruit trees, and each method has its advantages and disadvantages.

Whether you propagate fruit trees yourself or buy them from a garden nursery, all fruit are produced by the following methods – they may be grafted, grown from rooted cuttings, produced by air layering (also referred to as aerial layering or marcotting ) or they may be seedlings grown from seed.

Why Not Just Grow Fruit Trees from Seed?

The difference between growing plants from seed and propagating plants from cuttings off a parent plant is genetic variation.

The seeds of many fruit produce trees that are different from the parent, because seeds themselves are produced by sexual reproduction – they receive genes from a male and female to form. As they are a cross from two sets of genes, many fruit trees are not “true to seed”, that is, their seeds will produce a different variety of tree from the parent. For the botany purists, yes, there are some exceptions, but this is generally the case.

Propagation methods that use material from the parent trees such as cuttings are a form of vegetative, or asexual reproduction, as genes only come from one parent to produce identical genetic clones.

Let’s have a look at a real life example to better understand this concept. Imagine we want to produce more apple trees, say Granny Smith apples from an existing tree. Apples are not ‘true to seed’, so the seeds from any particular variety apple will not grow to be the same variety as the apple tree they came from. In our case the Granny Smith apple seeds will produce a wide variety of different and unknown apple tree types.

So what you may say? Well, consider that not all the varieties of apple produced would taste good, some may not be palatable or edible at all! If you’re wanting to produce Granny Smith apples, you’ll have the problem that none of the apple tree seedlings will be Granny Smith apples, but something else instead. You won’t know how productive the tree will be, what shape or size the tree will grow to, what part of the season the tree will fruit, how big the fruit will be, or how the fruit will look or taste. There is the rare chance that the fruit will be as good or better than the parent tree, but the odds are stacked against you!

Why do plants mix and match their genetic material and constantly change? Basically to create genetic diversity and variation, as a mechanism to adapt to different conditions and enhance their chances of survival and reproduction. If every seed produces a tree with different attributes, there’s a much higher probability that one or more trees will survive to grow into a mature trees and continue to produce the next generation in the event of a detrimental environment change.

So, if many fruit trees are not “true to seed” and intentionally produce genetic diversity in their seedlings as a survival strategy, what can we do if we want to preserve the qualities of the parent plant to maintain the size, quality and flavour of the fruit as well as many other desirable characteristics? The solution is simple. We can use propagation methods which produce genetic clones of the parent tree, which we’ll now discuss.

Why Are Most Fruit Trees Grafted?

The reason why many fruit trees are grafted is because they do not grow true to seed. Only by grafting the scion wood (a cutting of a branch) from the original tree onto another rootstock (the base another tree with roots) can you ensure that you get the same fruit each time.

If we consider Granny Smith apples for example, the scion wood of all grafted trees of this variety, all around the world, everywhere, can be traced back to a single tree in one part of the world! Quite amazing when you think about it. in the case of the Granny Smith apple variety. it all originated from a single seedling that came up by chance from a pile of discarded crab apples in Australia in 1868 and was discovered by Maria Ann Smith, who propagated the cultivar. In each part of the world where a Granny Smith apple is grown, scion wood which is a clone of the parent tree will be grafted onto a various different rootstocks to cope with the local growing conditions.

There are a large number of different grafting techniques that are used in different circumstances and on different trees, the diagram below illustrates how basic cleft grafting (also known as V-grafting) works.

Since the scion wood is a basically cutting that has the same genetic maturity as the parent plant, a grafted tree fruits much sooner. So, if a plant takes six years to produce fruit when it’s grown from seed, a grafted tree may only take two to three years to produce fruit. This saves a lot of waiting around and avoids having unproductive trees taking space in a garden for many years.

For example, an avocado grown from seed may take 6 to 10 years or more to fruit, while a grafted tree will produce fruit in 3 to 4 years.

Grafting provides the benefit of attaching different roots to trees to enable them to grow in soils where it normally can’t grow. If you were to plant a tree where it shouldn’t be planted naturally, it will have a shorter life. If you graft a tree using an appropriate rootstock, it will be better able to handle adverse conditions. Specific rootstock can be used to cope better with different soil types and soil conditions, such as heavy or clay soils, or resist particular diseases. The general rule with rootstock is that like is grafted onto like, apples onto apple rootstock, pears onto pear rootstock, and so on.

The technique of grafting can be used to control the size of the tree. Grafting is used to produce everything from fully dwarfed trees to full size trees and everything in between. Semi-dwarf and dwarf trees are produced by grafting onto a less vigorous or weaker rootstock. In the worst cases, such as with the fully dwarfing apple rootstocks, such as the M9 rootstock, the root system is so weak that it can’t hold the apple tree up and it has to be staked up for life. These rootstocks luckily aren’t what’s used when you buy a dwarf apple tree from a retail garden nursery, so there’s no need to be concerned.

Citrus is always grafted to specific rootstock such as flying dragon to create dwarf citrus trees or trifoliata to grow full size trees that will be suitable for specific soils. Trifoliata rootstock does well in heavier clay loams to loamy soils in the cooler climates and is resistant to citrus nematode and some species of the phytophthora (a soil-borne water mould that causes root rot).

It’s important to realize that grafted trees don’t live as long as seed grown trees, but both of these have naturally formed roots, which provide some advantages over cutting grown trees.

Which Fruit Trees Can Be Grown from Cuttings?

