How to make paper from tree bark


How Do You Make Paper From a Tree?

TECHNOLOGY — Engineering

Have You Ever Wondered...

  • How do you make paper from a tree?
  • Can paper be made from plants other than trees?
  • What is pulp?
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Today’s Wonder of the Day was inspired by Stacy from AL. Stacy Wonders, “How are trees made into paper” Thanks for WONDERing with us, Stacy!

Wood (pun intended!) you believe paper is made from trees? It's true! Let's take a look at how trees are turned into all sorts of paper.

If you look at a tree, you might have a hard time imagining how something so tall and strong could be turned into something as thin and weak as a sheet of paper. The process begins with the raw wood, which is made up of fibers called "cellulose."

The cellulose fibers are stuck together with a natural glue called "lignin." When the lignin is removed and the cellulose fibers are separated and reorganized, paper can be made.

It's also possible to make paper from a variety of other types of plant fibers, such as cotton, flax, bamboo, and hemp. For example, cotton fibers are often used to make the paper that money is printed on. The overwhelming majority (about 95 percent) of the raw material used to make paper, though, comes from trees.

To make paper from trees, the raw wood must first be turned into "pulp." Wood pulp is a watery “soup" of cellulose wood fibers, lignin, water, and the chemicals used during the pulping process.

Wood can be turned to pulp in a couple of different ways. Mechanical pulping involves using machines to grind wood chips into pulp.

The resulting pulp retains most of its lignin, though. The short fibers created by grinding leads to weak paper most suitable for newsprint, phone books, or other types of low-strength papers.

The more commonly used method is chemical pulping, also known as “kraft." Chemicals are used to separate lignin from the cellulose fibers, leaving a pulp mixture that can make stronger papers.

Depending on what type of paper is desired, the pulp mixture might need to be bleached to create whiter paper. Papermakers use a variety of chemicals to bleach pulp to the color they want.

Once the pulp is ready, it is then used to make paper in a process that is quite similar (in the basic actions) to the process first used by the ancient Chinese more than 1,900 years ago. Because the pulp mixture is so watery (sometimes as much as 99 percent water!), the cellulose fibers need to be separated from the watery mixture.

Huge machines spray the pulp mixture onto moving mesh screens to make a layered mat. The mat of pulp then goes through several processes to remove water and dry it out.

Finally, the mat is run through heated rollers to squeeze out any remaining water and compress it into one continuous roll of paper that can be up to 30 feet wide.

When the paper has the desired thickness, it may be colored or coated with special chemicals to give it a special texture, extra strength, or water resistance. As a last step, the paper rolls are cut to size and packaged for shipping to other facilities for additional processing to turn it into all sorts of specialized papers.

Wonder What's Next?

Get out your coat, mittens, and shovels. Tomorrow is a snow day in Wonderopolis!

Try It Out

Are you ready to have some fun with paper? Ask a friend or family member to help you explore the following activities:

  • Try Making Paper from Newspaper Without a Blender! All you'll need are a few simple items, such as newspaper, cornstarch, and a few supplies you probably already have around the kitchen. Once you've made your paper, write a note on it and send it to a friend or family member. What do they think of your homemade gift?
  • Check out Origami for Kids to Make for a wide variety of project ideas you can make with paper. Will you make a boat, a butterfly, a cat, a car, a crown, or a whale? It's up to you! Invite a friend to make paper crafts with you. Have fun!
  • If you're up for a field trip, ask an adult friend or family member to take you to a local office supply store. Look for the paper aisle and check out all the different types of paper they have available for sale. How many different types can you find? How are they different? Can you find any paper made from a different type of plant fiber, such as cotton or hemp?

Wonder Sources

  • http://www.idahoforests.org/paprmake.htm
  • http://www.tappi.org/paperu/all_about_paper/papermade.htm
  • http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/2231/how-is-paper-made

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Wonder Contributors

We’d like to thank:

Isaac, William, Ava, Victoria and keene
for contributing questions about today’s Wonder topic!

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How to Make Paper From Sawdust or Wood [8 Steps]

Making paper at home can be a fun and rewarding experience. Once you know how, you can make your own paper for all kinds of things -- special notes to loved ones, scrapbooks, or event invitations. The process doesn't have to be intimidating, and you can get started without a huge investment on your part. So how do you make paper from sawdust or wood? We've done some research and have the steps for you.

