How to pollinate citrus trees


Pollinate Your Citrus Trees for a Bumper Crop

Growing oranges, lemons, limes or other citrus fruits in pots is a popular activity. Planting them in a container means you can grow your own citrus, no matter where you live. They spend most of their time outdoors, in a sunny place, and then when the temperatures dips, you bring them inside to a cool, bright room. You can find details on this in another blog on the site, under ‘Growing Citrus in Pots’. This time we are going to focus on making sure your trees fulfil their promise and give you a nice crop of fruit.

Most citrus trees flower in spring and ripen their fruit in winter. When you bring your potted trees indoors, both of these things will probably happen during that indoor period. There is always a lot of confusion about fruit trees, and how exactly to make sure they carry fruit. Some, like apples, need another variety to pollinate them, but citrus do not. Just one tree will produce a big crop, with no need for a second one of a different variety. That is good news if you grow in pots, as you probably don’t have enough room for a whole orchard! That doesn’t mean, however, that the flowers don’t need pollinating to produce fruit, they do. Pollination is done by insects, especially bees, just like other flowers.

With no bees in your house, your trees may bloom away, and you will even see a tiny fruit develop, but it will soon fall off. In zones 9 and 10, where you can grow these trees outdoors right in the ground, flowering sometimes takes place early in the spring, before there are a lot of insects around. Wherever they are, if your trees are flowering, but you don’t see much fruit, hand pollination will make sure you get a bumper crop.

Pollinating citrus flowers is a simple and fun task – your children will love to take part, and it can also become an opportunity to talk about ‘the birds and the bees’, even with younger children. The only equipment you need is an artist’s paintbrush – a soft one, such as camel hair, not a stiff one. A small makeup brush can be used too – in fact it’s ideal, and you almost certainly have one around the house already.

If you have your trees indoors, it is best to keep them on the dry side, and in a cool but sunny place, during the winter months. If they are cooled gradually they can easily tolerate temperatures around 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and even a degree or two lower. High temperatures are not a good idea, as they will encourage growth, which in winter, with the low light levels, even in sunlight, will produce weak growth and premature flowering. As winter turns into spring, the light levels rise, and the air temperature will rise too. These first warmer days are the signal to your trees to begin growing, and at this time you can do your part by increasing watering, so that the soil stays moister, and beginning feeding with a Citrus Fertilizer.

Growth may begin quite suddenly, and one day you will see some tiny new leaves appearing. At the same time, if your trees are healthy and have been grown well the previous summer, flowering will begin. The first sign of flowering will be small, green, branching structures that start to grow out of the point where a leaf meets a stem. As they grow and expand, you will start to see flower buds too. During all this time, keep the soil in the pots moist, and don’t let your trees become dry, as this may cause flowers to drop. On the other hand, don’t keep them constantly wet – let the top couple of inches of the pot dry, but water when the deeper soil is still damp. One day you will be excited to see the first flower buds beginning to open.

Now for a quick lesson in flower anatomy. Citrus flowers have white petals, sometimes with pink or purple on the outside of them. The flowers sit in a little green cup, with points like a crown. As the flowers open the petals curl back, revealing the inside structures. Look closely and you will see a central yellow knob, surrounded by small stems with yellow or brownish ends to them. That central knob is called the stigma, and it sits on top of a stout little column that connects it to the fruit, which at this stage is called an ovary. Those structures around it are called stamens, and the part on the end is called an anther. This is where the pollen is produced. At first these will be firm, but in a few days they will open up, and yellow grains of pollen will stick to anything you place there – the tip of your finger or that brush.

The goal in pollinating is to transfer that pollen onto the stigma of a different flower. In theory it can be the same one, but it is best to move pollen around the tree, from one flower cluster to another. You will probably get a better fruit-set that way. Once you see some loose pollen on a few flowers, and you also notice that some stigmas are looking wet and shiny, that is the signal to start pollinating. As flowers mature over several days or even a week or two, it is best to visit your tree several times during the flowering period. Look for flowers with pollen, and dip the brush into several anthers, until it is loaded with yellow grains. Now dust some of the damp stigmas. Repeat until you have put pollen on all them all. It doesn’t matter if you pollinate the same flower several times, so every few days during the flowering period, go to it for a few minutes and move around lots of pollen, from anthers to stigmas.

In the next stage the petals will fall, and now you will see a tiny green fruit at the bottom of that column that the stigma sits on. The little crown-shaped cup that the petals sit in remains as well. The little fruit will enlarge quickly at this stage, and the stigma soon shrivels and disappears. If you have had flowers on your trees in the past, and not pollinated them, you will have experienced the disappointment of seeing those tiny green fruits soon drop to the ground. This time, after your pollination efforts, they will not fall, but steadily grow larger and larger, until by fall you have many green fruits on your tree. Then its just a matter of letting them ripen, and you will be enjoying your own, home-grown citrus – that was easy!

Pay special attention to watering when you move the trees outdoors in spring. They will take up more water and can dry out more quickly. Dryness may cause the fruit to drop, so don’t let that happen. As well, keep up your fertilizer program for best results.

How to Pollinate an Indoor Lemon Tree | Home Guides

By Ruth de Jauregui Updated November 20, 2020

An indoor lemon tree (Citrus limon) fills the room with its fresh citrus scent and also provides sour to tart-sweet fruits for the kitchen. While lemon trees are hardy outdoors in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11, in colder climates you'll have to take your tree indoors for the winter. Lemon trees, like other citrus species, are self-fertile — but you can improve your crop by hand-pollinating the flowers using a simple paintbrush.

About Lemon Trees

The true lemon trees include 'Eureka,' 'Lisbon' and 'Variegated Pink Eureka.' While the true lemon trees grow up to 20 feet tall, each of these cultivars have dwarf versions that are suited for growing indoors in containers. The fruits are acidic and sour and often used in beverages and cooking.

