How to make paper out of trees


How do people make paper out of trees, and why not use something else?

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How do people make paper out of trees, and why not use something else? – Cooper H., age 6, St. Louis, Missouri


Paper is an important part of modern life. People use it in school, at work, to make artwork and books, to wrap presents and much more. Trees are the most common ingredient for paper these days, but people have been taking notes and creating artworks for a very long time using lots of other kinds of surfaces and materials.

Humans painted pictures on cave walls during the Ice Age. The oldest known drawing, found on a small rock in South Africa, was made 73,000 years ago.

Written language came a long time later. The Sumerians, in what is now Iraq, and the Egyptians used pictures in the first written languages more than 5,000 years ago.

These people etched cuneiform and hieroglyph pictures that formed their languages into rock. They also wrote on slabs of wet clay, using a pen or brush made from a reed. Sometimes they baked these slabs hard in ovens to preserve them.

Ancient Egyptian manuscript written and drawn on papyrus, dating to 1275 B.C. British Museum

The Egyptians pioneered the first paper. Papyrus came from a 15-foot-tall (4.5 meter) plant of the same name that grew in marshlands along the Nile River. They cut the stalk into thin strips, pressed them together and dried them into the long rolls you can now see preserved in museums. They wrote in ink, which didn’t smudge or blur on this new paper. Papyrus made it easy to carry their writing with them in rolled up scrolls – much easier than carting around heavy clay tablets and rocks.

Wood tablets covered in beeswax became a popular writing material in Greece, Rome and Egypt. Children used them in school as you might use notebooks today. Heating the wax made it easy to erase the writing and reuse the tablets.

Wax writing tablets from a Greek school ‘notebook’ used around 2,000 years ago. British Library

The Romans took the next step, making books with papyrus pages. Special manuscripts used pages made of treated calf skin.

In China, ancient writing materials included bone, bronze and wood. But then, a little more than 2,000 years ago, the Chinese invented a different kind of paper. Early on, it was made from the hemp plant, washed and soaked in water until it was soft. Then it was beaten into a gooey pulp with a wooden mallet and smoothed into a flat frame to dry.

It took Europeans another 800 years to finally start making paper. They cut up, soaked and treated linen and cotton rags. A half a century later, in 1690, the first rag-paper mill came to the American Colonies.

This human-made forest is planted with gum tree saplings that will eventually be harvested. ChrisVanLennepPhoto/iStock via Getty Images

But as people used more and more paper, rags grew scarce. There were more trees than rags, so trees became the raw material. The first U.S. newspaper that was printed on paper made from ground-up wood was the Jan. 14, 1863, edition of the Boston Weekly Journal.

So how do people make paper out of trees today? Loggers cut trees, load them onto trucks and bring them to mills. Machines slice off the bark, and big wood chippers chop the logs into small bits. Those chips are boiled into a soup that looks like toothpaste. To get out any lumps, it is smashed flat, dried and cut up into sheets of paper.

The entire process, from planting a seedling to buying your school notebook, takes a very long time. Just growing the trees takes 10 to 20 years.

This animation shows how trees are made into paper.

Making tons of paper from trees can harm the planet. Humans cut down 80,000 to 160,000 trees around the world every day, and use many of them to make paper. Some of those trees come from tree farms. But loggers also cut down forests for paper, which means that animals and birds lose their homes.

Cutting forests down also contributes to climate change, and paper factories pollute the air. After you throw paper in the trash, a truck takes it to a dump, where it takes six to nine years to decompose.

That’s why recycling is important. It saves a lot of trees, slows climate change and helps protect endangered animals, birds and all creatures that rely on forests for their homes and food.

Did you know that it takes 24 trees to make one ton of paper, which is about 200,000 sheets? You may use a piece of paper one or two times, but it can be recycled five to seven times. Recycling one ton of paper saves 17 trees. If it’s recycled seven times, it saves 117 trees.

So if paper isn’t good for the environment, why don’t people write on something else? The answer: They do. With computers, tablets and cellphones, people use much less paper than in the past. Maybe a day will come when we won’t use paper at all – or will save it for very special books and artworks.


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How Do You Make Paper From a Tree?

TECHNOLOGY — Engineering

Have You Ever Wondered...