To make your own paper, you'll need to complete the following steps:

  1. Arrange your papermaking tools
  2. Break the wood down into small, thin pieces
  3. Mix the wood pieces or sawdust with water in a blender
  4. Pour the pulp into a plastic tub
  5. Use a mould and deckle to scoop some of the pulp slurry
  6. Couch the sheet from the mould to a flat, absorbent surface
  7. Press excess water from the paper
  8. Allow to dry completely

Now that you know the basic steps of making your own paper, let's go over all the finite details of the process. We'll discuss the tools and terms involved, as well as discuss other questions you might have. Keep reading!

This post may contain affiliate links. If you use these links to buy something we may earn a commission. Thanks.”

1. Arrange your papermaking tools

Before getting started, there are some tools you will need to get the process done right:

  • Mould and deckle.
  • A wood plane (only necessary if you are using wood and not sawdust). The smaller the pieces, the better for the blender.
  • A large, household blender. Do not use a blender you intend to use for food later. Shop secondhand if possible. Remember, putting wood in the blender is going to dull the blades.
  • Sawdust or wood. Soft woods are best, such as pine.
  • Plastic tub (larger than the mould and deckle).
  • Absorbent materials. Traditionally wool felt, but super absorbent towels or even batting (inner quilt material) work well for this.
  • Wooden boards or a sponge and rolling pin can be used to press excess water from between your paper sheets.
  • A flat, non-absorbent surface or a clothesline is ideal for drying.

2. Break the wood down into small, thin pieces

If you have sawdust, no need to make the pieces any smaller or go through any further treatment. They are likely small and soft enough for your blender to process without a problem.

If you're using fresh wood pieces, you'll first use a wood plane to make pieces as small as possible. Remove any knots or bark attached. Allow the wood to soak in water (a process called "retting") for at least 24 hours so that it softens. After that, bring a pot to boil and add the wood pieces. Allow it to simmer at a low temperature for at least 30 minutes. Allow the mixture to cool completely, and then rinse the wood pieces well. The wood pieces should pull apart in your hands.

View this wood plane on Amazon.

Does soaking wood make it easier to carve? Read our article about that.

3. Mix the wood pieces or sawdust with water in a blender

Fill your blender about 3/4 of the way full with water. Add a handful of sawdust or treated wood pieces to the blender. Start at a low setting to ensure your blender will process. After a few seconds of no issues, feel free to up the setting of the blender.

Take a look at your pulp. If you desire the slurry to be thicker, add some more sawdust or wood pieces. The thicker the slurry, the heavier your paper will be.

If you want pure white paper, you can add a few tablespoons of bleach when mixing the water and wood. However, we think this takes away from the natural color and lovely fibers of the wood.

4. Pour the pulp into a plastic tub

Empty the blender into a plastic tub. You will likely have to make several blenders full of pulp to fill this vat most of the way. It needs to be deep enough for your mould and deckle. Once your vat is about 2/3 of the way full, you're ready to start using the mould and deckle. Make sure to mix the pulp well with your hards before making your sheets.

View this plastic tub on Amazon.

5. Use a mould and deckle to scoop some of the pulp slurry

The mould and deckle are two wooden frames of the same size where one of them is covered by a mesh screen. This is what you will use to form the paper and strain the pulp. You can make one yourself or buy one specifically for papermaking.

View this mould and deckle on Amazon.

Holding your mould and deckle firmly in both hands with the mesh screen facing upward, insert it into the pulp at a 45-degree angle. Dip it to the bottom of the vat and then scoop up, moving to hold the mould and deckle horizontally. Shake the newly formed sheet up and down and back and forth until it settles and only a few drips come from the screen. Hold the sheet steady until it stops dripping.

6. Couch the sheet from the mold to a flat, absorbent surface

"Couching" in the papermaking world means transferring a newly formed sheet of paper to an absorbent surface to drain. To do this, think of closing a door. Remove the deckle from the mould. Place a long side of the mould, paper facing up, against your work surface on top of where your absorbent material is located. Quickly flip it over, as though closing a door, transferring your sheet to the absorbent material. Press down a bit to ensure it transfers. Remove the mould, leaving the paper.