Some fruit trees grow great from rooted cuttings and will fruit as soon as they have enough roots to support fruit production. Mediterranean fruit trees such as figs, pomegranates and mulberries, as well as climbers such as grapes and kiwifruit can all be grown from hardwood cuttings to produce genetic clones, no need for seedling grown trees or grafting. When you buy these trees. they are most often grown from cuttings.

Cuttings grown plants typically have a weaker root system than seedlings or grafted trees, but to keep things in perspective, grafted dwarf trees are intentionally grafted onto weaker root systems, which is what makes them into dwarf trees.

If the type of tree has a deep taproot (and not many fruit trees do), this is something that will only be present in a seedling root (and on a grafted rootstock). Tree cuttings don’t develop tap roots, as this is a structure that forms at the seedling stage.

Air Layering Trees (Marcotting)

Some trees are propagated by inducing branches to form roots while they’re still attached to the tree, and cutting them off after they have sprouted roots!


Lychee air layer on a small potted plant (Photo source: Iacopo Lorenzini (Own work) via Wikimedia Commons)

Cuttings produced by aerial layering (also known as air layering or marcotting) grow and behave exactly the same way as cuttings rooted in the conventional way.

With air layering, a ring of bark is stripped off the branch, but the branch is left on the tree. The exposed wood is covered with a moisture retentive medium such as moist sphagnum moss or coco-peat (coconut coir) and wrapped in plastic to keep the moisture in until roots form. Once the roots are sufficiently developed, the branch is cut, and potted up to grow on and produce a stronger root system.

Air layering is used when propagation using regular cuttings doesn’t work well, and is often used on evergreen trees including many subtropical and tropical trees. This method also works on citrus which is an evergreen tree, but citrus are better propagated using bud grafting or shield grafting methods, which are different to the cleft or V graft mentioned earlier.

Seedling Grown Trees

As we’ve already mentioned there are certain advantages and disadvantages to seedling grown trees.

If a fruit tree is not true to seed, the seedlings will be different from the parent, and they will often take many years longer to fruit, in some cases, well over ten years. That can be disappointing if you wait that long only to find that the fruit tastes nothing like the parent tree’s fruit!

One major use for seedling trees is as grafting rootstock, as they have a strong root system which make them ideal for grafting known varieties onto.

Seedlings grown trees will live longer than grafted trees or cutting grown trees, they are more vigorous and grow slightly larger. They’re also a lot stronger and more hardy, and more likely survive frosts. If a grafted tree is hit hard by frost, the graft will usually die off, but the rootstock will survive. With a seedling grown tree, if the rootstock survives a hard frost it will usually reshoot from the ground.

Apples and pears are never true to seed but tamarillos can be grown from seed.

Apricots, peaches and nectarines grow fairly true to seed, some say plums do too. They wont be exact but often quite close. A good cheap option though if you’re guerrilla gardening around the suburbs in vacant public spaces!

Gardeners often ask whether they can grow citrus from seed, or avocado. The answer is both yes and no, as these require a bit of an explanation…

Can Citrus Trees be Grown from Seed?

Most citrus are true to seed because they are in fact polyembryonic, the seeds contain more than one plant embryo, one only embryo is the product of fertilization (sexual reproduction) and the rest are genetic clones of the parent tree. When these seeds are grown they produce multiple shoots, the fertilised one is usually the weakest and is removed.

The following citrus are monoembryonic and do not grow true to seed – Clementine Mandarin, Meyer Lemon, Nagami Kumquat, Marumi Kumquat, Pummelo, Temple Tangor, and Trifoliate orange (also known as Citrus trifoliata, Poncirus trifoliata, Japanese bitter-orange, or Chinese bitter orange).

Can Avocado Trees be Grown from Seed?

Avocado seeds may be polyembryonic, but they might not be, it depends on the variety. It can get confusing identifying which is which, because the monoembryonic seedlings (which are not like the parent tree) can produce multiple shoots which can be mistaken for multiple embryos, but they won’t be genetic clones of the parent tree, they are a completely different tree.

Mangoes such as the Bowen (Kensington Pride) variety is polyembryonic and will grow true to seed, so this may be a better choice.

Conclusion

Hopefully, with this understanding of the differences between seedling, grafted and cutting grown fruit trees, you won’t be waiting years to find your seed-grown fruit tastes awful, you’ll know what to grow from seed or cutting, and you might even feel enticed to give air layering or grafting a go!

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The man who planted a tree every day for half a century

The man who planted a tree every day for half a century | Islamosphere

In the famous hadith of the Prophet (SAW) it is said: “The most beloved of the good deeds before the Almighty is that which is permanent, even if it is insignificant.” This postulate was made the motto for his life by the Bangladeshi Abdus Samad Sheikh, who planted one tree every day for 48 years.


They say that “one man is not a warrior”, that one person cannot change the situation, but the life of Abdus Samad Sheikh, a rickshaw driver from Bangladesh, is living proof that this is not so. He has been planting at least one tree every day since he was 12 years old.

Abdus Samad Sheikh, affectionately known in his hometown of Faridpur as the Samad tree, worked as a rickshaw driver for most of his life. His modest job earned him about 100 taka ($1.25) a day. It was a very modest income. However, Abdus Samad not only had enough to feed his family, but somehow managed to also buy one tree from the Faridpur Horticultural Center every day.

I can't sleep all night unless I plant a tree,” Abdus told The Daily Star. “I have been doing this since I was twelve years old. I mostly plant them on state land so that no one can cut them down later. I also water them, and if I see someone cutting down a tree, I scold that person. I love all creatures and animals, but I especially love trees.”