  • How do you make paper from a tree?
  • Can paper be made from plants other than trees?
  • What is pulp?
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  • cellulose,
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  • lignin,
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Today’s Wonder of the Day was inspired by Stacy from AL. Stacy Wonders, “How are trees made into paper” Thanks for WONDERing with us, Stacy!

Wood (pun intended!) you believe paper is made from trees? It's true! Let's take a look at how trees are turned into all sorts of paper.

If you look at a tree, you might have a hard time imagining how something so tall and strong could be turned into something as thin and weak as a sheet of paper. The process begins with the raw wood, which is made up of fibers called "cellulose."

The cellulose fibers are stuck together with a natural glue called "lignin." When the lignin is removed and the cellulose fibers are separated and reorganized, paper can be made.

It's also possible to make paper from a variety of other types of plant fibers, such as cotton, flax, bamboo, and hemp. For example, cotton fibers are often used to make the paper that money is printed on. The overwhelming majority (about 95 percent) of the raw material used to make paper, though, comes from trees.

To make paper from trees, the raw wood must first be turned into "pulp." Wood pulp is a watery “soup" of cellulose wood fibers, lignin, water, and the chemicals used during the pulping process.

Wood can be turned to pulp in a couple of different ways. Mechanical pulping involves using machines to grind wood chips into pulp.

The resulting pulp retains most of its lignin, though. The short fibers created by grinding leads to weak paper most suitable for newsprint, phone books, or other types of low-strength papers.

The more commonly used method is chemical pulping, also known as “kraft." Chemicals are used to separate lignin from the cellulose fibers, leaving a pulp mixture that can make stronger papers.

Depending on what type of paper is desired, the pulp mixture might need to be bleached to create whiter paper. Papermakers use a variety of chemicals to bleach pulp to the color they want.

Once the pulp is ready, it is then used to make paper in a process that is quite similar (in the basic actions) to the process first used by the ancient Chinese more than 1,900 years ago. Because the pulp mixture is so watery (sometimes as much as 99 percent water!), the cellulose fibers need to be separated from the watery mixture.

Huge machines spray the pulp mixture onto moving mesh screens to make a layered mat. The mat of pulp then goes through several processes to remove water and dry it out.

Finally, the mat is run through heated rollers to squeeze out any remaining water and compress it into one continuous roll of paper that can be up to 30 feet wide.

When the paper has the desired thickness, it may be colored or coated with special chemicals to give it a special texture, extra strength, or water resistance. As a last step, the paper rolls are cut to size and packaged for shipping to other facilities for additional processing to turn it into all sorts of specialized papers.

Wonder What's Next?

Get out your coat, mittens, and shovels. Tomorrow is a snow day in Wonderopolis!

Try It Out

Are you ready to have some fun with paper? Ask a friend or family member to help you explore the following activities:

  • Try Making Paper from Newspaper Without a Blender! All you'll need are a few simple items, such as newspaper, cornstarch, and a few supplies you probably already have around the kitchen. Once you've made your paper, write a note on it and send it to a friend or family member. What do they think of your homemade gift?
  • Check out Origami for Kids to Make for a wide variety of project ideas you can make with paper. Will you make a boat, a butterfly, a cat, a car, a crown, or a whale? It's up to you! Invite a friend to make paper crafts with you. Have fun!
  • If you're up for a field trip, ask an adult friend or family member to take you to a local office supply store. Look for the paper aisle and check out all the different types of paper they have available for sale. How many different types can you find? How are they different? Can you find any paper made from a different type of plant fiber, such as cotton or hemp?

Wonder Sources

  • http://www.idahoforests.org/paprmake.htm
  • http://www.tappi.org/paperu/all_about_paper/papermade.htm
  • http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/2231/how-is-paper-made

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PAPER MAKING AT HOME

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  • Award documents

Ermolaev E. V. 1


1

Cherkashina O.A. 1


1

The author of the work was awarded a diploma of the winner of the 1st degree

Diploma of a school student Certificate of the head

The text of the work is placed without images and formulas.
The full version of the work is available in the "Files of the work" tab in PDF format

INTRODUCTION

It is hard to imagine what modern society might look like if there were no paper. Every year the need for paper increases, and the stocks of wood from which it is obtained decrease.