7. Press excess water from the paper

To help the drying process, you want to squeeze as much excess moisture from the paper as possible. There are a few methods to get this accomplished.

Place a piece of absorbent material on top of the paper. Using a sponge, press down on the paper as hard as possible to squeeze out the water. Use a rolling pin on the surface to add more pressure. Do this until it seems no more water escapes from the paper.

View this felt on Amazon.

Another method is to add the absorbent material to both sides of the paper, and then place multiple sheets of paper in between multiple wooden boards. Place the boards on the floor (an outside area would better, as a fair amount of water is going to be expressed) and stand on the top board, effectively squeezing the homemade paper between each board.

View these wooden boards on Amazon.

8. Allow to dry completely

Once your paper has been pressed, it's time to lay it out to dry. You can do this by placing it on a non-absorbent surface, such as Formica, wood, or stone, and leaving it to dry. This method would take about 24-48 hours for the paper to be completely free of moisture.

Alternatively, you can leave the paper attached to the wool felt (or whatever absorbent material you used) and use clothespins to hang the paper from a clothesline. This method is a bit quicker than leaving the paper on a flat surface to dry.

Once the paper is dry, it's ready to be used. You have the option of placing it under a heavy, flat object if that paper has naturally curled or has a wavy appearance.

Mix it up!

One of the fun things about making paper at home is the freedom you have to make the paper look however you'd like. You can add pigmentation for color, shredded up construction paper, flowers, glitter, or any other special thing you would want in your paper. Have fun with it.

What Wood Can Be Used For Making Paper?

There are many great kinds of wood that can be used to make paper. The most popular trees used in papermaking are pine, birch, spruce, and hemlock because they are considered softwoods. These tend to make the smoothest paper as they can make a fine granule slurry. Just about any type of wood can be made into paper; however, the process is just more complicated and will likely increase the paper's cost.

How Do You Make Paper Waterproof?

Waterproofing paper can be done with a handful of different techniques. You can seal your paper with a protective wax coating, effectively turning it into wax paper and protecting what is underneath. Additionally, many commercial protectants, such as shellac, can be applied to the paper to keep it from being water damaged. If you had the patience, you could even cover your paper in clear nail polish.

Be aware, however, these waterproofing methods would leave the paper unusable and stiff, so make sure you've added what you need to the paper before covering it in a protective coating.

Does Mod Podge Stiffen Paper?

Mod Podge stiffens paper, which is its primary function, as well as changing its overall texture. It adds some water-resistance but does not make paper waterproof.

View this mod podge kit on Amazon.

In Closing

Papermaking is a fun and rewarding craft for anyone who loves to do-it-yourself. Follow these simple steps and make something as unique as it is special! Enjoy.

Want to make some paper flowers with your homemade paper? Read our post about that.

 

paper from natural raw materials - Handmade paper - LJ

Thanks to kind people (Olya, thank you!), I'm trying to spread my accumulated knowledge in one place.
First, a little bit in common: the goal, the desire - in the end to get paper as close as possible to the traditional Japanese - WASHI.

All the details about my work here:

So, in order.

( My observations will be in italics )

Raw materials

I work with natural raw materials.
Sources of raw materials:
1. Mulberry
2. Nettle
3. Flax
4. Alternative sources of raw materials, little tested in my practice
5. NERI

Now about each of the materials in more detail.

1. Mulberry
I harvested in spring, summer, autumn. For myself, I divide the bark into 2 "grades": from young branches (up to 3 years old) and from old ones (the rest).
Young - it is best to take the so-called "tops": even, without knots, again, the tree is not crippled.
I dry the bark and keep it dry.
If you harvest the bark in winter, then you may have to steam it from the branches (I have not encountered this, but this is how they do it in Japan).

2. Nettle
Cut in the summer, wearing gloves, cut off the leaves, dried.
I read that nettles can be cut in winter (then it definitely does not burn). Let's check.

