How to plant a tree with burlap


How to Plant Ball & Burlap Trees

Ball & Burlap trees, also called “B&B” are those that have been grown in the field and once they grow to a predetermined size they are dug up. The “ball” is referring to the tree’s root ball and the “burlap” is referring to the cloth covering encompassing the root ball. The tree is wrapped with the native soil it was originally growing in intact around the roots and shipped to your front door. Many varieties of trees are grown and shipped this way and it makes transporting large ones easier.

Continue reading the handling and planting directions outlined below to get your tree off to the best start possible so it will flourish for years to come. If, however, your tree arrived in a container or with only its bare roots, you will want to check out our planting guides that pertain specifically to planting these type of trees.

In a Nutshell

– Remove all the packaging
– Water the tree’s root ball before planting
– Select an appropriate planting site based on your tree’s requirements
– Prepare the soil
– Dig a hole based on the size of the root ball
– Put the tree in the hole, removing the burlap
– Replace most of the soil
– Water well, let the soil drain and put back the remainder of the soil
– Put mulch around the tree and water regularly

Getting Your Ball & Burlap Tree Ready to Plant

Once your B&B tree arrives you will want to remove all the packaging your tree arrived in and carefully remove the tree. Remove any wrapping that surround the tree itself, being careful not to disturb the burlap covered root ball. Do not remove any strings holding the burlap in place, as you will do this at the time of planting.

Care Before Planting

Handle your B&B carefully, as you do not want to disrupt the soil covering the root ball and encased in the burlap. Do not move the tree by the trunk or branches, but instead, move it by lifting the covered section by the strings or ropes attached. If the tree is large, you may require an additional person to help move the tree.

After it arrives, move your tree to a shady location outdoors and not inside a garage or shed, even if the outdoors temperatures are cold. Once you have it moved to the proper location, water the entire burlap covered root ball with a gently stream of water. Do not use a forceful stream or you may dislodge the soil from the root ball.

Your B&B tree will be fine left in the burlap covering until you are ready to plant, provided you keep the roots moist through regular water applications. Depending on your local weather conditions, this may require you to water daily. After several days and if your tree is a sun-lover, you can position it to a sunnier location. It is best not to move the tree immediately after you water because the soil will be soft and may pull away from the rooted section.

Choosing a Planting Location

You want to select a permanent location in your landscape where your B&B tree will have its requirements for proper growth met and will not encroach on your neighbor’s property. Therefore, do not plant close to the property line where your tree’s branches will hang onto another’s property and they will have the right to trim it. This can lead to a misshapen tree that might not recover from a severe pruning.

When selecting an appropriate planting site, know the mature size of your tree and its light requirements. You do not want to plant a tree that grows best in full sun in a shady location. In addition, you also do not want to plant the tree close to any structure it can interfere with, including power or utility lines. Our site lists all the necessary information about your particular tree, which takes the guesswork out of where your B&B tree will grow best. We also have guides that give information on properly planting trees for windbreaks and screens, if you are using your particular tree as such.

Preparing the Planting Site

Once you have selected the best site meeting all your B&B tree’s requirements, it’s time to prep the area for planting. You will want to clear an area that is at least 3 feet in diameter to protect the tree’s trunk from potential damage from lawn equipment bumping into it.

The first thing in preparing the site is removing all the unwanted vegetation growing there (such as weeds and grasses). This is easily done by pulling them out by hand, using a hard rake or spraying the area with an herbicide. If you choose the herbicide route, be sure to wait at least two weeks before planting so the product has time to do its job. Once the vegetation is dead, remove it from the planting site.

Next, you will want to amend the planting site’s soil with organic materials. Do not transport soil in from another location and if your soil is poor and lacks fertility, it is best to amend it with something like well-rotten manure or compost. This not only adds fertility to the area, but also loosens the area so the B&B tree’s roots have an easier time spreading out through the site and assists with drainage.

Spread approximately a 6- to 8-inch layer of organic materials over the site and work into the soil to a depth of about a foot.

Preparing to Plant

The night before you plan to plant your B&B tree, gently water the burlap covered root ball again. It is better and healthier for the tree to plant a hydrated root system than one that is completely dry. Once again, remember to use a gentle stream of water so you do not dislodge the soil contained around the roots and leave the burlap wrapping in place.