Samad, his wife Tara Begum and their four children lived in two modest huts on a piece of land belonging to the Faridpur Deputy Commissioner's office. They did not have their own land, so his wife sometimes scolded him for spending money, which is already scarce, on buying trees. But Abdus did not listen to her. According to him, he considered this business his duty to the world.

Abdus Samad Sheikh's neighbors all knew about his daily habit, and some even remembered how he planted trees from early childhood. They showed some of the large trees he planted decades ago and expressed their respect and admiration for his dedication.

“Samad is a model citizen of our community,” said local resident Abul Kalam Howlader. “His work inspires me.”

“It's not just about the trees,” added Abdus' neighbor, Sakandar Ali. Samad is a very helpful person. You can ask him for anything and he will do his best to help. This is the rare type of personality that our society needs so much.”

Source: plus.google.com

According to the Sheikh, who at that time was 60 years old, he began planting trees 48 years ago, having heard the command of the Almighty. Since then, he has been doing this every day, which means he has planted over 17,500 trees in that time.

Abdus Samad Sheikh was awarded the largest English-language newspaper of Bangladesh "The Daily Star" for his work in saving nature. This award helped him build a home for his family. In his welcoming speech, the inspirational “keeper of nature” asked everyone to follow his example and protect the environment.

I cannot do this alone, I need the help of all of you,” said Abdus.

Unfortunately, Abdus Samad Sheikh lived only to the age of 60. He died shortly after being diagnosed with a tumor in his liver. However, his legacy will live on, reminding us all that one person can do a lot.

Islamosphere

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Chuvas were widely every diverse ceremonies that decorated all significant moments in the life of a family, village, in the calendar cycle, in production activities: Surkhuri; Nartukan ( nartăvan ); Kasharni ( kĕreschenkke ); Kiremet Karti; Çăvarni ( Shrovetide ); Kallam; Seren; Mănkun; Aka pătti; Akatui; Zimĕk; Uyav; Wyrma; Avăn; Chakleme; Chyok; Nimes; Kiremet Karti.


Yuri Antonovich Zaitsev. Akatui.

The ceremonial calendar was opened with the holiday Surkhuri . This is an old Chuvash holiday. In an older version, he had a connection with the worship of tribal spirits - the patrons of cattle. Hence the name of the holiday ( from "surah yrri" - "sheep spirit" ). It was celebrated during the winter solstice, when the day began to arrive. Surkhuri and lasted a whole week. During the celebration, rituals were held to ensure economic success and personal well-being of people, a good harvest and livestock in the new year. On the first day of Surkhuri, the children gathered in groups and went around the village door-to-door. At the same time, they sang songs about the coming of the new year, congratulated fellow villagers on the holiday, invited other guys to join their company. Entering the house, they wished the owners a good offspring of livestock, sang songs with spells, and they, in turn, presented them with food. Surkhuri later coincided with Christian Christmas ( rashtav ) and continued until baptism ( kăsharni ).

One of the holidays of the New Year's cycle - nartukan ( nartăvan ) - common among the Trans-Kama and Ural Chuvash. It began on December 25, on the day of the winter solstice, and lasted a whole week. It corresponds to the holiday of Surkhuri - among the riding and Kher Sări - grassroots Chuvash.

A new house erected in the past year was selected for the celebration. So that the owner would not refuse, during the construction of the house, the youth arranged collective assistance ( nime ) - worked for free on the removal of building materials and the construction of a house. This house was called nartukan parche - the house where the nartukan was held.

During the nartukan, the children were sledding down the mountains in the morning. At the same time, special couplets were sung - nartukan savvisem. With the onset of twilight over the village, here and there, exclamations were heard: “Nartukana-ah! Nartukan-a!”, i. e. “To Nartukan!”. The guys gathered in groups and, having agreed among themselves, went home to dress up as Christmas grandfathers ( nartukan starikĕ ) and in Christmas attendants ( nartukan karchăkĕ ). The guys dressed up mainly in women's clothes, the girls - in men's. After a while, the mummers poured out into the street and began to walk from house to house. Among the mummers one could meet: a Tatar merchant, and a comedian with a bear, and a Mari matchmaker, and a camel with a horse, and a gypsy fortune teller... The procession was led by an old man's nartukan with a whip and a karchăk' nartukan with a spinning wheel and a spindle... Guys , first of all, they were interested in those houses in which their chosen ones live or guests invited to the holiday nartukan from other villages. On ordinary days it was not customary to enter such houses, but on a holiday this could be done under the cover of masquerade clothes.

A procession began through pre-planned houses. In each hut, with different variations, the following funny scene was played out. A guy dressed as an old woman sat down at the spinning wheel and began to spin. A girl disguised as a wanderer, waving a broomstick, began to scold and reproach, threatened to stick the old woman to the spinning wheel. At the same time, she snatched a bottle of water from one of the escorts and poured water onto the hem of the clothes of those present. All this was done with great humour. In the end, all the mummers began to dance to the music and the noisy accompaniment of the stove damper, rattles. The owners of the house, especially girls, were also invited to the dance. Guys in women's costumes and masks tried to look out for the girls-guests, calling them to a dance ... Having amused the hosts enough, the crowd of mummers with dancing and noise went to another house. Even in the afternoon, the guys, through sisters and relatives, invited all the girls to the house chosen for the holiday. The girls came in their best clothes and sat down along the walls. The best places were given to girls who arrived from other villages. When all the invitees gathered, games, dances and songs began.