2017 has been declared the year of ecology in Russia. The use of recycled paper to produce paper is one of the solutions to the issue of deforestation - the lungs of our planet.

We have a lot of paper waste in our home. It was decided to try at home to use this waste to recycle paper.

Purpose of work: making paper at home from recycled materials

Tasks:

  • gather information about the history of paper

  • study the process of making paper in ancient times

  • learn the modern paper-making process

  • learn how to make paper at home

  • show the application of the received paper.

Research methods:

History of paper

Paper has not always existed. I studied the history of paper. The need to exchange information and leave written evidence of one's life has always existed in humans. Ancient people painted on rocks. But drawings made with charcoal or clay were washed away by rain. Then primitive artists began to beat out

silhouettes of animals on the rocks with a sharp stone. 1 This is how petroglyphs appeared. In Karelia, on the shores of Lake Onega, there are rocks with ancient rock carvings - petroglyphs ( fig. 1 ).

With the invention of writing, people began to write on wet clay tablets. Its advantages were cheapness, simplicity, availability (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2

Also, wide animal bones were used for writing. In some countries, people have learned to write on palm leaves.

In the future, people wrote on wooden boards coated with wax. This was already a great achievement, since a layer of wax made it possible to erase the old and write a new text on the same tablet. In Russia such boards covered with wax were called tsers ( fig. 3 ).

Fig. 3

Our Slavic ancestors applied their texts to birch bark with sharp sticks. Their ancient letters are called birch bark letters. 2

In southern countries, clay tablets were replaced by papyrus (Fig. 4 ), which was made from reed stalks. They were freed from the outer green layer, and the white core was removed and cut into thin strips with a knife. After that, the resulting strips were kept in fresh water for several days to swell and then rolled with a wooden rolling pin on the board and placed in water for a day, rolled again and put into water again. Next, the strips were laid cross on the cross and placed under the press so that they

Fig. 4

stuck together, dried and smoothed with a stone. Such a dried leaf is called papyrus. It was good writing material, but very fragile. The papyrus sheet could not be folded or folded.

After many years, papyrus replaced parchment

(Figure 5), which was made from processed

in a special way the skins of young animals -

calves, lambs, goats, donkeys. Unlike

papyrus parchment was stronger,

more elastic, more durable, it was easier on him

fig. 5 to write on both sides, and if necessary, the text could be easily washed off and re-applied. But making it was very difficult and expensive. 3

In different parts of the world they were looking for a more convenient

writing material. Chinese chronicles

report that paper was invented in 105g

AD Cai Lun ( pic 6 ).

Suitable for paper making

any vegetable raw materials and waste: fibers

mulberry tree and willow, bamboo shoots, straw,

grass, moss, algae, all kinds of rags.

Fig. 6

They needed to be crushed. Then mix all this with water, put the resulting mass on a mold (wooden frame and bamboo sieve). After drying in the sun, this mass had to be smoothed out with stones. The result is durable sheets of paper suitable for writing. Cai Lun brought papermaking technology to perfection ( Appendix 2 ).

For a long time, the Chinese kept the secret of making paper a secret. The production secret was revealed by accident. Several paper craftsmen were captured by the Arabs in 751 and betrayed their secret under torture. They began to do

paper and later brought the secret to Spain. From there, the art of making paper spread throughout the world.

For centuries, paper has been made by hand. At 1799, an important event in the history of the invention of paper occurred - the Frenchman N.L. Robert invented a continuous machine for making paper. This year is considered the date of the invention of paper machines.

According to Robert's drawings

assembled and installed

first paper-making

car. machine, allowed

make from rags

and cotton long and very

thin sheets of paper

fig. 7 rolls 4 .

After such an invention, paper began to be used not only for writing and printing books, for packaging goods, but also in construction, industry, and agriculture.

The word "paper" came into the Russian language, presumably from Italian (bambagia - cotton). Paper of its own production appeared in Russia during

second half of the 16th century

reign of Ivan the Terrible. Start

mass paper production

Russia was laid by Peter I.