3. Flax
Sowed, harvested, soaked in water, threshed. Here's what happened:

4. Alternative
- poplar fluff already boiled in alkali (probably cotton looks like this). the raw material is good.
- dry banana tails
- bark from other shrubs and trees (willow, acacia, linden). This paper was obtained from willow bark

5. NERI - an additive that increases the viscosity of the pulp (fibers in water), reduces the speed of water passing through the sieve of the frame, and gives time for sheet formation. What I use as NERI: starch, gelatin, mucus from vegetable raw materials. Starch and gelatin have their drawbacks - they have adhesive properties, fibers with starch / gelatin clog the sieves, the rate of water filtration through the sieve decreases and as a result the funnel will form a continuous layer, there will be a layer of pulp on top. If you try to drain the pulp, the sheet is damaged. Gelatin - to a lesser extent, but the same thing happens.
Mucus from vegetable raw materials: from flax seeds (steam with boiling water for 15-30 minutes, the mucus is ready, you need to squeeze it through gauze), quince seeds, marshmallow root. The amount of NERI added to the pulp is determined empirically.

Tools

1. The most important and most important thing in the production of paper: frame
- a wooden frame, a polymer mesh (white) is stretched on top, a wire under the mesh so that the mesh does not sag,
- a piece of black mesh (bought in fabric store)
- wooden frame (the upper and lower frames are connected, I do without it for now)
2. Basin
3. Fork
4. Mallet, hammer
5. Press (in my case, these are four clamps - clamps)
6. Roller
7. Saucepan

Obtaining fiber

Example 1: Obtaining fiber from the bark of young mulberry branches

The bark is soaked overnight.
Knife separates the outer layer from the inner.
The outer layer is discarded. In principle, you can leave it - some fibers remain on it, and this can also be processed into paper. But I'm throwing out.
The inner layer is cut into pieces 1-1.5 cm with a knife (although this is fundamentally wrong, but I do it this way).
The bark is boiled in an alkali solution - WORK VERY CAREFULLY WITH THE ALKALINE! The source of alkali is sewer/kitchen pipe cleaners (on the label it contains sodium hydroxide or caustic soda or NaOH). The amount of alkali is 3-4 caps per "fist" of soaked bark. Cooking is carried out for 1.5-2 hours. The solution becomes dark brown.
The bark is washed with cold running water. Five minutes, then I put it in a jar, fill it with water, after 5-6 hours I drain the water, squeeze the bark, again in a jar, with water + So a couple of days. Intervals can be extended up to 8-10 hours. As a result, the bark in the water has a light green tint (or white, as boiled and washed), golden sheen, soft, the lump is easily torn by hand.
The bark is beaten off with a hammer. I use a meat mallet or mallet (wooden mallet). I take a portion and beat it off. I fold, turn over, fold - the goal is - all the fibers in the bundle should "disperse" Continues until visually in the mass of the bark there are no fused cut pieces.
The bark is washed under the "shower". This will further help disperse the fibers in the water.

As for the old bark, in addition to the outer layer, there is also a middle layer, with a large number of particles of semi-mature bark. I also pour paper from this layer. The processing of the inner layer is the same. Item 4 (cutting the bark) can be thrown away - the bark from old branches / trunks is perfectly broken with a mallet.

Example 2: Obtaining fiber from flax/nettle

1. Dry nettle stalks are soaked in water for a day, doused with hot alkali solution (CAREFULLY!), washed repeatedly with running water - the outer layer with fiber is easily separated by hand. I knead dry flax stalks (you can take a bunch and knock with a hammer), and then I separate the fibers from the trust with a small bar. - This is a process I have not debugged enough.
2. The rest - everything, as with the bark, from item 4 inclusive.

Paper molding

The bark is placed in a bowl of water and "broken" with a fork.

The use of a mixer is undesirable - due to the fact that the fibers are long, they simply wind around the beaters .

This is the first stage of pulping (I take about a "fist" of bark for 10 liters of water).
NERI is added to the pulp, everything is "broken" again with a fork. The number of NERI is determined empirically. The pulp is ready.

I have another misunderstanding about pulp temperature. I worked at room temperature and hot water was - yet I can not say exactly how the temperature affects the process.