The other popular lemon is the lemon-and-orange hybrid 'Improved Meyer' (Citrus × meyeri), which only grows 10 feet tall; when grafted onto dwarfing rootstock, it's easily maintained at 6 to 8 feet tall. The lemons have thin orange-yellow skins and the sweet-tart flesh carries few seeds. The original 'Meyer' lemon was introduced to the U.S. in 1908, according to the Missouri Botanical Garden. Though popular, they were carriers of the Citrus tristeza virus (Closterovirus genus), which is fatal to other citrus species. The virus-free 'Improved Meyer,' which replaced the original trees, was released by the University of California in 1972.

Growing Lemon Trees in Pots

Plant your lemon tree in a 10- to 15-gallon container filled with a potting mix formulated for citrus, or mix your own by combining equal parts potting soil, peat moss and perlite or vermiculite, per the University of Minnesota Extension. Water the tree when the soil is dry to a depth of 1 to 2 inches, and mist the tree daily or add a cool-steam vaporizer nearby to increase the humidity in the air. Fertilize monthly from spring through late summer with a one-half strength liquid fertilizer for citrus or acid-loving plants.

In summer, take the lemon tree outside to enjoy the breeze and sunlight. Place it in a sheltered area, in partial or dappled shade and then move it gradually out into full sun. Master Gardener Steve Albert says to move it indoors when night temperatures drop to the mid-40s F. Place it in a sunny south, southeast or southwest facing window, a warm sunroom or greenhouse. Supplement the light with grow lights or a fluorescent light fixture suspended a few inches above the leaves.

Keep the tree away from heating and air-conditioning vents. Lemon trees prefer night temperatures between 55 and 65 degrees Fahrenheit and daytime temperatures between 65 and 75 degrees. If the air is too cold, too hot or too dry, the tree may drop its flowers and fruits.

Pollinating Lemon Trees

Whether 'Eureka,' 'Lisbon' or 'Improved Meyer,' lemon pollination is the same. While the flowers are self-pollinating, adding an oscillating fan to shake the blossoms or flicking the flowers with your fingers helps increase the pollination rate. You can also use a small, dry paintbrush and swirl it inside of each flower daily so it carries the pollen from one flower to the next.

Patience is necessary when growing lemons indoors. The tree may require three to five years before it flowers. Once the fruits begin developing, it can be six to nine months before you can harvest the ripe fruits. In addition, the tree may drop up to 75 percent of the immature fruits, according to the University of Maryland Extension. Once your lemon tree begins blooming and setting fruit, you may see flowers and fruits, both immature and ripe, on the tree at the same time.

Put on safety gear, including safety goggles and gloves, and trim your lemon tree as needed from fall to early spring to shape it and maintain its small size. Remove any growth below the graft line on the trunk and suckers growing from the roots. If your tree has thorns, you can also prune them without harming the tree. Be sure to sterilize your cutting tools by dipping the blades in rubbing alcohol or a household cleaner like Lysol or Pine-Sol.

References

  • Missouri Botanical Garden: Citrus × Meyeri
  • University of Minnesota Extension: Growing Citrus Indoors
  • Harvest to Table: Lemons for Backyard Gardens
  • University of Maryland Extension: Growing Dwarf Citrus

Tips

  • Use a small paintbrush like the kind used for detailed artist's work as a substitute for a cotton swab to pollinate.
  • A handful of lemon tree varieties, such as Eureka and Lisbon, may produce fruit if the flowers are never pollinated. This is known as parthenocarpy, and it does not happen all the time. Fruit produced without pollination is more likely to fall off the tree earlier, and it will have only three to five seeds inside, according to the University of California Davis Cooperative Extension for Kern County. Hand-pollination ensures fruit production on your indoor lemon tree.

Writer Bio

Ruth de Jauregui is an old-school graphic artist and writer who focuses primarily on garden topics. She writes a weekly garden column and authored 50 Fabulous Tomatoes for Your Garden. She continues to write nonfiction articles on gardening and other topics and is working on a second "50" book about plants that attract hummingbirds.

Peculiarities of fruit formation in citrus fruits

Home / Cultivation

The article was prepared using materials from the brochure "Proceedings of the Introductory Nursery of Subtropical Crops", Issue 4,

"Biology of Citrus Flowering and Fruiting", ed. N.M. Murri
and Z.I. Korotkova, Sukhumi, 1937. The information is abbreviated.

A very significant role in the pollination of citrus fruits, tripoliata and kinkans is played by the maturation of the male and female organs of the flower at different times. In a newly blossomed flower, the stigma is already fully developed and moistened, while the anthers ripen and open only an hour or several hours later, when insects have time to bring pollen on the stigma from the side. It should be thought that by the time the anthers open, the pollen brought in from the side will have time to germinate and outstrip self-fertilization. The maturation and opening of the anthers is accelerated or delayed to a large extent by the temperature conditions during flowering.

On orange and trifoliate in cool, cloudy weather, the opening of the anthers is observed only the next day after the flower opens.
During the heat, the opening occurs sometimes half an hour after the opening of the petals. Some authors describe the opening of the anthers in the bud (protandry). The stigma is ready for pollination already in the bud stage.

However, in hybridization work, for best results, pistils must reach full development, and pollination should be carried out no earlier than a day after castration of buds ready for blooming. The pistil retains the ability to fertilize often up to five or more days, depending on the weather. On hot days, the loss of the ability to fertilize occurs faster, often on the third day after the buds open, a sign of which is the browning and drying of the stigma and yellowing of the ovary.

In cool, cloudy weather, stigmas stay fresh and moist for longer.

Pollen grains are stuck together in the anthers by an oily liquid, as a result of which the pollen does not fall out on its own and is not carried by the wind, but exclusively by insects. To test the possibility of self-pollination, buds were isolated on several types of citrus, most of which form a lot of vital pollen. The test showed that pollen does not fall from the shaking of branches by the wind,
and careful research did not find pollen on the stigmas. The stamens that fell and did not touch the stigmas retained all the pollen in the anthers. It was also not possible to establish the transport of pollen by wind using Vaseline-coated slides placed in and around the crown of flowering trees.