In 1720, Peter I issued a decree on

construction of factories for the production

papers all over the country. 5

Preserved documents of those times with the names of the professions of workers

paper factories. According to them, it can be restored that paper was made in Russia according to the technology invented by Tsai Lun in 105 AD: “after the rags were cut into small pieces and ground into a single mass, the “scooper” scooped up the mass with a form, the “feller” removed a sheet of paper from the scoop mold, the “presser” pressed the half-wet sheets removed, the “brusher” hung out the sheets to dry, the “blower” removed and pressed these sheets to eliminate warping, the “gluer” dipped them in glue, the “presser” squeezed out excess glue, “ hanger "hung glued sheets to dry, "blower" removed them from the ropes after drying. 6

As soon as in the middle of the last century it was possible to isolate a valuable substance - cellulose - from wood, mass production of paper began.

Modern methods of papermaking

Working on this topic, I got acquainted with modern methods of making paper. Over time, many special machines were invented for the production of paper. Multi-saw machines cut logs into logs, bark peelers remove the bark from them, chippers break the logs into chips, which are sent along the conveyor to the boiler, where a liquid mass is boiled from them in a special solution. And in another boiler, sticky pulp is boiled from the same chips. Both substances are mixed in the mixing tank. The resulting mixture passes through a paper machine, and after squeezing, ironing, smoothing, the paper is sent to factories where notebooks are made, to a printing house for printing books, newspapers and magazines. 7

This is how paper is produced in paper mills ( Appendix 3 ).

Paper making at home

After studying the literature, I decided to make paper at home. There are several ways to make paper at home. After studying them, I settled on the following method.

Materials: for work, I used newspaper margin clippings without printing ink. The production of 2-3 sheets of paper requires approximately 3-4 liters of mass. The thinner the paper we want to get in the end, the more water we take at the beginning. For coloring, you can use any paint, starting with gouache.

Tools: you will need a special frame with a mesh to strain the liquid. I used a large sieve and colander. I also used a blender and an iron to speed up the process (but you can do without them).

Process: paper collected for work is torn into small pieces, filled with water and crushed with a blender until a homogeneous mass. You can add dye, a teaspoon of PVA glue (for bonding paper) and a tablespoon of starch (so that the sheet is elastic and can bend).

When the paper pulp is ready, it is applied to the sieve. It takes some time to let the water drain. After that, we blot our “sheet” of paper with a cloth until it is almost dry. Carefully remove from the sieve, slightly dry the sheet with an iron through a cloth. Then let it dry for several hours.

( Appendix 1 ).

For decoration, dry herbs, seasonings, multi-colored threads, flower petals, shells and beads can be added to the paper mass. From the resulting paper, I made a stand for a vase.

"Handmade" paper is not like machine-made paper: uneven in thickness, usually less smooth, too brittle - such paper is not always suitable for printing. But hand-made paper has undeniable advantages - absolute exclusivity and originality!

Conclusion

As a result of the research, I found out where, when and how paper appeared, and I learned how to make it myself at home.

Paper is one of the unique inventions of man. However, we must remember: to make paper for one book, you need 5 kilograms of wood! And it takes 50-80 years to grow a full-fledged tree! Forests are the lungs of our planet and we must protect them!

Making handmade paper is a very interesting and creative process. It is quite simple and does not require any money. The result is very important: an exclusive paper of your own design!

I hope that my work has benefited nature and was interesting to other guys. Try to get the paper yourself and you'll love it!

References

  1. Novaya Gazeta, No. 49 (492), 2005

  2. Bogdanov V.V., Popova S.N. Stories of ordinary things. - Ed. "Pedagogy-Press", M., 1992

  3. Antiquity paper. Clay tablets. Papyrus. Parchment. Birch bark. http://evolutsia.com/content/view/2697/43/

  4. DIY paper - stranamasterov.ru

  1. The greatest inventions and discoveries: of all times and peoples/Authors of the text T.B. Ivashkova, A.A. Ratina, M.S. Ulyanenkova - Moscow: OGIZ, AST, 2014
  1. The second life of paper - http://nsportal.ru/ap/library/khudozhestvenno-prikladnoe-tvorchestvo

  2. Living Science - http://livescience.ru

  3. Science and life, HISTORY OF THE PAPER SHEET https://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/16858/

  4. Novgorod birch bark http://www.kulturologia.ru/blogs/131113/19253/

  5. MODERN WAYS OF MANUFACTURING PAPER: http://www.platan-paper.com/poleznaya-informatsiya/papermaking. html

  6. Russian handmade paper - http://www.rarebook-spb.ru/info/paper/russian_paper/

Appendix 1.