Finally, one of the girls reminded them that it was time to go for water and start fortune-telling with rings. Several guys responded, invited the girls to accompany them to the river. After some persuasion, the girls agreed and left the circle. One of them took a bucket, the other a towel. The guys took an ax to cut a hole, as well as a bunch of splinters and lit it. By the light of the torches, everyone went to fetch water.

On the river, the guys were buying water from the waterman ( shyvri ) - they threw a silver coin into the hole in the hole. The girls scooped up a bucket of water, threw a ring and a coin into the water, covered the bucket with an embroidered towel, and returned without looking back. At the house, a bucket was handed over to one of the guys, and he, carrying a bucket filled with water on his little finger, brought it into the hut and deftly put it on the place prepared in the middle of the circle. Then one of the girls was chosen as the host. After much persuasion, she agreed and, with a lit candle in her hands, sat down by the bucket. The rest of the girls sat around the bucket, and the guys stood in a circle behind the girls. The presenter checked whether the ring and the coin were in place.

Kăsharni, ( in some places Kĕreschenkke ) , is a holiday of the New Year cycle. It was celebrated by the Chuvash youth during the week from Christmas ( rashtav ) to baptism. After the introduction of Christianity, it coincided with Russian Christmas time and baptism. This festival originally celebrated the winter solstice.

The word kăsharni, apparently, only outwardly resembles the Russian baptism (the variant kĕreschenkke goes back to ). In the literal sense, kăsharni is “winter week” ( Wed Tat.: kysh = "winter" ).

Young people rented a house for holding kăsharni and brewed the so-called girl's beer in it ( khĕr sări ). To do this, they collected purse from the whole village: malt, hops, flour and everything necessary to treat fellow villagers, as well as guests invited on this occasion from neighboring villages.

The day before the baptism, young girls gathered in this house, brewed beer and cooked pies. In the evening, the whole village, young and old, gathered in the house. The girls first treated the elderly and parents to beer. Having blessed the young for a happy life in the new year, the old people soon went home. The youth spent this evening in amusement. Music and singing sounded all night long, boys and girls danced to ditties. An important place in the celebration of kăsharni was occupied by all kinds of fortune-telling about fate. At midnight, when the village was already asleep, several people went to the fields. Here, at the crossroads, covered with blankets, they listened to who would hear what sound. If someone heard the voice of some domestic animal, they said that he would be rich in cattle, but if someone heard the sound of coins, they believed that he would be rich in money. Bell ringing and bagpipe music ( shăpăr ) predicted a wedding. If these sounds were heard by a guy, then he will certainly get married this year, and if a girl, he will get married. There were many other fortune-telling that night, but young people more often guessed about marriage and marriage. This is explained by the fact that, according to the Chuvash custom, it was during the New Year period that the parents of the young sent matchmakers. During the celebration of kăsharni, mummers walked around the yards. They acted out all sorts of scenes from village life. The mummers certainly visited the house where the youth celebrated kăsharni. Here they showed various comic skits. However, initially the role of the mummers was to expel evil spirits and hostile forces of the old year from the village. Therefore, in the period from Christmas to baptism, in the evenings, mummers walked with whips and imitated the beating of all strangers.

The next morning was the so-called water baptism ( tură shiva annă kun ). On this day, the baptism of the Lord was celebrated - one of the so-called twelfth holidays of the Russian Orthodox Church. This holiday was established in memory of the baptism of Jesus Christ described in the gospel by John the Baptist in the Jordan River.

The winter cycle ended with the holiday Çăvarni ( Maslenitsa ) , which marked the onset of spring forces in nature. In the design of the holiday, in the content of songs, sentences and rituals, its agrarian nature and the cult of the sun were clearly manifested. To speed up the movement of the sun and the arrival of spring, it was customary to bake pancakes on the holiday, to ride a sleigh around the village in the course of the sun. At the end of the Maslenitsa week, they burned an effigy of the “old woman of the çăvarni” ( "çăvarni karchăke" ). Then came the feast of veneration of the sun çăvarni ( Maslenitsa ), when they baked pancakes, organized horseback riding around the village in the sun. At the end of the Maslenitsa week, an effigy of the “old woman of the çăvarni” ( çăvarni karchăkĕ ) was burned.

In the spring there was a multi-day feast of sacrifices to the sun, god and dead ancestors mănkun ( then coincided with Orthodox Easter ), which began with kalăm kun and ended with sĕren or virem.

Kalăm is one of the traditional holidays of the spring ritual cycle, dedicated to the annual commemoration of the deceased ancestors. Unbaptized Chuvash kalam celebrated before the great day ( mănkun ). Among the baptized Chuvashs, the traditional mănkun coincided with Christian Easter, and kalăm, as a result, with Passion Week and Lazarus Saturday. In many places, kalam merged with mănkun, and the word itself was preserved only as the name of the first day of Passover.

From ancient times, many peoples, including our ancestors, celebrated the New Year in the spring. The origins of the spring holidays date back to the New Year celebrations. Only later, due to repeated changes in the calendar system, the original spring New Year ritual cycle broke up, and a number of rituals of this cycle were transferred to Shrovetide ( çăvarni ) and holidays of the winter cycle ( kăsharni, surkhuri ). Therefore, many of the rituals of these holidays coincide or have an unambiguous meaning.