Isolated flowers did not form fruits at all, with the exception of Unshiu and
Novogruzinsky lemon, which gave parthenocarpic seedless fruits. On the same trees, with the exception of Unshiu, artificial self-pollination was carried out inside the flower on the same number of flowers, and as a result, many fruits with seeds were set. Of the castrated flowers of trifoliata, only one set a small seedless fruit, which differed from the fruits of free pollination in deep wrinkles and dense pubescence.

 

In many forms, the styles are much longer than the filaments, as a result of which the stigmas protrude far beyond the circle of anthers. Particularly prominent columns are found in some lemons and pompelmuses, often exceeding twice the length of the stamen filaments. Such a ratio of the length of the columns and stamens plays a protective role in self-pollination, because brings the possibility of self-pollination to a minimum of
.

However, the length of the style is of great importance in cross-pollination, especially in crosses. When choosing a form with a long column as a mother plant, and a form with a small short-column flower as a paternal plant, the percentage of setting is always less or is reduced to zero than when combining the parent forms in the reverse order. It can be assumed that the pollen from the short-column form cannot form a sufficient length of pollen tubes that can reach and fertilize the long-column ovum.

Works on crossing kinkans (short-columnar flowers) with lemons (long-columnar flowers) gave consistently good results, but it was not possible to obtain hybrids from reverse combinations of the same parental forms, although pollination was always carried out with well-tested viable pollen.

The same results were obtained when crossing small-fruited Japanese tangerines (Shiva-mikan) with oranges, lemons and pompelmus, and vice versa. Often on lemons (Novogruzinsky, Luminchiana, etc.), citrons and pompelmuses, one can find the protrusion of the stigmas from the buds far outward long before the flower opens. The reason for this phenomenon has not been elucidated, but such buds are able to set fruits, and the moistening of the pistil appears shortly before the flower opens.

The genus Citrus and closely related genera of the rue family, differing greatly in morphological characters, have the same number of chromosomes, 2n=18. A.E. Longley (1925), who studied a number of representatives of the genus Citrus and other genera close to it, gives a list of rue plants with the same number of chromosomes, which includes the majority of cultivated citrus fruits, the genus Fortunella, Poncirus Trifoliata, Citropsis Whweinfurthii (Engl), Aeglopsis Chevalieri (Sw), Severinia buxifolia and Triphasia trifolia. An exception among kinkans is Fortunella Hindsii, which has a double number of chromosomes 2n=36. However, among other species, polyploid forms can also be found.

The systematic proximity of citruses and their relatives and the same number of chromosomes in most of them determine their mutual fertility and relatively easy interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Kinkan hybrids with lemon, orange and trifoliate were bred at the Introductory Nursery of Subtropical Crops; lemon with trifoliate, orange, tangerine and pomelo; orange with lemon, mandarin, pomelo and trifoliate; tangerines with oranges, pomelo, lemon and trifoliate; pomelo with oranges, tangerines, trifoliate, lemon; trifoliates with orange and pomelo and a number of other interspecific and intergeneric hybrids.

Crossings between some species and forms have produced a very large percentage of hybrids, for example, the offspring from crossing Melarosa with trifoliata consists exclusively of hybrids, and seedlings of Clementine and Duncan grapefruit from pollination by trifoliata pollen are also slightly inferior in the number of hybrids. However, the number of hybrids from crossing many other forms was always small, due to a number of reasons due to the biological characteristics of the original forms.

US H.J. Webber and W.T. Swingle brought out many interspecies and
intergeneric hybrids, including limequats (C. aurantifolia X Fortunella), citranges (C. sinensis X P. trifoliata), citrangedin (citranges X C. mitis), citrangequats, which include trirodas [(C. sinensis X P . trifoliata) X Fortunella] and others. Also, hybrids were obtained from crossing citruses with Microcitrus, Eremocitrus glauca Sw. and representatives of other genera.

In many forms of citrus, incompatibility and sterility can be encountered. As a result of crossing Ponderosa lemon with trifoliata, for a number of years it was not possible to obtain sexual offspring, although in combination with other forms they are quite fertile. Based on research by Nagai and Tanikawa (1926) Kunembo mandarin and Japanese citrus forms Asahikan, Yamabuki and Horaikan are self-incompatible and form fruits with seeds when pollinated by well-developed pollen of other forms. The last three forms are also mutually incompatible in all combinations. When these forms are crossed with each other, only rudimentary seeds can be found in the fruits. Sterility is most pronounced in widely bred cultural forms of citrus fruits that form parthenocarpic fruits, including Unshiu mandarin, its mutant Vase-Unshiu, Washington-Nevel orange, etc. The reasons for the sterility of these forms lie in the hereditary degeneration of the male and female organs of the flower, as a result, there is no pollen and very rarely completely perfect eggs are formed, capable of fertilization and the formation of sexual offspring.

When choosing forms with a defective flower reproductive apparatus as mother plants, the effectiveness of breeding work, even in the case of mass crossings, often reduces to zero. Hybridization is complicated by significantly stimulative apogamy and polyembryony (multiple embryonicity), which is strongly expressed both in most species of the genus Citrus and in many relatives.

According to studies by Strasburger et al., in the nucellus tissue surrounding the embryo sac, after fertilization of the egg, some cells or groups of cells begin to divide faster than neighboring cells, form a mass of tissue and protrude into the embryo sac, where they develop into additional embryos, with difficulty or not at all. distinct from an embryo formed sexually from an ovum. Careful studies by Strasburger showed that the nuclei of cells that give rise to additional embryos have an unreduced number of chromosomes, so there is really apogamy here, and not parthenogenesis. In citrus fruits, the impetus for the development of additional or apogamous embryos is the process of fertilization. Sometimes fertilization may not occur due to the defectiveness of the ovum in many forms, and the stimulus for the formation of seeds in such cases is irritation from the pollen tubes.