The actual ebb
The frame is immersed in the water obliquely, rotated horizontally and taken out of the water, while "fluctuating" to the right to the left, up and down. On the first fox, I determine if more NERI needs to be added. The speed at which the water passes through the sieve must be able to evenly distribute the fibers on the mesh. If the sheet did not work the first time, repeat, but the frame must be lowered into the water carefully so that the sheet does not leave the grid (the Japanese pour paper in three passes). If the fibers settle very quickly (practically fall), you need to add NERI (again, this is only by experience).
The sheet is cast
A rag is put on top and a "sandwich" of rag, sheet and black mesh (in my case) is transferred to the board (the Japanese do not use an intermediate carrier in the form of a rag. This is a European invention).

The process starts over. The frame is assembled and the next sheet is cast. It overlaps with the previous one.
15. When the foot is cast (for me - when the raw material runs out), on the last sheet a rag, on top of the board and under the press. I have clamps.
16. Drying (I dry on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of my kitchen).

I remove the clamps, take a rag with a sheet and roll it onto the surface with a roller. If the rag is removed, I take it off, if not, I leave it. The sheet dries covered with a cloth.
Remove the sheets only when they are completely dry.

For thin paper, I use half the amount of bark for the same amount of NERI and water.



Now about the main thing - how to insert a fern into a leaf
A leaf is cast, still damp, on a frame, a herbarium is laid out, and the second leaf is carefully cast onto it. Patience, only this can help. I have herbariums floating all over the basin until I got used to it.

There are many links to Japanese papers on the Internet (in yahoo type "washi" and search).
Here is one, in my opinion, quite informative http://www.awagami.com/awawashi/index.html

  • Other posts on this topic here: Paper from natural raw materials, About methods of paper casting

How to make paper at home

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Grintsova K. A. 1


1Municipal Autonomous Educational Institution of the Aleksandrovsky District of the Orenburg Region "Aleksandrovskaya Secondary School named after the Hero of the Soviet Union Roschepkin Vasily Dmitrievich"

Sorokina G.G. 1


1Municipal autonomous educational institution of the Aleksandrovsky district of the Orenburg region "Aleksandrovskaya secondary school named after the Hero of the Soviet Union Roschepkin Vasily Dmitrievich"

The author of the work was awarded a diploma of the winner of the III degree

Diploma of a school student Certificate of the head

The text of the work is placed without images and formulas.
The full version of the work is available in the "Files of the work" tab in PDF format

Introduction

Looking around, we will see what a large amount of paper and products from it surrounds us. Paper accompanies a person throughout his life. I study at school in the 2nd "a" grade and I am surrounded by objects made of paper everywhere: books, textbooks, notebooks, notepads, albums, colored paper, cardboard and other objects. And recently, at technology lessons, we studied the topic of paper, got acquainted with the types of paper, and the teacher told us that paper, it turns out, can be made at home with your own hands. I wanted to learn more about this and try to get the paper myself.

Hence the topic of my research: "How to make paper at home?".

Research objective : to learn how to make paper by hand at home.

To achieve this goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks:

Study objectives :

1. Study the history of paper;

2. Get acquainted with the technology of paper production at the enterprise.;

3. To study the properties of paper on the basis of practical work (conducting experiments).

4. Learn how to make paper at home;

5. Conduct research "How to make paper at home?". Make conclusions about the project;

6. Show the use of the received paper.

Hypothesis: if you study the history of paper and how it is made, then paper can be made at home

Object of study: paper.

Subject of study: ways of making paper at home and using it.

Relevance of the topic.

Making paper at home is one way to solve the problem of forest conservation.

New: Nowadays, handicrafts are valued very highly, because they keep the warmth of human hands and do not look alike. Learning how to make handmade paper is relevant today. Such paper does not look like machine-made paper, and, of course, it is worse: different in thickness, usually less smooth, sometimes too fragile - such paper is not always suitable for printing. But handmade paper has one indisputable advantage that makes you forget all its shortcomings - absolute exclusivity.

Research work consists of two parts: theoretical and practical.

1. Theoretical part.

1. 1 History of paper

Paper (from Italian bambagia - cotton) is a multi-component material, consisting mainly of specially processed small plant fibers, closely intertwined, connected by adhesive forces of various types and forming a thin sheet.