Chuvash pagan kalăm began on Wednesday and lasted a whole week until mănkun. On the eve of kalăma, a bathhouse was heated, supposedly for the departed ancestors. A special messenger rode to the cemetery on horseback and invited all the dead relatives to wash and take a steam bath. In the bath, the spirits of the deceased relatives were hovered with a broom, after themselves they left water and soap for them. The first day of the holiday was called kĕçĕn kalăm ( small kalăm ). On this day, early in the morning, one guy was equipped as a messenger in each house. He rode a horse around all the relatives. On this occasion, the best horse was covered with a patterned blanket. Multi-colored ribbons and brushes were braided into the mane and tail, the horse's tail was tied with a red ribbon, a leather collar with bells and bells was put on his neck. The guy himself was also dressed in the best clothes, a special embroidered scarf with a red woolen fringe was tied around his neck.

Approaching each house, the messenger knocked on the gate three times with a whip, called the hosts out into the street and invited them in verses to “sit under the candles” for the evening. Parents at this time cut some living creatures. In the middle of the yard there was usually a specially enclosed place măn kĕlĕ ( main prayer site ).

Sĕren is a spring holiday of the lower Chuvash dedicated to the expulsion of evil spirits from the village. And the very name of the holiday means “exile”. Sĕren was held on the eve of the great day ( mănkun ), and in some places also before the summer commemoration of the deceased ancestors - on the eve of çimĕk. The youth walked in groups around the village with rowan rods and, whipping people, buildings, equipment, clothes, drove out evil spirits and the souls of the dead, shouting “Sĕren!”. Fellow villagers in each house treated the participants of the ceremony with beer, cheese and eggs. At the end of the nineteenth century. these rituals have disappeared in most Chuvash villages.

On the eve of the holiday, all rural youth, having prepared rattles and rowan rods, gathered at the venerable elder and asked him for blessings for a good deed: he will not allow evil spirits, devils, to reach us.

The elder answered them:

— Good work started, well done. So do not leave the good customs of fathers and grandfathers.

Then the young people asked the elder for land so that they could feed the sheep for at least one night. "0vtsy" in the ritual - children 10-15 years old.

The old man answers them:

— I would give you land, but it is dear to me, you don't have enough money.

— And how much do you ask for her, grandfather? the guys asked.

- For a hundred acres - twelve pairs of hazel grouse, six pairs of rams and three pairs of bulls.

In this allegorical answer, hazel grouses mean songs that young people should sing during a round of the village, sheep - eggs, bulls - kalachi, which should be collected by the guys taking part in the ceremony.

Then the old man rolled out a barrel of beer, and as many people gathered here as the yard could accommodate. With such an audience, the old man jokingly interrogated the elected if there was any complaint. The elected officials began to complain about each other: the shepherds did not guard the sheep well, one of the elected officials took a bribe, embezzled public property ... The old man imposed a punishment on them - a thousand, five hundred or a hundred lashes. The guilty were immediately "punished", and they pretended to be sick. Beer was brought to the sick, and they recovered, began to sing and dance . ..

After that, everyone went out to the pasture outside the outskirts, where the whole village gathered.

Mănkun is a celebration of the meeting of the spring New Year according to the ancient Chuvash calendar. The name mănkun is translated as "great day". It is noteworthy that the pagan East Slavic tribes also called the first day of the spring new year the Great Day. After the spread of Christianity, the Chuvash mănkun coincided with Christian Easter.

According to the ancient Chuvash calendar, mănkun was celebrated on the days of the spring solstice. Pagan Chuvashs started mănkun on Wednesday and celebrated for a whole week.

Early in the morning on the day of the Mănkun offensive, the children ran out to meet the sunrise on the lawn on the east side of the village. According to the Chuvash, on this day the sun rises dancing, that is, especially solemnly and joyfully. Together with the children, old people also went out to meet the new, young sun. They told the children ancient tales and legends about the struggle of the sun with the evil sorceress Vupăr. One of these legends tells that during the long winter the evil spirits sent by the old woman Vupăr constantly attacked the sun and wanted to drag it from the sky to the underworld. The sun appeared less and less in the sky. Then the Chuvash batyrs decided to free the sun from captivity. A squad of good fellows gathered and, having received the blessing of the elders, headed east to rescue the sun. The batyrs fought with the servants of Vupăr for seven days and seven nights and finally defeated them. The evil old woman Vupăr with a pack of her helpers fled into the dungeon and hid in the possessions of Shuitan.

At the end of the spring sowing, a family ritual was held aka pătti ( praying for porridge ) . When the last furrow remained on the strip and cover the last sown seeds, the head of the family prayed to Çÿlti Tură for a good harvest. Several spoons of porridge, boiled eggs were buried in a furrow and plowed it.

At the end of the spring field work, a holiday was held akatuy ( wedding of the plow ), associated with the idea of ​​the ancient Chuvash about the marriage of the plow ( masculine ) with earth ( feminine ). This holiday combines a number of ceremonies and solemn rituals. In the old Chuvash way of life, akatuy began before going to spring field work and ended after the sowing of spring crops. The name Akatuy is now known to the Chuvash everywhere. However, relatively recently, riding Chuvashs called this holiday sukhatu ( sukha "plowing" + tuyĕ "holiday, wedding" ), and grassroots - sapan tuyĕ or sapan ( from the Tatar saban "plow" ). In the past, akatuy had an exclusively religious and magical character, accompanied by collective prayer. Over time, with the baptism of the Chuvash, it turned into a communal holiday with horse races, wrestling, youth amusements.