Due to the formation of apogamous embryos from the nucellar tissue of the mother plant, the full composition of the mother's chromosomes passes to them, and if development occurs normally, seedlings from such embryos reproduce the type of the mother plant. With rare exceptions, the embryo sac in citrus fruits contains only one egg, therefore, among the embryos contained in the seeds, only one
originates from the germ cell, and the rest are sexual embryos. Embryos in seeds are formed in different forms in different numbers, and in some of them you can find more than ten of them in one seed (C. nobilis var. deliciosa, C. myrtifolia, etc.) According to H.B. Frost (1926) the average number of embryos contained in one seed is y:

 

Quite often the sexual embryo is displaced or suppressed by apogamous embryos, or cannot develop or withstand competition for other reasons, and in such cases all shoots from the seed will be of apogamous origin. This phenomenon is often found in forms with a particularly large number of embryos, and when such forms are chosen as mother plants, the number of true hybrids obtained will always be lower than usual. Often, as a result of numerous crosses, it is possible to single out only one hybrid or none among the many apogamous seedlings. Sometimes, though in rare cases, two hybrid seedlings are obtained from one seed, descending, in all probability, from the same egg, and are thus true twins.

Such twin hybrids were found among the seedlings of Novogruzinsky lemon, Clementine, Duncan grapefruit and Natsudaidai (C. Natsudaidai). H.B. Frost reports that among more than 1000 hybrids, in ten cases two hybrid seedlings were formed from one seed. The maternal forms of these hybrids were: King, Owari Satsuma and Willow-Leaf (willow-leaf mandarin, C. nobilis), Ruby and Valensia (C. sinensis) and Imperial (C. maxima).

Apogamy and polyembryony greatly complicate the selection of sexual offspring among seedlings obtained from crossing morphologically similar forms, as well as from self-pollination. According to morphological, anatomical and physiological features, apogamous embryos are difficult to distinguish from true sexual embryos. They have cotyledons, and the plants formed from them go through all the juvenile stages of development along with the seedlings of sexual origin, so the study of hybrid offspring can be completed only after the seedlings begin to bear fruit.

Sexual offspring from interspecific and intergeneric crosses is of an intermediate nature, and selection according to morphological characteristics (shape and size of leaves and lionfish, color and pubescence of young shoots, smell of leaves, nature of thorns, etc. ) can be made already at the stage of seedlings in sowing year. It is very easy to select trifoliate citrus hybrids if taken as the paternal plant, as it always passes on its complex triple leaves to the offspring.

Among the apogamous offspring of citrus fruits, deviations from the maternal type are not uncommon. So, among the apogamous seedlings, polyploid specimens with an increased number of chromosomes are found. H.B. Frost reports that among the apogamous progeny of the seedless and pollenless Washington Navel navel orange, he found numerous trees, the fruits of which produced a lot of fertile pollen, and the fruits did not have a navel and contained seeds. Among apogamous seedlings of various other forms of citrus, Frost observed variability in the size and thickness of leaves and often met with the phenomenon of heterosis. Deviations are also found in the size and quality of the fruit, the thickness of the skin of the fruit, the timing of ripening, and other characteristics. More often than among seedlings of sexual origin, among apogamous offspring there are albino seedlings, of which the vast majority are not able to form chlorophyll and die in the first stages of development.

Such variability among apogamous offspring is the result of somatic mutations occurring at the earliest stages of embryonic development. The influence of cross-pollination and self-pollination of variability in apogamous offspring is excluded, because apogamous embryos are formed from somatic tissue, and the fertilization process serves only as an impetus for their emergence.

A significant number of forms of all cultivated citrus species have the property of parthenocarpic fruiting, regardless of stimulation by pollination. This property is of great economic importance, because makes it possible to plant arrays of the same varieties, eliminates the need for worries about the organization of pollination and provides high-quality products in the form of seedless fruits.

As already mentioned above, most of the forms that bear fruit parthenocarpically are mostly sterile due to defective flowers. In size and shape, the buds and flowers appear quite normal, but the anthers do not open, and a small amount of pollen can sometimes be found only by carefully crushing the anthers, and the pistils rarely contain perfectly perfect eggs. The development of pollen in buds of such forms normally reaches only the stage of pollen mother cells, then development is delayed and does not reach reduction division. The process of fertilization in such forms does not reach the fusion of generative nuclei, and as a result, apogamous seeds are obtained, among which there are a lot of abortive ones.

Parthenocarpic fruiting has been found in oranges: Washington Navel, Thomson Navel, Parson, Militensis, Joppa and Navelencia; in Unshiu mandarin, Vase-Unshiu, Kunembo and Yatsushiro, Lisbon lemon. The ability to form parthenocarpic fruits is possessed by Valencia, Bloody, Kwantung, Maltese Blood (Bloody Maltese), Eureka lemon and others. Absolutely no parthenocarpic fruits Mediterranean Sweet (Mediterranean orange), Natsudaidai, etc.

According to the degree of sterility and the tendency to parthenocarpic fruit set, cultivated citrus fruits can be divided into the following three groups:

1. Fruits well parthenocarpic. Rarely produces seeds. Sterility is due to the defectiveness of the male and female organs of the flower. This group includes: Unshiu, Vase-Unshiu, Washington Navel, Thomson Navel, Navelensia and others.

2. Intermediate group.
Plants tend to bear parthenocarpic fruits, but easily form seeds, a number of forms produce more fruits when pollinated. Often you can find a lot of normal fertile pollen in the flowers. This group includes Valencia orange, Joppa, Eureka lemon, Genoa, Novogruzinsky and a number of other forms.

3. Does not produce fruit without pollination. The fruits contain many seeds. Pollen is normal and abundant in flowers. These include many forms of Turkish oranges common in Adjara, Natsudaydai, Clementine, Ponderosa, a number of Sheddocks, Mediterranean sweet lemon and the bulk of other forms. The last group also includes trifoliata, as it does not form fruits by parthenocarp.