Digging the Hole

Next, you will want to dig the hole where your tree is going to grow. Dig the hole three times wider than the entire burlap covered root ball and just as deep. You do not want to plant the tree deeper that it was originally growing because it puts undue stress on it. If you feel the planting hole may be a bit too deep, don’t stress because you can fix this once you place the tree in the hole and see how much additional soil you will need to add.

Planting Your Ball & Burlap Tree

If your tree is big, planting it will be an easier job with the assistance of an additional person. Moving your B&B tree by the strings or ropes, place the root ball into the hole and make sure it is not going to be planted deeper than it is growing now. If so, lift the root ball up and add the needed soil to lift it up to the required depth. If the depth is good, it is time to remove the burlap covering.

Using a clean knife, cut away any strings or ropes holding the burlap in place and slice down the sides of the burlap. You can cut away the sections of burlap and leave what is on the bottom of the tree, if it is standard cloth burlap and doesn’t easily release itself, as it will eventually disintegrate into the soil. However, if the covering isn’t standard cloth burlap, you will need to remove all of the covering, as it will not disintegrate into the soil. Leaving this type of covering in the planting hole can negatively affect the growth of your tree. The assistance of another person is helpful when lifting the root ball and removing the covering from the bottom.

Once you have the cloth removed and the tree situated back in the hole, backfill the hole halfway with soil and firm up around the root ball using your foot.

Watering the Tree

After you have the planting hole half-filled with soil, fill it with water. This not only waters the root system again, but also helps settle the soil around it. Allow the water to drain completely from the hole before finishing planting.

Finishing the Planting

After the water drains from the planting hole, backfill with the remainder of the soil and firm up around the base of the B&B tree by pressing down with your foot. Make sure you aren’t adding too much soil and planting the tree deeper than it was originally growing. You also want to make sure the soil is level so the water remains over the root system and does not flow away from it.

If desired, but not necessary, you can create a 4-inch tall soil dam around the planting site, which will keep the water directly over the root system and not running off into the yard. To help the area’s soil retain its moisture and cut down on unwanted weed growth, add a 3-inch layer of organic mulch over the planting site. Just be sure to keep the mulch pulled several inches away from the B&B tree’s trunks. Water again, thoroughly soaking the root ball.

Planting in Heavy or Clay Soil

If your planting site’s soil is heavy like clay and has a tendency to retain too much water, you can create a mound to plant your B&B tree and lift the roots out of the wet conditions. The vast majority of trees don’t tolerate growing in soils that are constantly soggy. Pile the soil up about a foot, creating a mound, before planting the tree.

Staking Ball & Burlap Trees

If the root ball on your Ball & Burlap tree is relatively large, and the top portion or canopy isn’t too filled out and leafy, you do not have to stake your tree. However, if the planting site is windy, the root ball is small with a large, leafy canopy, or the soil has pulled away from the root ball when you planted it or removed the burlap, it might be beneficial to stake it for its first season of growth. After that, remove the stakes because the root system has established itself in the planting site and staking is no longer needed.

When staking your tree you will need two stakes that are around 5 feet tall, a hammer and tree staking straps or another soft material like canvas strapping. Do not use ropes or wire as it can damage the tree by cutting into the trunk.

Place the stakes on opposite sides of the tree and about 1.5 feet from the tree’s root ball. Hammer the stakes into the ground about 18 inches and tie the straps around the tree and then around the stake in a figure eight style. This allows the trunk some leeway as it moves with wind, which leads to a stronger structure and root system. You do not want to tie the rope tightly and directly around the trunk or damage can occur.

Follow-Up Care of Ball & Burlap Trees

While your Ball & Burlap tree is establishing itself into the new planting site it’s imperative you water regularly. Depending on your local weather conditions, give the tree a deep watering twice weekly for the first few months after planting. After that, you can reduce watering to once each week. However, if your conditions are hot and dry, you may have to water several times each week. Remove the stakes after the first season of growth and refresh the mulch each spring. Fertilize the following spring after planting using a fertilizer blend for trees, following package directions on amounts and frequency of use.

Giving your Ball & Burlap tree the care it requires by selecting an appropriate site, planting correctly and giving it the best follow-up care assures your tree will thrive in the landscape for years to come and be a healthy and problem-free addition.

Should You Remove the Wire Basket & Burlap Before Planting a Tree?