The cycle continued çimĕk ( nature blossoming holiday, public commemoration ). After the sowing of grain, the time came for wavy ( among the lower Chuvash ) and çinçe ( among the upper Chuvash ), when a ban was imposed on all agricultural work ( the earth was "pregnant" ). It went on for several weeks. It was a time of sacrifices with requests for a rich harvest, the safety of livestock, the health and well-being of the community members. By decision of the gathering, a horse, as well as calves, sheep were slaughtered at a traditional ritual place, a goose or a duck was taken from each yard, and porridge with meat was cooked in several boilers. After the rite of prayer, a joint meal was arranged. The time of waking up ( çinçe ) ended with the ritual “çumăr chuk” ( prayer for rain ) with bathing in water, pouring water on each other.

Zimĕk is a summer holiday dedicated to the commemoration of deceased relatives with visits to cemeteries. Corresponds to the Christian trinity, also called Semik by the Russians, since in Russia this holiday was celebrated on Thursday of the seventh week after Easter. The Chuvash çimĕk goes back to this Russian word.

The celebration of çimĕk spread among the Chuvash relatively recently, probably not earlier than the middle of the 18th century. However, many of the rites and rituals of this holiday date back to hoary antiquity. This is explained by the fact that many ceremonial and ritual actions were transferred to çimĕk, originally associated with kalas and, in part, with yupa. In the ritual and ritual side of the holiday çimĕk, three main lines can be distinguished: ascending to East Slavic paganism, Russian Christianity ( in its folk manifestation ) and Chuvash paganism.

Despite the later, in general, Christian origin, çimĕk was widely spread in the life of not only baptized Chuvashs, but also pagans. In some places, unbaptized Chuvash people call this day vile tukhnă kun, i.e., "the day of the departed ( from graves )". Perhaps this is the old Chuvash name for the holiday, corresponding to the Russian Semik.

Chuvash çimĕk began seven weeks after Easter, on the Thursday before Trinity, ended on Thursday of Trinity week. The first day of this week was called aslă çimĕk ( big semik ), and the last one - kĕçĕn çimĕk ( small semik ).

On the eve of aslă çimĕk, women and children went to the forest, tracts and ravines, collecting medicinal herbs and roots there. Usually they said: “Seventy and seven types of different herbs must be collected for semik from the edge of seven forests, from the tops of seven ravines.” They returned from the forest with brooms and branches of various trees. These branches were stuck to the windows, gates and doors of buildings. Most often they stuck rowan branches, believing that they protect from evil spirits.

Uyav — spring-summer period of youth games and round dances. The word uyav literally means "observance" ( from uy "observe" ). Initially, this word meant simply the observance of traditional ritual life, and later any holiday, any ritual celebration began to be called this way.

In different places the word uyav has different shades of meaning, and the youth entertainments themselves are carried out in different ways. Riding Chuvashs spent waking in the interval between mănkun and simĕk. Youth games and round dances here began a week after mănkun. During the evening, young people gathered outside the outskirts and arranged round dances with dances, dances, and games. At this time, usually young guys got to know their chosen ones better. By the end of the nineteenth century. seasonal youth round dances among riding Chuvashs began to disappear.

The middle-low Chuvashs usually held large tribal games in the Uyav. On a certain day, young people from all the daughter villages gathered in the mother village. Next to each mother village in a meadow, near a grove or in a forest clearing, there was a permanent place for holding gatherings of young people, which were called either simply văyă - “games”, or fluff, tapa - “gathering, assembly”. By the day of tapa or văyă, a bench for musicians was arranged in such a place. In treeless places near the bench, several freshly cut trees were dug in and decorated with multi-colored ribbons. Toward noon, young people gathered at this place. Dealers in sweets, small goods, and toys also came. Music played throughout the day until late at night. Musicians gathered from all over the area played in turn. At the same time, several violinists, bubble players, harp players, harmonists, drummers-percussionists performed. This large orchestra was always crowded with guys who played along on wooden pipes, metal and clay whistles, metal triangles.

Zinçe is a traditional pre-Christian ritual cycle dedicated to the time of the summer solstice. This agricultural holiday corresponds to the Russian holiday, known as "Earth - Mother's Birthday" or "Spirits Day".

In the old days, the Chuvash calendar was monitored by elderly, wise people. Before the advent of tear-off calendars, the Chuvash used self-made wooden solar calendars, which quite accurately showed months, weeks, days, longitude of the day, and even hours and minutes. When the length of the day reached 17:00, the venerable elders announced to the whole village that çinçe began on such and such a day. It was celebrated for 12 days and coincided with the time of the flowering of rye. Zinze was not accompanied by special ritual celebrations. This is more likely not even a holiday, but a period of rest and observance of the peace of Mother Earth, which at that time was considered burdened by a ripe harvest. During the Jinçe period, it was strictly forbidden to disturb the earth with anything: it was forbidden to plow, sow, dig the earth, take out manure, throw heavy things on the ground, cut down forest, build houses, climb trees and buildings.

Vyrma is the harvesting season. In the old days, bread was harvested by hand - reaped with sickles. It was an exhausting and difficult, at the same time, a very responsible period in the annual labor cycle of a peasant. Bread - the crown of all the labors of the farmer - is already felt real, weighty at the harvest, and not only in dreams. Even a small handful of rye stalks cut with a sickle is a good slice of bread. And how many such chunks are in a sheaf, in a heap! One of the many labor rituals was zurla khyvni “zazhinok”. The most agile woman in the family was untying the sickle, which had been tied up last year with the last handful of rye stalks harvested in the field, and cut off the first handful. She mixed old stems with new ones, scattered them in front of her on a field and said a prayer of thanksgiving to the spirits of the earth: "Hey, çĕr ashshĕ, çĕr amăshĕ! Tavah sire kivĕren sĕnne chiper..."