Paper has not always existed. But before its invention, what kind of materials did not try to adapt for writing a person in the process of his long historical cultural development. Once, a very long time ago, people did not know writing, did not know how to write. Primitive people made their drawings on the walls of caves, carved them on the rocks. The stone was accessible and convenient. But certain difficulties in use (impossibility of quick recording, difficulty in processing) led to the rejection of it as a material for writing.

With the invention and spread of writing, people began to write on wet clay tablets. The Phoenicians also wrote with an ink-like composition on pottery shards. On damp clay, the inhabitants of Mesopotamia squeezed out wedges with a wooden stick. In order to write down the text of the book, dozens and hundreds of tablets were used. Dried and burned on fire, the tile became hard as a stone and was stored for a long time. It was difficult to store and transport such books.

The earliest people drew pictograms (inscriptions - drawings) on palm leaves with the help of a sharp fish bone, carved these drawings on the bones of animals.

The ancient Chinese wrote their characters with ink (a special liquid) with a brush on bamboo tablets and silk scrolls.

In Russia they began to write on birch bark - the outer part of the birch bark. It was the cheapest and most available material. Letters on birch bark - birch bark letters - are still found during excavations in the north of the country.

Papyrus replaced clay tablets in southern countries. It was made from a plant with the same name. Papyrus grows in the swampy areas of Ethiopia and Egypt. This plant is similar to sedge, reed, reed. It was peeled and cut into very thin narrow strips, which were then glued together so that a layer of strips in one direction overlapped with a layer of strips in the other direction. This increased the strength of the material. After drying, the surface of the sheets was polished with pumice stone and carefully smoothed out. Papyrus sheets were light brown in color.

After many years, papyrus was supplanted by strong and durable writing material - parchment, which was made by processing animal skins - sheep, goats, calves in a special way. These skins were glued together into long, wide scrolls. Papyrus and parchment were written by hand. The production of one book often required several large scrolls of parchment or up to 250-300 animal skins.

In different parts of the world they were looking for a more convenient material for writing. Almost 2,000 years ago, papyrus and parchment were replaced by paper. Paper was made from the fibers of the wood of the plant, which later became known as the paper tree. The bark was pounded in water to separate the fibers, and the resulting mixture was poured onto trays, at the bottom of which were long narrow strips of bamboo. When the water drained, the soft sheets were laid out to dry on bamboo sheets and old rags.

There are several legends about the invention of paper. According to one of them, paper was invented in China. Papermaking is usually associated with the name of the Chinese Tsai Lun and dates back to 105 AD. However, paper began to be produced in China even earlier.

In 650, warriors who escaped from Chinese captivity and worked at paper "factories" began to manufacture paper in Samarkand. So from the Chinese, the secret of making paper was adopted not only by the Japanese, but also by the Arabs. They brought it to Spain, and from there the art of making paper spread throughout the world.

According to another Chinese legend, paper was invented by a slave from East Turkestan (in our time - the territory of Uzbekistan). To keep the secret of making paper a secret, the Chinese emperor ordered the inventor to be killed.

Mulberry and bamboo served as raw materials for making paper. The word "paper" comes from the word "bambigo" - the so-called paper made from bamboo.

Paper appeared in Russia several centuries earlier than in Europe. Documents of the 8th century were found in Tajikistan, which were written on paper. It is believed that the Russian word paper comes from the Tatar word "bumug", which means cotton. For the first time, the people of Russia became widely acquainted with paper in the middle of the 13th century, when Batu Khan, in order to collect tribute, conducted the first national census of the population of Russia on paper, which at that time was used in Northern China conquered by the Mongol-Tatars, as well as in Turkestan and Persia, with which they were in a trade relationship.

Paper of own production appeared in Russia in the second half of the 16th century during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The beginning of mass paper production in Russia was laid by Peter I. To provide factories with raw materials, by royal decree, the army and navy collected outdated sails, unresined ropes, ropes and rags. Civilians were asked to bring the remnants of worn-out linen items to the office of the police chief "for a fee", and a "rag" tax was taken from the peasants. The development of paper business was facilitated by the decree of 1721 on the mandatory use of domestic paper in official office work. By decree of Peter, several paper factories were built near Moscow and St. Petersburg.