If you’re planning to plant a balled and burlapped tree, you may find that it has a wire basket around the rootball. The cage is usually on the outside of the burlap covering, although you’ll sometimes see an extra layer of burlap placed over the wire. So, what should you do with the wire, burlap, and any twine that’s holding it together? Do you really need to remove the wire basket before planting the tree? If you leave it, will the tree roots eventually grow through the holes in the cage?

Many people, including tree service companies, used to bury the entire thing – rootball, burlap, and wire cage. But, as research into tree growth patterns has evolved, we’ve learned that this is not the best way to plant a tree. In fact, failing to remove the wire basket can be the kiss of death for your transplanted tree.

Keep reading to learn why you shouldn’t plant a tree with the wire basket still intact and find out how to remove the basket and burlap without damaging the tree’s fragile root system.

Why Trees Are Wrapped in Burlap and a Wire Basket

Many trees sold by tree nurseries are grown in the ground. They’re then dug up with a huge spade and each tree’s rootball is wrapped with burlap and a wire cage.

The purpose of wrapping the rootball with burlap and wire is to:

  • Hold together the rootball so that chunks of heavy soil do not fall out or tear roots,
  • Protect roots from dehydration and sunburn,
  • Allow trees to be safely moved by their trunk, and
  • Reduce the chances of damage to root balls during transportation.

About The Burlap and Wire Basket Around Your Tree

Many people think that they should leave both burlap and wire in place when they plant a tree, but this is wrong. Leaving these materials wrapped around your tree’s rootball will damage roots and can kill your tree.

About Burlap Tree Wrapping

Burlap has traditionally been considered a fast-decomposing material that will break down and disappear into the soil after you plant your tree. But experience has proved this wrong.

Natural burlap (woven from jute, hemp, or flax fibers) can remain intact around a rootball for a long time, particularly when the soil it’s in is not consistently moist year-round (moisture speeds decomposition).

Treated burlap lasts even longer, as it’s treated with preservatives designed to extend its life. This resistance to tearing or rotting is useful while wrapped trees are being handled and transported, but not once a tree has been transplanted.

Depending on the source of your balled-and-burlapped trees, the burlap wrapped around your tree may be plastic, not jute. Plastic burlap will remain in your soil for even longer, if not forever, and will not break down. You may not see plastic when it’s below the soil’s surface, but microscopic plastic particles move easily through the soil and can reach aquifers and water bodies, degrading our natural environment.

About the Wire Basket

The purpose of the wire basket around your tree’s root ball is to protect it during transportation and positioning in its planting hole. Once your tree is in place and ready to be backfilled, your tree doesn’t need (or want!) the wire anymore.

The metal wire will remain intact in the soil for a long time. Depending on the type of metal used, the wire will slowly rust or corrode, but not at a rate that’s beneficial for your tree. Wire can remain intact for 20 years!

The metal cage that held your tree’s rootball in place can dramatically reduce the ability of your tree’s roots to grow out into the surrounding soil. This means your tree will struggle to develop a large, healthy root system.

Uprooted spruce tree with burlap left on.

How Wire Baskets and Burlap Harm Tree Roots

As tree roots grow, they get both longer and thicker. When a tree root hits a solid barrier like a metal cage or a burlap wrap, it may grow around or through the barrier. But the root may also change direction and start encircling its own root ball. As the diameter of circling roots expand, they will strangle or girdle other roots.

NOTE: Removing the wire basket when you transplant a tree often means you’ll need to stake the tree, as the wire basket may be holding the rootball together. This is why you should partially backfill your tree planting hole first, as it will help hold the rootball in place.

Staking young trees is common, and it doesn’t matter if they were grown in containers or balled and burlapped. All young, newly planted trees need time to develop solidly anchoring roots that will keep the tree stable in windy, stormy weather.

Should you remove the burlap and wire when you plant a tree?

Yes! You should cut away both of these from around your tree’s root ball when you plant your new tree. It’s not hard to do and takes only a few minutes of work with the right tools (sharp clippers or a utility knife and wire snips or bolt cutters).

Landscapers (and even arborists!) used to plant trees with their wrapping intact. But scientific studies and anecdotal information have shown clearly that trees with wraps removed at planting (or within the first year) are healthier, more vigorous, and have more well-developed root systems.

Will burlap and wire wraps harm your tree?

They can. The wrappings around a tree’s rootball keep a tree safe during transport and make it easier to move a tree by its trunk to position it precisely.