DIY paper making steps

Appendix 2.

Paper making in China

Appendix 3.

1 Science and life, HISTORY OF THE PAPER SHEET https://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/16858/

2 Novgorod birch bark http://www.kulturologia.ru/blogs/131113/19253/

3 Paper of antiquity. Clay tablets. Papyrus. Parchment. Birch bark. http://evolutsia.com/content/view/2697/43/

4 The greatest inventions and discoveries: of all times and peoples / Authors of the text T.B. Ivashkova, A.A. Ratina, M.S. Ulyanenkova - Moscow: OGIZ, AST, 2014

5 Science and life, HISTORY OF THE PAPER SHEET https://www. nkj.ru/archive/articles/16858/

6 Russian handmade paper http://www.rarebook-spb.ru/info/paper/russian_paper/

7 MODERN WAYS OF MANUFACTURING PAPER http://nsportal.ru/ap/library/khudozhestvenno-prikladnoe-tvorchestvo

fourteen

Views of work: 1742

Making paper - the main stages. What is paper made from? How paper is made read

Paper is consumed by people in huge quantities. One person per year accounts for one hundred and fifty kilograms. From what and how paper is made, read the article.

Historical information

Long ago, in 105 BC, Cai Lun, an imperial subject from China, made paper from mulberry wood. He made a mixture of his wood, hemp, rags, added wood ash and laid it all out on a sieve to dry. Then he polished the dried mass with a stone.

The result was paper from wood, and a Chinese eunuch became the first author of its technology. That's what the Chinese think. But scientists have a different opinion. This is due to the fact that archaeologists often find paper scraps in China that date back to an earlier period.

Raw materials

Paper is produced from wood pulp, other plant fibers: cane, rice, straw, hemp, as well as from rag waste, waste paper and other materials. To obtain cellulose, wood of different tree species is used. Wood pulp can be obtained in several ways.

The mechanical method is considered the most economical. At the woodworking enterprise, the wood is crushed, crumb is obtained. It is mixed with water. Paper from cellulose obtained in this way is fragile, newspapers are made from it. High quality paper is made from cellulose, which is obtained using a chemical method. To do this, small chips are cut from a wooden beam. It is sorted by size. Then they are immersed in a solution with chemicals and boiled in a special machine. After that, it is filtered and washed, as a result of which excess impurities are removed. This is how paper raw materials are obtained, which is called wood pulp. It is used to produce paper for magazines, books, brochures, wrapping materials of high strength.

Do-it-yourself sawdust paper

Pine or spruce sawdust is poured with water and boiled for exactly one day. Caustic soda is added to the water. In the absence of such, you can use baking soda. After boiling, the mixture is washed with water and squeezed. Then again the sawdust is poured into a pot of water and put on fire. As soon as they boil, the pan is removed from the heat, its contents are crushed with a mixer. It turns out a porridge-like mass of a homogeneous consistency.

While the sawdust is cooking, a frame is made, placed on a pallet, gauze is stretched over it. The mass is poured onto the prepared frame and evenly distributed over the entire surface. Excess water will drain into the tray. But to quickly remove moisture, it should be blotted with absorbent wipes. Then the frame is turned over and the sheet obtained from the mass is easily separated from it.

The sheet should be covered on both sides with paper or newspaper and placed between the boards, pressed on top with something heavy. Under such pressure, he should lie for five minutes. After that, the sheet is carefully placed on the foil and dried in the sun, in the oven, near the battery.

Composition

Wood paper is made from wood pulp obtained using a mechanical production method. Sometimes other materials are taken as the basis. Such paper can be made even at home. But it will be of poor quality.

Today, cellulose is produced chemically using technological processes. To obtain high quality paper, it must contain the following ingredients:

  • Hydrophobic sizing that prevents ink from spreading on paper. They do not show through on the reverse side of the sheet. Rosin glue is used as sizing.
  • Resin, glue or starch. Thanks to these substances, wood paper becomes more durable and resistant to various influences on it.
  • Kaolin, talc or chalk make the paper less transparent and increase its density.