Fortunella Margarita (Kumquat Nagami), on which there is a mass of seedless fruits, belongs to the second group. The grouping of citrus forms according to the signs of sterility and parthenocarpic fruit setting is conditional, since many forms, even among representatives of the first group, have clones with varying degrees of fertility. Often, the behavior of plants changes significantly from changes in environmental conditions.

There is a table characterizing various forms of citrus by the amount of pollen and its germination. The amount of pollen in flowers was determined by eye and noted by points: 1 - pollen is rare in flowers, 2 - pollen is rare, 3 - average, 4 - a lot, and 5 - very much. Pollen sowing was carried out on drops of a sugar solution, germination on a 15% solution gave the best results. The pollen of each form was germinated in three repetitions, counting after 24 hours the number of grains that produced pollen tubes.

The pollen of the form of Novogruzinsky lemon studied in this experiment is not found in the same amount in all flowers, and its especially small amount was observed at the beginning of flowering. However, the pollen encountered is of normal appearance and color and germinates satisfactorily. At Unshiu, pollen was found in very small quantities, and extracting it from the anthers was so difficult that attempts to determine its quantity and germination had to be abandoned. A survey of 10 Washington Navil trees and 3 Golden Buckeye trees found no normal pollen at all.

There are conflicting opinions on the effectiveness of self-pollination and cross-pollination in citrus fruits. Webber (1930) refers to his observations of the fruiting of citrus arrays, both single and mixed plantings, and states that no difference could be found in yield in both cases. Based on this, he believes that in economic practice, cross-pollination between different forms does not matter. He
indicates the results of his work, according to which the number of seeds produced by
self-fertilized flowers turned out to be as numerous as those obtained as a result of crossing. However, at the same time, he cites Frost's data, according to which, as a result of self-fertilization, compared with cross-fertilization, as a rule, a few and frail sexual offspring are obtained.

Other data are given by Nagai and Tanikawa (1926), who worked for a number of years on the dependence of yield and seedlessness on self-pollination and cross-pollination in citrus fruits at the Orchard Experiment Station in Okitsu, Japan. They set themselves the goal of determining whether the seedless forms (Unshiu, Washington Navel, Mukaku-Unshiu, etc.) will produce seeds or are completely seedless, and what is the degree of their compatibility with other seed-forming forms. The work was carried out by them by eliminating the possibility of natural pollination (flower isolation) and the use of artificial self-pollination and cross-pollination on 35 forms of five citrus species for 9years. While studying pollen fertility in experimental forms, they encountered considerable difficulty in collecting pollen from Unshiu and Vasya-Unshiu. Not finding enough pollen from Washington Navel, Thomson Navel and Navelencia, they were forced to abandon the work of self-pollinating these forms. The pollen of Unshiu gave only 0.6% germination, while in Wase-Unshiu, Washington Navel, Thomson Navel and Navelencia, the authors found no pollen germination at all.
Cross-pollination was carried out by the authors on 31 forms of several citrus species with 62 combinations.

Data on the percentage of fruiting of citrus fruits as a result of self- and cross-pollination:

As the data show, cross-pollination and even self-pollination of
significantly increased fruiting in most of the experimental forms, and the effect of pollination also positively affects the yield of well-bearing forms parthenocarpic. Mediterranean Sweet orange and Natsudaidai grapefruit, as well as Clementine, Sheddock, and a form of Turkish orange, did not produce fruit at all without pollination.

Compared to self-pollination, cross-pollination also significantly increased the number of seeds in the fruit. As a result of self-pollination, for example, an average number of seeds were formed in fruits:
Unshiu - 0.08, Horaikan - 1.11, Natsudaidai - 25.63, and Kunembo, Yamabuki and Asahikan did not give seeds at all. As a result of cross-pollination in the fruits of the same forms, the average number of seeds rose significantly higher: in Unshiu - 4.65, Kunembo - 16.15, Natsudaidai - 32.53, Horaikan - 38.63, Yamabuki -45.53, Asahikan - 48, 69.

The presence or absence of seeds in self-pollinated or cross-pollinated fruits
determines the self- or cross-sterility and fertility of the experimental forms. So, for example, due to the absence of seeds in the fruits of Horaikan, Yamabuki and Asahikan, as a result of self-pollination and their crossing with each other, they were classified as self- and mutually incompatible forms.

Self-pollination and cross-pollination also affect the viability, vigor and variation of generative offspring in different ways. It is known that as a result of incest, the quantity and quality of seeds is reduced in most cases. Exceptions are single hybrid forms, in particular the Ponderosa lemon, which, as a result of self-pollination, produces numerous and fast-growing, but highly variable offspring. In Ponderosa, polyembryony is weakly expressed, therefore, most seedlings from self-pollination arise in a generative way. In most forms, from crossing, the quantity and quality of seeds is higher, and in most cases the first and more quickly
developing seedlings give sexual embryos.

Thus, not all citruses should be pollinated. But if you really want an ovary, cross-pollination is desirable, although this will not work on such plants as Novogruzinsky lemon, Unshiu mandarin and Vasya-Unshiu, and other popular forms. Moreover, it is precisely those mentioned that give more ovaries on flowers that they did not touch, in other words, they isolated, than on those that tried to pollinate with their pollen or even someone else's.

 

How to grow ornamental mandarin at home. Rules for growing a tangerine tree Do I need to pollinate a tangerine at home

Homemade orange and tangerine tree looks beautiful and spectacular. During its flowering, white fragrant buds are formed. And after a while delicious fruits are formed. If grown in a bonsai style, you can get a real work of art. The article will tell you how the plant looks like, what varieties are suitable for an apartment, how to properly organize care at home.

Orange and mandarin house is a flowering evergreen plant. Belongs to the genus Citrus, the rue family (calamondin). The height is 4-5 meters. The yield varies from 5000 to 7000 fruits per tree. The crown is round and spreading, with a diameter of about 3.5 meters. The bark is light grey. Young shoots are dark green. The leaves are leathery and small in size. They are egg-shaped, pointed at the end. Photos of the tangerine tree can be seen in the specialized literature.