Since burlap-wrapped trees may have twine or straps tied around the base of the tree’s trunk, it’s vital that you remove the burlap in this area. Anything wrapped around a growing tree’s trunk can cause fatal girdling. Pulling back the burlap also ensures that there’s no physical barrier to surface water reaching the rootball.

I have come across trees where the plastic and nylon twine have been left on a root ball – the twine ends up tightly wound around the root flare and becomes so tight, it will eventually girdle the tree.

You’ll also need to expose the tree’s trunk flare to be sure you’re positioning it at the right height in the planting hole. The trunk flare is often found well below the top of the wrapped rootball so you may need to pull soil away to find it.

How To Remove the Burlap and Wire Basket From a Tree

Cut away the burlap and wire after you’ve positioned your tree in its planting hole and partially backfilled around its base to make sure it’s stable.

You can leave the portions of the wire basket and burlap that are beneath the rootball, especially if you’re transplanting large trees. The important parts to remove are the wire and burlap that are across the top of the rootball and around its sides. This is where both anchoring and feeder roots spread out into the surrounding soil.

A tree’s root system is its lifeline and is the only way your tree can take up water and nutrients from the soil. Any barrier that slows down root development and root exploration will slow down your tree’s growth and vigor, and that includes burlap and metal cages.

What Will Happen If You Don’t Remove the Burlap and Wire From Your Tree

If you plant your tree with its wrap left on, its roots will struggle to grow out into the surrounding soil. This will cause several problems, including:

  • Slow establishment after transplanting
  • Undersized anchoring roots (making the tree less stable)
  • Roots can’t grow deep into the soil to find water and avoid drought stress
  • Girdling roots that will strangle the tree

All of these things threaten the health of your tree, its safety, and even its lifespan.

Some tree roots (we’ve noticed it on spruce, especially) will grow over the top of the burlap and basket. The roots arch over the top of the root ball and enter the surrounding soil. These trees are less likely to survive dry periods, as the roots remain at surface level.

Plant Your Tree the Right Way – Remove the Burlap and Wire Basket!

Trees should always be planted the right way to ensure they thrive in their new home but, unfortunately, sometimes they’re not.

Call us for proper planting of your new trees, or to have us check on a recently planted tree that’s not doing well. There can be many factors that cause a newly planted tree to struggle, including improper planting. Since you can’t see below the soil surface, it can often be difficult to figure out what the problem is.

Even if your tree was planted with its wire basket, it may not be too late to remove it and save the tree. But don’t wait; the longer your tree struggles, the harder it is to fix the problem.

How to plant a tree: 5 typical mistakes when planting trees - when to plant, at what depth and not only

They seem unpretentious and the processes in them are really slower. But that is precisely why it is easy to miss the moment when something went wrong with the tree. And in the end, instead of a mighty green giant, get only a dried snag.

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Outdoor Lighting Perspectives of Columbus

Where are these hidden areas of vulnerability and how can you tell if a tree needs your help? As in the case of a flower garden, all factors that affect the viability and health of a tree can be divided into several groups.

Architectural Plants Ltd

1. Poor planting material
The quality of the seedlings directly affects whether your tree will take root and whether it will grow. Therefore, it is best to purchase seedlings in nurseries that specialize in growing trees. As a rule, such nurseries can offer planting material of different ages and sizes, independently carry out vaccinations, transplantation and preparation for it.

Nurseries are also preferable because the seedlings grown here will be zoned and will survive transplantation, the next and subsequent winters with a greater guarantee. Also, buying in a nursery gives you great confidence that you are purchasing exactly the declared species and variety. When buying "by hand" at garden fairs or from unverified online sellers, there is a high chance of acquiring an "unknown little animal."

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urbanscapesdetroit

The root system is damaged. The condition of the tree's roots is decisive for survival. Depending on how the seedlings are sold, the root system may be open or closed.

  • The open root system allows you to assess the condition of the plant's roots when buying. The problem is that such plants need to be planted as soon as possible after they have been dug up. From prolonged contact with air, the root system dries up and most often dies. Drying roots turn dark yellow or brown, while healthy roots should be white or slightly yellowish. However, it can be difficult to identify the initial stages of root damage when exposed to air. Therefore, it makes sense to buy seedlings with an open root system only in a nursery and only if you are sure that the plant was dug out a few hours ago.

Patricia Grolier.