Types of wood

It can be hard or soft. The first type of wood is obtained from coniferous trees: pines, fir, spruce, sequoia and hemlock. Soft wood is obtained from broad-leaved species: beech, maple, poplar, birch, oak. In regions with a tropical climate - teak, ebony and mahogany.

Paper made from these types of wood is highly valued. But, unfortunately, they are growing slowly. They are cut down more than reproduced. Therefore, there are fewer trees of valuable species in tropical forests.

Paper production today

True paper is that which is made from pulp, the individual fibers of which are obtained by soaking cellulose raw materials. The mass is first mixed with water, and then scooped out in a form on which the mesh is stretched. Excess water drains, the mass dries up, a sheet of paper is obtained. This is how the Chinese citizen Cai Lun received his first piece of paper. During this time, although about two thousand years have passed, no significant changes have occurred.

Today, paper production is carried out in modern factories with huge workshops, on the equipment of which various operations are performed. After receiving wood pulp, the fibers are shaped and structured, for which the paper raw material is mixed with adhesives and resins. The glue repels water from the paper and the resin prevents the ink from bleeding. Wooden paper, the photo of which is presented for review, does not need such processing for printing needs, since the printing ink does not spread.

The next step is coloring. To do this, the paper is placed in a mixer with pigments or dyes. Then the mushy mass enters the machine, which is called the paper machine. After all stages of processing in this machine, the mass becomes a paper roll tape, which passes through many rollers: one squeezes out water, the other dries the tape, the third one polishes it.

In the next step, the paper is sent to the wet press shop. Here the fibers are degreased and further compacted. The result is dry white wood paper, wound into huge rolls, which go to the printing house. There they are cut according to the required dimensions.

The history of paper dates back to the third millennium BC.

How it all began

The ancient Egyptians discovered a plant on the banks of rivers, papyrus, from which material for writing with the same name was made. Its trunks were cut into thin strips, folded in several layers lengthwise and across, compressed under a large load and left to dry in the sun. Thus, flexible sheets were obtained, which were cut to certain sizes, they were polished and glued into scrolls. It was the first writing material that has survived to this day.

In the 2nd century, the production of papyrus was replaced by the manufacture of paper, more similar to that which we use today. The inventors of the first paper technology are the Chinese. The raw material was the waste of silkworm cocoons, but due to their insufficient quantity, they switched to hemp nettles. The paper made from it was not of high quality: the sheets were different in thickness, rough and uneven, which was the reason to abandon this technology. To improve production, they took a different direction: mulberry bast. Paper from it was, in quality, several orders of magnitude higher, and the secret of manufacturing was kept in the strictest confidence. But time passed, and this secret became clear, passed to the Arabs and, already from them, spread throughout the world.

At the beginning of the 13th century, the first paper mill appeared in Europe, and by the end of the 17th century, they began to manufacture it in Russia as well.

A new stage of development

Due to the fact that nothing in this world stands still, there were not enough raw materials for production, and more and more paper was required. This was the reason for the search for new technologies. For the first time, wood, or rather, wood pulp produced from it, began to be used to make paper. To obtain this raw material, all types of trees, both soft and hard, are suitable.

If you carefully look at a piece of paper through a microscope, you can, almost with accuracy, tell what kind of wood paper is made from for certain purposes.

For example, wrapping paper not only has a certain strength, but is also rough. It is made from soft wood species, which are pine, cedar, spruce. But here's an interesting fact. Paper made from Canadian Spruce has all the qualities of strength, but the upside is its elasticity.

Maple and oak are hardwoods, but their paper is less durable. But, due to the fact that it has a smooth surface, it is used for printing.

But if you mix pine and oak derivatives, carry out a series of chemical transformations, you can get a high-quality, durable and elastic sheet from which a book is made.

People invented paper thousands of years ago to record their thoughts and important technical discoveries. The method of transmitting information using paper, the production of which is growing every year, always remains relevant.

What are they made of?

Even a small child knows that the raw material for paper production is wood. Almost any breed is suitable for this:

  • Chestnut;
  • Birch;
  • Poplar;
  • Eucalyptus;
  • Pine.