Avăn is an ambiguous word. This is “threshing floor, barn, current”, “threshing” and ... “holiday”. This holiday, due to the great importance of threshing bread, was accompanied by many obligatory rituals. He was especially pleasant, solemn for the peasants. The threshing is as exciting a time as the harvest. The barn for drying sheaves, current and threshing on it closed, tied together the annual cycle of field work. From the grain current there is one short road - to the barn and to the mill. But solemnity, true holiness accompanied the grain grower even on this short path. In every little thing, even in the form of bag strings and the creak of carts, a certain magical meaning was seen.

After the harvest, the old people dried the sheaves at night, entertained the youth with fairy tales and jokes, they had fun themselves - they went to scare each other... They sorted out large luggage ( kapan ) and carried the sheaves to the barn ( avăn ). They were attached to the cone-shaped frame of the barn - shishu ears up and pulled with a rope so that the sheaves would not fall. In the pit under the sheaf, the old men, making a fire, said a prayer addressed to the spirits of fire:

— E, pĕsmĕlle! Tura, zyrlakh! Іră Wut ashshĕ, yră Wut ama! Іră vyrănta larsa tarasarinchchĕ. Măn kapana passa avăna hutămăr, avăn pereketne parasarinchchĕ. Avăn ashne vut hutămăr - vutăran-kăvartan, sikse ÿkes hĕmĕnchen vitse sykhlasa tarasarinchchĕ. Yră Wut ama! Pirĕn ĕçĕmĕre esĕ prasa, esĕ sykhlasa tărsamchchĕ! ( Praise the name of God! Have mercy on us, God! Holy spirit Father of fire, sacred Mother of fire! We want you to be in a good place. We sorted out a large load and spread the sheaves on a ram's cone. Turn away the evil fiery force, protect and save from a stray spark. Good Mother of Fire! Beware and preserve our labors! ).

Chÿkleme — the ceremony of consecrating the new harvest by sacrificing to the spirits of nature, dead ancestors, accompanied by refreshments for all relatives. In late autumn, after the completion of threshing, the Chuvash peasants carefully sorted and distributed the grain: the best - for seeds, the worst - for livestock feed, and this - for flour. The batch destined for flour was dried in barns or ovens and taken to the mill. The eldest woman in the house brewed the malt, germinated the grains, sprinkling them several times from a fresh broom, malted and stirred it. The malt was then taken to a community malthouse to dry. Old people, teenagers, children gathered at the malt house. Here they told different stories, legends, fairy tales. Overnight at the malt barn ( lettuce avănĕ ) was remembered by children for the rest of their lives. The finished malt, along with the grain, was taken to the mill. The mill, like the malt house, was a kind of club in the Chuvash life, a place of communication, the focus of news, disputes, and legends. The mill completed a long and sometimes very risky journey of grain. The peasant returned from the mill with a feeling of great satisfaction, full of pride in the results of his hard year-round work. Now you can enjoy the fruits of your labor. It was not for nothing that the Chuvashs said: “From the mill, even a crappy horse returns dancing.” Flour was poured into a special wooden chest in the barn. She acted at the full disposal of the mistress of the house.

Preparing for the chÿkleme ritual, the hostess brewed beer from new malt. It took about two weeks to prepare the malt, the brewing of the wort took one and a half to two days. The finished wort was poured into oak barrels and placed in cellars. There it wandered for three or four days. On the eve of chÿkleme, the hostess made the dough in the evening, and kneaded it in the morning. As the oven heats up, the dough rises. The hostess took the dough from the sourdough and began to form loaves.

Chÿk - ritual of sacrifice to the great Almighty God ( çÿlti aslă Tură ), his family and assistants - the guardian spirits of animate and inanimate nature, human society and people. The very word "chÿk" has many meanings. In certain cases, it means both a sacrifice, and a place for performing such a rite, and a certain deity of the highest rank, and is also used as a ritual exclamation addressed to Tură.

According to ancient Chuvash mythopoetic and religious ideas, the Universe as a single and inseparable whole is a unity of nature, society and personality. She was allegedly created by the god Tura with the help of her twin brother Kiremet. However, after the creation of the Universe, Kiremet fell under the influence of evil and Tură was expelled from the upper world. The Almighty Tură makes efforts to keep all three constituent parts of the Universe in constant mutual harmony, and the devil, with the help of the evil forces serving him, tries in every possible way to incite a person to unseemly deeds that ultimately violate the universal harmony. Then Tură sends one of his servants to punish the person and guide him on the right path. All the rites and rituals of the ancient Chuvash life are aimed at maintaining a permanent world order or at restoring broken harmony. The individual was accountable to society, society to nature and Tură.

The mechanism for maintaining universal harmony was carried out through sacrifices. A person who, under the instigation of the devil, violated public order, had to atone for his guilt before Tura by a sacrifice, otherwise his unseemly deeds could lead to the death of society, which, in turn, would cause the destruction of the Universe. Violation of universal harmony is always carried out from the bottom up, from the side of the individual, and the restoration of order - from top to bottom, from the side of Tură. In those cases when a person was guilty, private sacrifices were made. In addition to them, the Chuvash also had large chÿk - calendar-timed public sacrifices performed by the whole society. The pagans annually during the period of ripening bread made măn chÿk, or aslă chÿk - a great sacrifice; kĕsĕn chak - a small sacrifice, which was also called uy chakĕ - a field sacrifice, and çumăr chakĕ - a sacrifice for asking for rain. These great sacrifices were made on behalf of all the villagers and were aimed at ensuring public well-being, at maintaining social and universal harmony. In connection with the strengthening of Christian enlightenment, large sacrifices ruinous for the people fell into oblivion, they began to be performed less often, and in many places the three types of chak merged into one.