Fact: To protect the open root system, it is often dipped into a clay "talker" - clay diluted with water to the state of liquid sour cream with or without manure. And sometimes it is even advised to plant trees with roots covered with this mixture. However, it must be understood that the clay, protecting the roots from the evaporation of moisture, at the same time prevents its absorption. In addition, "cemented" roots are easily damaged mechanically. Therefore, this method should be used only if seedlings with an open root system need to be transported over a long distance or stored for a long time. And before planting a tree, the roots must be immersed in water for at least an hour so that the clay is washed off and they are saturated with moisture. You can add a root stimulant to the water.

Classic Nursery photos

  • The closed root system is more suitable for transporting and storing plants. Therefore, nurseries most often sell seedlings with a clod of earth or in a container. In the first case, the plant is carefully dug up along with the soil in which it grew, and the roots that go beyond the coma are cut off. This is not scary: if the size of the coma is sufficient, after transplantation, small suction roots will quickly grow.

GARDENMARINE

Buying seedlings in a container allows maximum protection of the root system during transportation and transplanting. In this case, the plant is immediately grown in its own container, its root system develops evenly and tightly wraps around the earthen clod. Growing containers are not necessarily hard plastic, often seedlings are grown in special textile bags: they allow you to place even large-sized plants.

Fact: Unscrupulous sellers sometimes disguise dug up seedlings by placing them in pots. It is not difficult to determine this - in such cases, sprinkled earth is usually noticeable.

Natalie DeNormandie

Seedlings too "adult" . Transplantation is most easily tolerated by young one-three year old plants. The older they are, the more carefully you need to prepare them for transplantation. By the way, the marking of a seedling usually does not include the number of years, but the girth of the trunk at a height of one meter. This allows you to more accurately assess the condition of the plant.

Important: Many trees, such as spruces and oaks, are very difficult to transplant in adulthood. Therefore, they especially need proper preparation for digging.

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Seedlings are unhealthy. When buying a plant, do not forget to inspect its above-ground parts. Pay attention to how the seedling is formed - by grafting or cuttings. Complex ornamental forms of trees are usually grafted. In this case, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of the rootstock - the basis on which the plant is grafted: it is on it that the resistance of the plant to adverse conditions depends. The grafting site should be well fused, the bark - without damage, the branches are elastic and cool to the touch.

Fact: Requirements for the quality of seedlings of fruit crops are determined by GOST 53135-2008 "Planting material for fruit, berry, subtropical, nut-bearing, citrus crops and tea".

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For the vaccine, become: why and how are the trees

Noelle Johnson Landscape Consulting

2. Incorrect preparation for planting

The fax damaged
. The biggest risk of damage to the root system occurs during digging (if the plant is from open ground), transportation and storage of seedlings. Roots should remain hydrated whether they are open or in an earthen clod/container. If after buying a tree it is not possible to plant it immediately, you need to carefully monitor the soil moisture. Especially if you have to postpone planting until spring. If you need to store a seedling for a long time, it is better to place it in an unheated, but frost-free basement or dig it in the garden.

Important: Seedlings with an open root system are not suitable for long-term storage.

Earth ball from a pot in which a plant with a closed root system was grown, before planting, it is advisable to slightly loosen the outside in order to free and lift the pressed roots.

Noelle Johnson Landscape Consulting

The planting hole is not suitable for the plant. It may be too small or have the wrong primer. Experienced gardeners, when it's time to plant trees, dig a hole in advance so that the earth has time to settle, and the organic fertilizers laid down can be overturned and form a nutrient substrate. If you dig a hole just before planting and put manure, lime or inorganic fertilizer there, be sure to fill it with earth from above. Make sure that the roots of the seedling do not touch the top dressing - otherwise they will get burned.

The planting hole should be 1.5 to 2 times the size of the root ball. When digging, the upper, usually the most fertile layer of soil is best set aside separately, and then poured directly under the roots.

Advice: If the soil in which the seedling is grown is significantly different from the soil on the plot, plant a mixed soil of intermediate composition around the root ball when planting.

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EXOTEK Design

3. Errors in planting technique

Soil too dense / with air pockets. Properly planting a tree on the site is a simple task, but it requires attention. When planting a seedling, it is placed in the center of the dug hole, filled up and evenly compacted around the ground. It is important that, on the one hand, the soil is not compacted too tightly, and on the other hand, there are no air gaps left. Seedlings with an open root system will require special attention.

Tip: Make sure that the trunk of the seedling is vertical when planting, otherwise it will have to be corrected later.