Growing mandarin at home

It is easy to grow mandarin, kiwi, pomegranate, persimmon at home. When planted with a stone, the tree begins to bloom and bear fruit after 7-8 years. But such a state can be achieved much faster if, at the age of 4, grafting is performed from a fruit-bearing tree. If you do not want to mess with planting and propagation, it is better to buy a plant in a specialized store or order it online. Usually fruits are formed without artificial pollination.

To get a good harvest, the plant must be properly looked after and fertilized.

From the stone, seeds

Planting a stone is the easiest way to get a tangerine tree at home. But this process is lengthy. In addition, not all varieties form seeds. For planting, you should buy high-quality material that has been properly stored, not exposed to direct sunlight and not frozen. Seeds need to be washed and dried. Then they are wrapped in a damp cotton cloth. When the bones increase in size and sprouts begin to hatch, they are planted in a pot with a fertile substrate. As the plant grows, it is transplanted into a larger container. It is better to sow several seeds at once, because the percentage of their germination is average. It is important to consider that fruits grown from the stone are inedible. Therefore, in order to improve the taste, they are vaccinated. You can watch the video for more details on the process.

Grafting of mandarin seedling

Grafting a tangerine seedling results in a bountiful harvest. The procedure is carried out in the period from April to May or in the month of August. It is important to take the best rootstock and cuttings from a fruiting healthy tree. Use biennial or annual branches of grapefruit. Thorns and leaves are cut from the cutting. A plant with a well-developed bark is suitable for a rootstock. The barrel is first wiped from dust and dirt. Then a small T-shaped incision is made on the bark. The bark is removed with a knife and the cutting is inserted into the hole. This area is smeared with garden pitch, wrapped with a cloth, leaving only a kidney on the surface. A grafted homemade tangerine is covered with a plastic bottle or plastic bag to create a greenhouse effect. After three weeks, the branch should take root.

Mandarin cuttings

A cutting is often used to grow an ornamental tree. A small branch with a leaf can be purchased from a specialist shop or cut from an existing tree. The stalk is planted in a fertile, loose substrate. Then it is plentifully watered and covered with a plastic bottle. After 60 days, the branch will take root, leaves will begin to appear. It is allowed to remove the shelter only when the plant is fully strengthened. Further care consists in timely irrigation, annual transplantation and top dressing.

Crossing mandarin with other citrus fruits

At home, it is easy to get hybrid forms of mandarin. To do this, they cross with other citrus plants. For example, with lemon, orange, grapefruit. When a mandarin is crossed with a North African orange, a clementine is obtained. The tree produces medium-sized or small, orange-red, flattened fruits. To cross, you need to pollinate the flowers of one plant with the pollen of another. The seeds obtained from the fruit are planted in a box with a fertile substrate. To grow such a hybrid, a vaccination is needed. Without this procedure, a good harvest cannot be achieved. If you provide clementine with the necessary conditions of detention, after a few years the tree will begin to bear fruit.

Wood care features

When keeping mandarin indoors, it is important to observe the light and temperature conditions.

In order for the young plant to get stronger, the first three years after planting, all ovaries and flowers are removed. Only in the fourth year the tree is allowed to bear fruit. But since at this age the branches are still weak and thin, it is impossible for more than 6 fruits to form. Every year the plant will be able to produce more and more fruits. It is desirable to tie shoots during fruiting. If care is organized correctly, about 60 tangerines can be collected from one adult tree.

Temperature and lighting

Mandarin is a light and thermophilic plant. Therefore, it should be placed on the east, south or west window. In this case, it is necessary to build shading from the midday sun. In winter, additional lighting is installed. In summer, the tree is taken out to the veranda or balcony. But the plant should be accustomed to fresh air gradually. The optimum temperature is +25 degrees in summer and +17 degrees in winter. In order for the aged mandarin to bear fruit abundantly, experts recommend cold wintering: keep the pot in a room where the temperature does not exceed +12 degrees.

Watering a tangerine tree

In spring and autumn, irrigate once a day with settled warm water. The irrigation regime must be adjusted so as to prevent waterlogging and drying of the soil so that the mandarin does not shed its leaves. Excess moisture causes rotting of the roots, and its deficiency leads to leaf fall. The tangerine tree prefers high humidity, so regular spraying will be useful. It is important to ensure that during spraying and watering water does not fall on the flowers. Experts advise putting a pot of wood on a pallet with wet expanded clay, pebbles or moss.

Soil requirements and necessary fertilizers

Slightly acidic soil should be used for growing domestic tangerines. You can buy ready-made soil for citrus fruits in the store or prepare the substrate yourself from soddy and leafy soil, clay, humus and coarse sand. Fertilize begins in June, when the plant enters a phase of active growth. Nutrients are added twice a month. Feed after the irrigation procedure, so as not to burn the root system. As fertilizers, it is better to use an infusion of cow dung, yeast. Special formulations for citrus fruits are also suitable. In winter, top dressing is not carried out.

Tangerine tree transplant

Repotting is done as the tree grows. For a young plant, this procedure is carried out once a year. Tangerines older than 7 years are transplanted every two years. Use the transfer method. The new pot should be 6 centimeters larger than the previous one. You can not immediately plant in a large container. This is fraught with root rot. Do not repot during flowering. The best time for such an event is the beginning of spring. Feeding should be stopped a few days before the planned transplant date.

For the procedure to be successful, you must adhere to the algorithm of actions:

  1. Water the tree liberally.
  2. Remove the plant from the old container.
  3. Place carefully in a new pot.
  4. Sprinkle with earth.
  5. Moisten the soil slightly.

Propagation, pruning, shaping

Mandarin is propagated at home by generative or vegetative means. The first method involves growing from the bone. The essence of the second is the rooting of branches. When choosing cuttings, you should use a special rooting solution. Then the percentage of survival will increase several times. Both methods take a lot of time. Therefore, some flower growers prefer to buy already grafted indoor tangerine in the store.