Nime - collective assistance arranged by fellow villagers in the performance of labor-intensive and troublesome work. The nime tradition has very deep historical roots and dates back to the pra-Turkic era. The Chuvash have preserved the custom of neem for several millennia and brought it to us. And Nime saved and preserved the Chuvash. There are many moments in the life of a peasant when collective efforts are required for the timely completion of certain chores. It was necessary to take out the forest, build a house, in time to compress the already crumbling crop - everywhere the custom came to the rescue. It does not have a definite time frame, but most often collective assistance was resorted to when harvesting an overgrown crop. In cases when the shedding of bread threatened, the owner invited one of the respected people to his place and appointed him nime puçĕ - the head of collective assistance.

Kiremet karti — “kiremetishte”, a place of public sacrifices and prayers. Like many terms of the ancient Chuvash religious and mythological sphere, the word "kiremet" has several meanings. This is a deity, the brother of the supreme god Tură, and the head of evil forces, and a place of sacrifice, etc. Different meanings of the word kiremet show the dynamics of the development of ideas about this deity of the pagan pantheon.

Initially, kiremet was considered the twin brother of the supreme god Sÿlti Tur. The ideas about Tură and Kiremet reflected ancient views about the dual beginning of the creator of the Universe: the good beginning was personified in the image of Tură, and the evil one - in the image of Kiremet. Both twins participated in the act of creation of the Universe. Initially, Kiremet actively helped Tură in ordering chaos, in obtaining land from under the World Ocean, in creating the earth's firmament, in filling it with natural objects, in creating plants and animals. But in the course of the creation of the Universe, the actions of Kiremet turned out to be more and more unsuccessful and spoiled the original plan of Tură, for which God predetermined a secondary, subordinate position for him.

Initially Tură and Kiremet lived in the upper world, and Kiremet served as an intermediary between God and people. On behalf of Tură, he rode around the earth on a trio of beautiful horses and held court over violators of the established order. Such a subordinate position eventually ceased to suit him, and Kiremet is no longer subordinate. Tură begins to seduce people. For disobedience Tură expels him from the upper world to the earth. On earth, Kiremet began to oppress the Chuvash, took away their wives and girls, and sent diseases and misfortunes to those who resisted. The Chuvashs complained to God, and Tura decided to exile Kiremet to the underworld. But one woman stood up for him, and Tură allowed Kiremet to live in ravines and forests. Kiremet gave birth to many children, and they also settled in ravines and forests...

After Christianization, baptized Chuvashs especially celebrated those holidays that coincide in time with calendar pagan ones ( Christmas with Surkhuri, Shrovetide and çăvarni, Trinity with çimĕk, etc. ), accompanying them with both Christian and pagan rites, Under the influence of the church in the life of the Chuvash people became widespread patronal holidays. By the end of the nineteenth - the beginning of the twentieth century. Christian holidays and rituals in the life of the baptized Chuvash became predominant.

Three forms of marriage were common among the Chuvash: 1) with a full wedding ceremony and matchmaking ( tuyla, tuipa kaini ), 2) marriage by “leaving” ( khĕr tukhsa kaini ) and 3) kidnapping of the bride, often with her consent ( khĕr vărlani ). ( See Rodionov, VG [Chuvash wedding] )

The groom was accompanied to the bride's house by a large wedding train. In the meantime, the bride said goodbye to her relatives. She was dressed in girl's clothes, covered with a veil. The bride started crying with lamentations ( xĕr yĕrri ). The groom's train was met at the gate with bread and salt and beer. After a long and very figurative poetic monologue of the eldest of the friends ( măn kĕrÿ ) guests were invited to go to the courtyard for the laid tables. The treat began, greetings, dances and songs of the guests sounded. The next day, the groom's train was leaving. The bride was seated astride a horse, or she rode standing in a wagon. The groom hit her three times with a whip to “drive away” the spirits of his wife’s family from the bride (t Yurkian nomadic tradition ). The fun in the groom's house continued with the participation of the bride's relatives. The first wedding night the young people spent in a crate or in another non-residential premises. As usual, the young woman took off her husband's shoes. In the morning, the young woman was dressed in a women's outfit with a women's headdress "khushpu". First of all, she went to bow and made a sacrifice to the spring, then she began to work around the house, cook food. The young wife gave birth to her first child with her parents. The umbilical cord was cut: for boys - on an ax handle, for girls - on the handle of a sickle, so that the children would be industrious. (see Tui sămahlăhĕ // Chăvash Literature: textbook-reader: VIII grade Valli / V. P. Nikitinpa V. E. Tsyfarkin pukhsa hatĕrlenĕ. - Shupashkar, 1990. - S. 24-36.)

In the Chuvash family, the man dominated, but the woman also had authority. Divorces were extremely rare.

There was a custom of minority - the youngest son always stayed with his parents, inherited his father. The Chuvash have a traditional custom of providing help ( nime ) during the construction of houses, outbuildings, harvesting

0080 yal mĕn kalat - “what will the fellow villagers say” ).


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