Noelle Johnson Landscape Consulting

Wrong planting depth. When calculating how deep to plant trees, remember that the root neck of the plant must be above the soil level. Do not confuse: the root neck is not the place of grafting, this is the place where the root passes into the trunk. The tissues of the root neck are fundamentally different from other parts of the tree: if you cut the bark, you can see that even the color of the internal tissues in this place changes. However, the bark in this zone does not have a significant difference in color, and when planting a tree, we, of course, will not open it.

The root neck is the place where the most active metabolic processes of the plant take place, sometimes it is even called the "brain" of the tree. This part must be well supplied with oxygen and ventilated. Without any particular problems, only a few plants will survive its deepening - mainly those that easily give root shoots: for example, mountain ash, plum, lilac, currant. The least dangerous is the deepening of the root neck on loose permeable sandy and sandy loamy soils that do not prevent air penetration and support drainage.

Austin Design Group

In the photo: an example of a solution for the case when it is necessary to significantly raise the level of the site with existing trees. The root collar remains on the surface of the soil, although this surface is lower than the rest of the plot

GARDENMARINE

Important: When positioning the root collar, the biggest mistake is not to take into account soil settlement. As a result, a seemingly normally planted tree turns out to be buried in a few days. Therefore, initially it is worth placing a seedling with a slight rise - by 4–9see

For the first year, a newly planted tree should be tied to supports, protecting the tying point with burlap or rubber. An example is in the photo above.

Noelle Johnson Landscape Consulting

Incorrect watering. After planting trees, the soil should be well watered. However, consider the weather conditions: you should not plant plants in the mud.

Wrong seating time in . Suitable times for planting trees are early spring after the soil has thawed, but before the start of the growing season, and late autumn. At the same time, in the northern and northwestern regions, plants planted in autumn may not have time to take root and die in winter. Therefore, when deciding when it is best to plant trees, proceed from the climate of your region. For seedlings planted in late spring or early summer, overdrying is the greatest danger. Remember to water them regularly and protect them from the sun.

brucele

4. Condition mismatch

Climate. Despite the general hardiness of trees, even they will not be able to grow in unsuitable conditions. Therefore, first of all, make sure that you buy a zoned species and variety (suitable for growing in your area). Moreover, it is not so much the frost resistance of the plant that is important, but its compliance with the full range of natural conditions of the region: early snowless winters or high humidity, sudden temperature changes or overly active sun.

Tip: If the temptation to plant an "exotic" in your garden is too great, consider whether you can carefully care for a plant that is not quite suitable for the climate. And be prepared for the fact that it can still die.

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03

High groundwater level causes the death of many trees unadapted to such conditions. Fruit species are especially affected. What to do?

  • Create a drainage system.
  • Drain the soil with other plants (birch, spruce, alder will help).
  • Plant trees on raised beds (pictured).

Tip: When creating artificial mounds, keep in mind that you will limit the spread of the root system to the size of the mound.

Unsuitable soil. Depending on the species, trees need different soil acidity. In the wrong conditions, they can die. So, pear, hawthorn, maple and elm prefer neutral soil with a shift towards alkaline. And chestnut, birch and oak tolerate a more acidic reaction.

Too little light. Most trees prefer well-lit areas - keep this in mind when choosing a planting site. Light is especially important for fruit species and varieties with colored foliage.

KL Designs Residential Landscape Planning LLC

Too crowded. When planted in heaps, trees can compete with each other for food and moisture. Therefore, when planning a garden, do not forget to consider planting distances.

But plants can be crowded for another reason - if there is simply not enough space for the development of the root system. For example, if a tree grows in the middle of asphalt or on rocky soil, next to a foundation or just in a flowerpot. In this case, having reached a certain size, the plant will begin to be oppressed - its root system will not be able to develop further.

Tip: Do not forget that the aboveground and underground parts of plants are closely related, and the proportions of the root system approximately correspond to the projection of the crown and even exceed it. Therefore, in places where there is a risk of tightness, including on raised beds and in containers, it is necessary to plant initially compact forms, the roots of which will have enough provided volume.

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Little Miracles Designs

Terms have changed. Work on the site that does not take into account the root system of trees (in mature trees it extends over long distances) can lead to damage to it. Building a house, re-planning a site (and not only yours, but also adjacent ones) can change drainage conditions and redistribute water horizons so much that trees begin to suffer. The worst thing is that in this case it is very difficult to understand what happened. For example, I came across a situation where, due to the “harmless” laying of paths in an existing array, one of its parts became swamped, and a significant part of the trees died.