Usually domestic varieties are undersized. If you form the crown correctly, you can create a bonsai tree that will become a real decoration of the room. To make the plant look neat, you need to control the growth of side shoots and tops. To do this, pruning is carried out lowered down and growing inward branches.

Varieties for home cultivation

For growing tangerines at home, varieties are used that are short and compact. The most popular are Unshiu, tangerines of the Vase group, Shiva-Mikan, Clementine. Unshiu is a Japanese variety, which is characterized by unpretentiousness, early maturity, good branching. The tree grows up to 1.5 meters. Flowering is plentiful, falls on the spring season. The fruits ripen at the end of November. The tree is resistant to low temperatures.

Kowano-Wase and Miyagawa-Wase are dwarf varieties that range in height from 40 to 80 centimeters. Kovano-Vase grows no more than 50 centimeters. Differs in abundant flowering. The tree bears fruit in the second year of life, gives orange-yellow fruits of a rounded flattened shape. The advantages include frost resistance and high yields. Miyagawa-Wase is the tallest variety in the Wase group. It is characterized by large fruits that have a smooth thin skin and are pitted. Fruits ripen in September and retain their taste for a long time.

Shiva Mikan is a fast growing, compact variety that produces small but very sweet fruits. Shiva-Mikan tangerines ripen in summer. Often grown in apartments and Clementine - a hybrid of orange and tangerine. The tree enters fruiting in the second year of life. One plant produces about 50 orange-red fruits per year. Fruit contains many seeds.

Possible growing problems

If you follow all the rules of care, take into account the characteristics of the variety, there will be no problems when growing a tree. But beginners often make mistakes in keeping a citrus plant for a month. Often flower growers notice that the foliage begins to turn yellow, curl and fall off.

This happens for various reasons:

  • Wood is getting old.
  • Lack of light.
  • Too dry air.
  • Transplant performed incorrectly.
  • There are drafts in the apartment.

When the yellowing starts from the bottom of the crown and spreads upward, there is most likely a nitrogen deficiency. If first the young leaves turn yellow and dry, and then the old ones, this means that the tree is deficient in iron. It happens that the leaves begin to fall off for no apparent reason. In this case, resuscitation and top dressing with potassium nitrate should be carried out. If the cancer is cured and the cause of the yellowing of the foliage is eliminated, the tree will quickly recover.

Mandarin is affected by the following pests:

  1. Spider mite. It is manifested by the appearance of light small dots on the underside of the sheet.
  2. Mealy worm. It looks like a white fluffy coating.
  3. Aphid. These are small insects of a light green color.
  4. Shield. A sticky syrup-like coating forms on the leaves.

Citrus products

Tangerines are considered low-calorie, so they are often used in dietary nutrition. Drinks, juices, classic compotes, lemonade are prepared from this fruit. They make Isabella wine and chacha from it, alcohol and grapes. There are also recipes for compotes and pomace from dandelions, apples and plums with alcohol. There are many recipes that allow you to create a real dietary treat from healthy tangerine.

For example, crusts, candied fruits are tasty. To prepare them, soak the crust in water for a day. Then cut it into thin strips. Boil candied fruits in sugar syrup for an hour. Then they are laid out on a baking sheet and left to dry.

In the East, fresh slices of this fruit are added to sweet soups and vegetable salads. Delicious ice cream is obtained from tangerine, milk, condensed milk, sour cream. Mandarin is peeled and mashed with a blender. Add condensed milk and sour cream. Mix everything and pour the mass into a container with a lid. Put in the freezer for 6 hours. Every 40 minutes you need to take out the container and mix the ice cream. It is recommended to serve dessert with fruit syrup.

Planting one on your windowsill seems like an impossible task for many. We are constantly scared that the citrus family requires unique care that will consume all of our time and finances. Indeed, some of these plants require careful supervision, but this does not particularly concern the tangerine. This fruit is quite unpretentious and hardy enough for our climate. Therefore, after reading our article, choose the best cultivation method for you and feel free to start planting an overseas fruit. And how to choose and grow a tangerine from a stone at home, we will describe below.

Place selection for mandarin

If you still decide to grow a tangerine, the first thing you need to do is choose a place for the tree. Indoor can grow both on the windowsill and on the balcony. To date, many dwarf plants have been bred by breeders, but ordinary mandarin trees can also be given the desired shape.

Place for planting a tree at home, selected in the same way as on . Site should be well lit with little direct sunlight. . With insufficient lighting, the tangerine will slow down its growth and may not bloom at all. Therefore, to grow a tangerine, choose the southern part of the room, but so that at noon the tree can be slightly shaded.


Temperature

For indoor maintenance of mandarin, it is necessary to maintain a certain temperature. In summer, the optimum temperature for tree cultivation should be +20...+25°C . When the plant begins to bloom or buds appear on it, it is advisable to warn them against falling flowers by lowering the temperature no higher than +20 ° C.

In winter, to improve the future flowering of citrus mandarin, it is better to leave without much movement . The temperature in winter can vary from +5 °C to +10 °C. Observing such temperature conditions, you can easily grow a tangerine from a stone at home.

Mandarin is a very important point in his growth. In insufficient light, the tree lags behind in development and there is a high risk of getting a modest bloom. In summer, a young tangerine can be gradually exposed to the open air so that the plant gradually gets used to the environment. But at noon you will have to hide it from direct sunlight.

In winter, when the daylight hours are rather short, the tangerine must be exposed to the lightest place in the room. It happens that a young tree may not have enough lighting. Here a phytolamp will come to the rescue, which is screwed into an ordinary table lamp or chandelier. You need to start to highlight the tangerine gradually , otherwise, with a sharp change in the length of daylight hours, the plant may lose foliage.


Humidity

Mandarin does not tolerate dry air. Therefore, to maintain sufficient humidity, it is recommended to place water containers around the container. With an increase in temperature, the plant needs to be additionally moistened, sometimes several times a day. In winter, it is better to apply spraying, but only as it dries.