Logs from the sawmill are taken to mills where they are sawn into small pieces and then made into chips. To make 50 A4 sheets, you need 1 kg of wood. To reduce deforestation, waste paper, that is, used paper, is used. Straw, rice, cotton, as well as rag waste and asbestos are suitable for the manufacture of raw materials.

In addition to these raw materials, a lot of water is needed for production. Often paper mills are built on the banks of rivers and lakes. Natural sources are used for water intake and timber rafting.

How they are made

Steps in the papermaking process:

  1. Logs are debarked and cut into chips.
  2. They are immersed in water at a ratio of 5 parts of wood to 95 parts of water. As a result, the chips swell and bleach.
  3. The material is boiled in solutions of acids, oxides and other substances. This is necessary to obtain a uniform viscous composition without impurities. The quality, grade and color of the paper depends on this stage.
  4. The pulp obtained is filtered. In its pure form, it is used only for expensive grades of paper. For ordinary sheets, special additives are introduced into the cellulose.
  5. Additional substances are introduced into the composition of semi-finished products that affect the appearance of the paper. Resin is introduced to obtain a glossy surface, glue - to increase strength, dyes - to create a shade. Wax emulsion makes paper suitable for writing and printing images. For bleaching, chalk and talc are added to the mass. Interestingly, hemp and rice pulp is white and does not require additional bleaching.
  6. Stock enters the paper machine. First, the composition falls on a cellular grid, where water flows out of it. At the same time, the fibers are intertwined along the movement of the machine, which makes it possible to obtain a solid foundation. The pulp is sent to the presses where it is compacted and more water comes out.
  7. Paper passes through metal drums where it is dried. The final processing takes place on the shafts, the paper web is compressed, leveled, compacted and finally dried.
  8. Paper rolls are sent to the next machine, which cuts them into sheets and packs them.

Ready-made packages are delivered to shops and end users. Papermaking is a fast process, today it is implemented by mechanical and electronic machines, practically does not involve human participation. This allows the production of goods in large volumes.

How it was made in ancient times

People left the first inscriptions on rocks, cave walls, clay tablets. Birch bark, papyrus and parchment are the ancient ancestors of paper. You could write on them, but they were short-lived.

The first production was organized in China around 105. Plants - moss, grass, bamboo - were used to make paper. The fibers were soaked in water and then boiled with ash and lime. These substances are needed to dissolve lignin, a polymer that gives strength to plants.

The raw materials were crushed into small fibers, vegetable juices and starch were added, and paper sheets were cast. After draining the water, the sheets were dried by a press. Over time, the secret of production spread to the Arab lands, from where it came to Europe. There they began to make paper from wood, the first experiments were made at the beginning of the 18th century.

How quality is checked

Several characteristics are used to check the quality of paper:

  • Thickness. It is important to maintain the same thickness throughout the entire batch of goods.
  • Porosity. The larger it is, the better the printing ink holds.
  • Opacity. This is an important characteristic for books and office paper. Newspaper sheets are made more transparent to save money.
  • Smooth. This feature improves image quality by better contact between paper sheets and printing plates.
  • Strength. Important for high-speed printing, as well as for packaging materials.
  • Abrasion resistance. Directly affects the durability of finished books, manuscripts, newspapers.
  • Absorption. Affects the rate of penetration of paints.

Types of paper products

Modern paper production involves the production of different types of paper:

  • Newspaper. Inexpensive to manufacture and absorbs paint quickly.
  • Offset. The most common type, used for printing books, notebooks, for office purposes.
  • Coated. It is characterized by high quality and increased whiteness. Used for printing expensive catalogs.
  • Packaging. The main thing for her is resistance to the external environment. It is made from pure wood, as it needs a small cost.
  • Monetary. The highest quality type, used for printing banknotes.
  • Cardboard. High density paper.

The production of paper from wood is well developed in Russia, as our country is rich in forests. New trees are constantly being planted in place of cut down trees, which renews the resources of enterprises. Every city has waste paper collection points that provide additional raw materials for paper mills. Now you know how paper is made and what a complex process it is.