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LD Studio

5. Improper care
Careful care of planted trees is especially important in the first year after planting. It includes regular watering, top dressing, protection from frost and sun. For mature trees, these measures are necessary depending on the species and variety.

Active sun in early spring can cause significant damage to conifers, so they need to be shaded. For Canadian spruce, this is a necessary procedure that protects against drying out during active evaporation and the earth that has not yet thawed, for junipers and arborvitae, it is desirable.

Deciduous trees also need sun protection, at least when young. Whitewashing the trunks allows you to level the temperature contrasts of cold air and the sun, which strongly heats the surface.

Exterior Worlds Landscaping & Design

Loosening the soil in the trunk circle increases its permeability and retains moisture. However, for trees with a very shallow root system, such as spruce, it is contraindicated. In this case, mulching will help retain moisture. The layer of mulch in the trunk circle does not need to be brought close to the trunk - leave 3–5 cm.

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Noelle Johnson Landscape Consulting

Tree weakening. In the first year after planting, a young fruit tree has little strength. So that the plant does not spend them on fruiting, flowers are removed (if they appear). Pruning deciduous trees after planting will make it easier for the root system to grow back. The exceptions are birches, maples and other species with intense sap flow. They will suffer from such pruning at a young age. In the future, it is desirable to carry out sanitary and formative pruning regularly - at least once a year. This reduces the risk of diseases, breakage of branches and provides the tree with a beautiful and healthy shape.

Fact: Pruning a plant too hard can cause irreparable damage. The exception is easily restored trees and shrubs, for example, willow, hawthorn, vesicle and others.

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Diseases and Parasites. Care of planted trees includes preventive spraying - an important measure that may one day save your garden. It is much easier to prevent a disease than to treat it later with an unguaranteed result. For the winter in the first year of planting, even completely zoned trees should be insulated by wrapping them with burlap or straw, paying special attention to the grafting site and the root neck - they are damaged most easily.

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Winter protection. In winter, trees suffer not only from frost. Branches often break under the weight of adhering snow, crust and rodents damage the bark. Thin branches of weeping forms that sink low to the ground also suffer from the crust. If possible, these threats should be addressed proactively.

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Animals. Trees can suffer not only from alien rodents, but also from pets: for example, if they arrange a toilet in the roots or regularly dig tunnels. Spruces and other plants with shallow root systems are especially affected.

Noelle Johnson Landscape Consulting

How to tell if something is wrong with a tree
Many problems start out with little or no symptoms. Therefore, carefully monitor the condition of the tree.

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1 . Feel the bark of the plant, especially after wintering. Cover frost cracks and mechanical damage with garden pitch, having previously removed damaged tissues to healthy wood and disinfected. Large cracks and cavities not only pose a threat of infection, but also increase the risk of a windbreak (from which not only the tree itself, but also surrounding buildings, wires, and even people can suffer). With an annular and close to it lesion of the bark, the nutrition of the tree is disturbed. Usually the culprits of such damage are rodents. You can try to save the plant by grafting it below and above the damage: this will create an alternative path for the tree sap. True, such an event is not for beginners.

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2. Look at the tips of the branches. Their drying out is the first sign of a violation of the conductivity of the bark or damage to the root system. If the tips dry en masse, look for the cause of the violation of the tree's vital functions - from mechanical damage to diseases and pests.

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3. Inspect the trunk. Gum disease, to which many stone fruits, such as plums, are prone, is also a sign of problems in the tree. Intensively secreting altered cells and plastic substances, it tries to protect itself from something. In addition to mechanical damage, fungal diseases, oversaturation with moisture, and a violation of plant biochemistry can be the cause. Gum treatment causes further destruction of the tissues of the tree, so the problems found must be eliminated and the damage healed.

KETTAL

Gardening is never rushed. Only careful and sensitive observation of the condition of the trees will allow you to notice the problem in time and give you a chance to save the plant.

YOUR TURN…
What problems do you most often face in the garden? How do you solve them? What stage do you consider the most risky for trees?

EASY TREE TRANSFER | Nauka i Zhizn

I have subscribed to the magazine "Science and Life" for more than 30 years. In response to your request to send interesting materials, I send my article "An easy way to transplant trees."