For centuries, paper has been made by hand. After the invention of the first paper machine by the Frenchman Robert (1761-1828), the production of paper and cardboard made a sharp leap forward. The production of paper increased continuously and with great rapidity, and new types of paper appeared.

Paper began to be used not only for writing and printing books, for packaging goods, but also in construction, industry, agriculture, and electrical engineering.

In Russia, the first paper machine was installed in 1916 at the paper mill in Peterhof.

1.2 Papermaking technology.

Modern ways of making paper differ little from those used 2000 years ago.

Logs are brought to the paper mill, mostly pine and spruce. Machines peel off the bark from them, grind them into chips. Chips are sorted by size on special sieves. This mass is sifted and washed, cleaned of dirt and sent to the boil. Wood is cooked in special machines. Cleaned and boiled wood is bleached so that the signs printed or written on it are more visible.

Then it is whipped in a special machine and mixed with water, turning it into a homogeneous mass. To obtain high-quality paper, starch, clay and other material are added.

The pulp enters a special machine in which the water passes through a sieve and the wet pulp passes under a round roller. He smoothes it, levels it and turns it into a smooth sheet. It passes under many other smoothing rollers that squeeze the water out of it and make the paper thick and smooth.

The sheets are then dried and rolled into large rolls. Now this is real paper. The rolls are trimmed, giving them the desired width.

These rolls are then sent to a printer or cut into sheets. And now notebooks are sewn from these sheets, books and newspapers are printed.

This is how paper is produced in paper mills.

After studying the literature, I decided to make paper myself at home.

2. Practical part.

I started my research with a questionnaire in class to find out what my classmates know about paper.

2.1 Poll of classmates and its results.

I asked the guys questions:

1. What can paper be made from?

2. Where do you use paper?

3. Do you have paper waste in your home?

4. Is it possible to make paper at home?

24 people were interviewed.

The survey showed that the children know what paper is made of, and everyone knows where it is used: in the form of school notebooks, sketchbooks, colored paper for technology lessons. Everyone accumulates various paper waste at home.

And answering the last question (Is it possible to make paper at home?), the opinions of the guys were divided:

Yes – 8 students answered

Not allowed -11 students

Don't know – 5 students

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The survey showed that the problem of accumulation of various paper waste exists. It was revealed that most of the classmates believe that it is impossible to make paper at home.

After completing my project, I will tell my classmates about the possibility of obtaining paper from waste at home.

2.2 Paper properties.

First, I studied the properties of paper. Having done the experiments, I tried to answer the following questions:

• Why does wet paper tear more easily than dry paper?

• Why does newsprint turn from white to yellow over time?

• Why does white paper get stained with colored pencils and what happens to it?

Experiment 1. I took a strip of paper, cut it in half, left one part dry and moistened the other with water. An object weighing 200 grams was carefully suspended from the bottom of the dry strip. The strip holds up. If you wet the paper, it will spread.

Conclusion: it was found that the composition of paper pulp fillers contains glue. The faster it dissolves in the water in which we wet the paper, the faster the fibers of the wood from which the paper is made spread, as they cease to be interconnected.

Experience 2. I took a newspaper made of white paper and put it on the windowsill so that the sun hit it. I watched the paper for 5 days. Why did the paper turn yellow?

Conclusion: I had a difficult problem: to find out why newsprint turns from white to yellow. After working with the Internet, we found out: the fact is that paper is made from wood, which mainly consists of two components: cellulose and lignin . Cellulose is a transparent material that reflects light well, so it looks white to us. Under the influence of oxygen, cellulose changes its structure and begins to reflect light in a different way, so we begin to perceive its color as yellow. But changing the structure of cellulose is not the only reason why paper turns yellow. Lignin is much more susceptible to oxidation. Lignin is a substance found in large quantities in wood. It binds plant fibers and gives the tree strength. Under the influence of oxygen, lignin changes its structure and rapidly turns yellow, so they try to remove it from paper in order to avoid yellowing. To save money, most newspapers and other publications are printed on cheap paper, which retains most of the lignin, which contributes to its rapid yellowing.

Experience 3. All children love to color with colored pencils. Why is paper stained with colored pencils, what happens to it?

Conclusion: Coloring the paper with colored pencils, we paid attention to the fact that finely rubbed graphite was introduced into the pores of the sheet. Our assumptions were confirmed in an article from the encyclopedia of the surrounding world, where it is written that there are pores in sheets of paper.