Found in ancient Chinese sources. The official date of the first appearance of the first paper sheet is considered to be 105 BC, and this event is associated with the name of a dignitary from China, Cai Lun.
A semblance of paper was also used before the novelty, but this material was made from highly steamed silk or. Cai Lun made several experiments, thanks to which a unique one appeared. Pieces of cloth, ash, mulberry fibers and hemp were mixed in one container. All the ingredients had to be thoroughly mixed and evenly laid out in special forms. Then the workpiece was dried in the sun and pressed with stones. The result was thin sheets.

It is worth noting that the exact date of the invention of paper is unknown. Archaeologists have found pieces of paper-like material during excavations in Egypt. Moreover, the date of the finds refers to the 300s BC.

Modern production

Currently, paper is produced in factories equipped with special equipment. There are three production options - from wood or chemical pulp, as well as from waste paper.

Woody is obtained from the bark of birch, eucalyptus, pine or spruce. The material is carefully crushed using special equipment, and then mixed with a certain amount of water. Then the mixture goes to machines that make thin sheets of paper by pressing and leveling. Material of this quality is mainly used for printing newspapers or printed publications of relatively low cost. The paper has a yellowish tint and is not very strong.

Chemical pulp is used to make higher quality white paper. The manufacturing process of such material also occurs in several stages. The bark of trees is crushed into small crumbs, which are carefully sieved. Then the sawdust is boiled for a certain time in huge cauldrons. Only after that the resulting mass is mixed with a special acid. To obtain thicker paper, shredded waste paper is often mixed into the main mass. The final step depends on the requirements. For example, if you need glossy paper, then resin is added to the mixture. If you need paper with increased strength, then glue becomes an additional ingredient. After the necessary additions, the mixture is sent under a press and thoroughly dried.

It is much easier to make paper from waste paper. "Old" paper is cleaned of paint, which is used to apply images and text. Then the material is carefully crushed and subjected to special processing, due to which a mixture resembling semolina is formed. The mass is sent to rotating belts and pressed, sometimes bark is added to the composition beforehand. As a result of this process, white paper is obtained, which is then cut into sheets and formed into separate blocks.

Dyes of a specific color are added to standard mixtures to make colored paper. Sheets are subjected to additional processing, which should become velvet, shiny or embossed.

In China in 105 AD, however, in the middle of the 20th century, more ancient tombs were discovered, where small fragments were found.

In those ancient times, it was made from silk, using rejected silkworm cocoons for production. Now, of course, such expensive materials are not used - everything that contains long fibers is suitable, and this is cellulose, rags, already used paper, and some types of textiles. Mixing with water, they form a plastic mass - raw materials.

The history of the development of paper technology

So, the first step in the creation of paper is the preparation of paper pulp. For the inventor of the technology, Tsai Lun, it was a mixture of silk fibers, ash, hemp and rags, thoroughly crushed and mixed with water. He laid it out on a mold and dried it in the sun. For a long time, this manual method of production remained the only one - only the ingredients changed.

In the 17th century, the roll was invented, a mechanism that grinded raw materials automatically and therefore could produce much more paper pulp. But the sheets themselves were still formed manually, scooping up forms, so the volumes of the products received remained still low.

Finally, at the very end of the 18th century, in 1799, in France they figured out how to make paper outflow automatic - N. Robert used a moving grid for this purpose. Seven years later, a full-fledged paper machine was patented in England. Since that time, the scale of production has increased markedly.

Stages of paper production

As many centuries ago, paper production begins with

1) Preparation of paper pulp.

This includes not only the grinding of components with rolls (refiners, mills) and their mixing. Many auxiliary substances are added to modern paper to improve its properties.


The so-called sizing takes place - means are added to make the fibers stick together better, and the paper itself is not so afraid of water. These are alumina, rosin glue, paraffin emulsion.

To increase rigidity, starch, formaldehyde resins, animal glue are added to the mass. Mineral fillers like chalk or talc help make the paper smoother. Aniline dyes are added for bleaching. The composition and amount of additional additives is determined by the purpose for which the final product will be used.

2) Paper pulp production.

When the pulp is ready, it must be cleaned of impurities and diluted with water. Special equipment copes with this - vortex and centrifugal cleaners, a sandbox. From the preparatory department, the pump pumps it into the mixing tank, and from there it will go to the paper machine.

Raw material is poured in a continuous stream onto the mesh.


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