Science and life // Illustrations

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My own experience served as the basis for writing it. Planting wild trees and shrubs near roads, plots or on the plots themselves is not yet very popular in Russia. In Western Europe and America, large and small cities are buried in greenery, and there are more evergreen trees than deciduous ones. The published literature contains almost no information on the transplantation of wild plants. Over the past 10 years, I have planted more than 500 fruit and wild trees and shrubs, all, with rare exceptions, have begun. Fruit planted on the site. Wild (of which 50% are evergreen, mostly coniferous up to 3 m or more) both on the site (near the house, shed, shed, paths, fences) and on the street (on the outside of the fence or across the road). Of course, without prejudice to the sunlight of vegetable and berry crops.

Our plot is located near Volokolamsk, in the collective garden partnership "Rainbow" of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K. A. Timiryazev. I myself am an engineer, for 38 years I worked in the department of metrology of the Radio Engineering Institute of the Academy of Sciences, for the last 10 years as a chief metrologist. When planting trees, he first consulted with his neighbors - teachers and researchers of the academy. An engineer by profession, I could not help but show interest in the tree as a cybernetic device, knowledge about which, unfortunately, today is mainly limited to empirical experience. My point of view was fully supported by TSCA Associate Professor A. D. Koshansky.

V. Merkulov (Moscow).

It is known that the movement of nutrients - salt solutions - from the soil into the tree occurs due to osmotic pressure (pressure in plant cells, depending on the concentration of salts). Inside the tree, the concentration of salts is higher than in the soil. In accordance with the laws of chemistry, the movement of a liquid solution always occurs in the direction of a solution with a higher concentration, that is, from the roots to the top.

When a tree is transplanted from one place to another, the plant is dug out of the ground, transported and planted in a new place.

Digging inevitably loses some soil and roots. A stressed tree quickly consumes the accumulated nutrients, and the osmotic pressure inside it drops. The situation is aggravated by transportation, especially a long one. If by the time of planting in a new place the concentration of salts in the tree is less than the concentration of salts in the soil, it will not take root and will dry out.

It turns out that for a successful transplant, it is necessary to dig up a tree with a large clod of earth and less loss of roots. Transportation to a new place should be quick and, if possible, keeping the clod and roots moist, which is why it is recommended to place the seedling in a damp cloth, preferably cotton, such as burlap, so that the roots breathe.

When transplanting, it is desirable that the living conditions in the new place do not differ from the previous ones. For planting a tree, a hole is enough, equal in volume to a coma of earth. To preserve the acidity of the soil and create better conditions for osmotic pressure inside the tree, I do not put fertilizer, manure, leaves, grass, sawdust in the pit. Planting fertilizers, in particular chemical ones, can burn the tips of the roots damaged during digging, and leaves, grass, sawdust can destroy the tree with organic acids, because with a lack of oxygen in the pit, it will take years to decompose. For the same reason, it is undesirable to dig a wooden stake near a tree as a support; it is better to use a neutral plastic pole, and even better a metal one.

In the event that the soil at the planting site is less loose, for better breathing for the roots, I make a hole of a larger diameter, and I fill the space between the clod of earth and its edges with earth mixed with sand (approximately 40%). It is also necessary to mix the earth with sand when planting seedlings with bare roots. When transplanting fruit trees, I pour lime at the bottom of the pit and mix it with the ground at the rate of 70-100 g per 1 sq. m.

After planting, the tree first of all needs water in abundance, but without excess: one bucket at the time of planting and on average one bucket every 3 days for 1-1.5 months.

According to my observations, a tree or a shrub is more easily accepted when it is transplanted from a soil rich in nutrition to a soil less rich, with equal qualities. And it is much worse for a seedling when transplanted from soil poor in nutrients to rich.

Such a simple method of replanting trees and shrubs, primarily wild ones, up to 3 m high and more does not require much time and effort. In one hour, you can plant 5-6 or more trees, and at any time of the year, even in winter, but it is better in early spring, immediately after the snow melts. It is possible in the summer - preferably small trees with a large clod of earth. In autumn, plantings, however, take root worse, and so that they do not die, you have to regularly water them until frost. One of the necessary conditions for survival at any time of the year: the clod of earth of a tree should be as large as possible, such that it can be lifted, moved and transported.

In a new place, wild trees and shrubs take root quickly and require almost no care. For better growth, I fertilize them, but not earlier than a year after planting, most often with water-soluble mineral fertilizers (20-30 g per 1 sq.


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