2.3. Making paper at home

I learned several ways to make paper at home and learned how to make my own paper using recycled materials. The following tools and equipment are required for the experiment:

- special frame with A4 mesh or regular sieve

- mixer, deep bowl

- old paper

- gouache

- starch

- PVA glue

Method 1

Stage 1. Tear the paper into small pieces and soak in warm water for 24 hours

Stage 2 . Squeeze out excess water, transfer to a bowl. Add a little water, a teaspoon of PVA glue (for bonding paper) and a tablespoon of starch (so that the sheet is elastic and can bend), beat with a mixer. The result should be a mixture similar to porridge.

Stage 3. Lay out the resulting mass on a net and allow excess water to drain.

Stage 4. Now it's time for the final drying. Put everything on a towel, put gauze or newspaper on top and leave it under pressure for 24 hours. And if we want to get a thin sheet of paper, we need to lay out the mass in a thin and even layer.

Conclusion: Handmade paper is not like machine made paper, and in terms of technical standards it is worse: thicker, less smooth, brittle. But it is absolutely exclusive, two identical sheets will not work, perhaps that is why papermaking is turning from a craft into an art.

Method 2

The experiment was carried out in the same way as described earlier, but only gouache of different colors was added to the pulp, and as a result the paper was obtained with different shades. As a result of this fascinating activity, very beautiful handmade paper is obtained.

For decoration, dry herbs, seasonings can be added to the paper mass, multi-colored threads, flower petals can be added. Sheets made by hand can be used for design work: books, postcards, panels.

You can dry the paper mass not on the screen, but on a cup or a glass, and then you get a decorative vase or bowl, a pencil holder, a hat for a doll, a mug.

Many creative crafts can be made from handmade paper. I made a frame for a craft and a clock.

Pins:

1. Paper can be made at home.

2. It is advantageous to use homemade paper, because. it is made from waste paper and does not require cash costs.

3. This paper is best used for decoration.

4. In addition, homemade paper is more environmentally friendly.

3. Conclusion

Paper is one of the unique inventions of man. Paper production is a very labor-intensive and large-scale process. Paper is made from wood, so you need to handle it carefully, do not throw it in a landfill, collect and hand over waste paper. You can recycle used paper at home, use it creatively. Making paper from recycled materials will help conserve forest resources.

It is important to convey to people the idea that paper should be used sparingly, because behind every sheet of paper there is a story of a living tree. The more people know about the trouble of the forest, and think about how to help it, the faster we will save the forest for ourselves, our children.

As a result of the work done, I studied the history of the emergence of paper, got acquainted with the technology of its production.

After studying various sources, I tried out two ways to make paper at home. Using old newspapers and scribbled notebook sheets, I managed to get paper of different quality.

My hypothesis about the possibility of obtaining paper at home was confirmed.

Paper can be made at home. Making handmade paper is a very interesting and creative process. And quite uncomplicated. And what an amazing result: an exclusive paper of your own design!

It is advantageous to use homemade paper, because. it is made from waste paper and does not require cash costs.

Don't throw away used paper, save it and recycle it into paper to make some crafts. Recycled paper can almost always be used for the same purposes as new paper. The resulting paper can be used for household needs, as well as for children's creativity at technology lessons at school, which will save the family budget and natural resources.

References:

1. Ozhegov S.I. Dictionary of the Russian language, 1983.

2. Popular encyclopedia for children "Everything about everything", Moscow, 1998

3. Glen Vecchione. Do it yourself! 100 most interesting independent scientific projects. - M .: "Publishing House AST": LLC "Publishing House Astrel", 2004.

4. Spurgeon R. Encyclopedia of the surrounding world. Ecology - M.: Rosmen, 1997.

5. Shishkina GB Paper as an aesthetic phenomenon of Japanese culture // Scientific reports of the State Museum of the East. Issue. XXVI. - M., 2006.

List of sources:

1. http://www.o-detstve.ru

2. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C1%F3%EC%E0%E3%E0 Wikipedia. Paper

80%D0%B0 Wikipedia entry. Waste paper.

5. http://www.livemaster.


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