Choice of dish or planting container

It is recommended to choose utensils for planting tangerines based on its size . Remember, for the best growth of the tree, it will need to be replanted every year. Do not immediately choose a large pot, as too much space can lead to root rot.

The best containers for tangerines are small wooden boxes or pots made from natural materials. When landing, do not forget about the good. Pebbles, expanded clay, remnants of broken ceramic dishes and even polystyrene are excellent for this role. Mandarin does not like stagnant moisture in the soil, which can also lead to root rot.


Important! Inspect the shoots and trunk and leaves of the tree weekly for bacterial or pest infestation.

Mandarin soil

As in outdoor cultivation, indoor mandarin does not like acidic soils . Therefore, when choosing a ready-made mixture for planting in a store, pay attention to the substrate.

If you do not trust purchased substrates, you can prepare the soil for planting yourself. To do this, take turf and leaf soil, washed river sand and a little. Observe the proportions 1:1:0.5. From these components, a light, well-permeable soil is obtained, which the mandarin loves so much.

Planting, propagating and transplanting mandarin

When growing mandarin citrus at home, there are several ways to propagate it: cuttings, grafting, and the most popular method today - a bone. But how to plant and grow a tangerine from a stone so that the tree bears fruit?


First of all, you need to understand that when using this method, the result should not be expected earlier than after six years. An even more complicated method of propagation is cuttings, since when using it, it is extremely rare to grow a tangerine at home.

At the same time, mandarin grafting is considered one of the proven options. At home, it is grafted onto seedlings of orange or grapefruit. In addition, many flower growers are interested in how much mandarin grows? This citrus tree is very durable and, with proper care, will live for more than thirty years.

Mandarin roots are actively growing every year, which is why the plant needs an annual transplant . After 5-6 years, they are transplanted less often - once every two years. Transplantation must be carried out in the spring, before the active growth of the rhizome, and each time a flowerpot or pot is selected slightly larger than the previous one. The best thing for a mandarin will be a transshipment method of transplantation: try not to destroy the formed earthen clod.

Important! Do not wash the roots of the plant. Only when they become infected, rinsing is allowed.

Vegetative propagation methods

As we mentioned above, the reproduction of mandarin at home, using the usual planting of cuttings, is almost impossible. Therefore, in order to grow a fruitful tree, mandarin cuttings are grafted to any other citrus plant.

To do this, you will need a bush between one and two years old and a cutting of your choice. We take a citrus seedling and make a T-shaped incision at a distance of up to 10 cm above the soil. Then, slightly pressing the tip of the knife, we get a recess into which we insert our cutting.

After that, you need to coat the cut with garden pitch and rewind with PVC film or electrical tape. After grafting tangerines, you need to place them in or simply cover with a plastic bag. You can ventilate once a day, making sure that an eye has not appeared after vaccination.

Usually the stalk is grafted within a month, after which the greenhouse is removed and the tape is loosened. After rooting, the overstretched film can be completely disposed of. By growing mandarins in this way of reproduction, you have every chance of getting sweet and juicy fruits.

Do you know? For better growth of mandarin, spray its leaves daily warm water from a spray bottle.

Seed method

The easiest way to grow a tangerine is to plant a seed, and you already know about it. Therefore, in advance, buy a few fruits that have been properly stored, without freezing and direct sunlight, and select a dozen seeds from them. Then, rinse them thoroughly under running water and place them on a windowsill or other flat surface to dry.

When the seeds are dry, they must be soaked for further germination: take a cotton cloth and wrap the bones in it. For several days, the fabric should be damp, but not floating in water.

After the seeds swell and sprouts begin to sprout, you can transplant them into previously prepared soil. As soon as you plant a mandarin seed and the seedling grows a little, it must be transplanted into a container with a volume of about 4 liters.

Important! Be sure to take several seeds for planting at once, as some of the mandarin seeds usually do not germinate.

Plant Care

If you no longer have questions about how to plant a tangerine, then all that remains is to provide it with the right care and wait for fragrant fruits. For good growth of tree , do not forget about sufficient humidity in summer . Give more light, but shade in the sun, as tangerine leaves burn easily.

Breeding indoor citruses at home is troublesome, but worthwhile. Growing a tangerine tree on the windowsill, you get not only a fragrant and colorful plant, but also tasty, healthy fruits. You are required to properly plant and provide the plant with competent and timely care.

Mandarin looks great as an ornamental plant

Features of citrus

Mandarin belongs to plants of the Root family. Homeland of growth - China. Today, citrus is grown in many tropical countries - Israel, Turkey, Africa, Thailand, Spain.

Evergreen tree reaches 2-4 m in height. The leaves are dense, leathery, with a glossy surface, dark green. The leaf plate is lanceolate in shape with a pointed end.

Citrus blooms in early spring and lasts throughout the growing season. Mandarin flowers are snow-white, small, formed singly or in groups of several.

Stems are smooth, erect, dark green. Crown of medium density, oval or spherical shape.

Fruits with a thick orange skin, taste in no way inferior to commercially grown citrus fruits.

At home, a dwarf species is grown, the maximum height of which is 1-1.3 m.

Indoor varieties

There are several varieties of mandarin tree for home cultivation.

  1. Winshiu. Seedless hybrid form, in the wild reaches 2-3 m in height, in apartment conditions - from 0.8 to 1.3 m. It belongs to frost-resistant crops, is characterized by early ripeness and productivity. Mandarin blooms at home profusely, with small white flowers. Gives the first fruits at the age of 3-4 years.
  2. Kovano-Vase. In this dwarf mandarin, fruiting occurs in the second year of life. A low-growing plant with a compact crown at home reaches 40-70 cm in height, therefore it is grown in a pot on the windowsill. Blooms profusely with white flowers. Cowano-Vase citrus is valued for its long flowering that lasts throughout the year. Indoor mandarin gives juicy, orange fruits that are well preserved on the tree and may not crumble for several months.

Growing Secrets

In order to achieve high decorativeness and high-quality fruiting, the plant should be provided with growth conditions that are as close as possible to natural growing conditions.

Soil selection

Mandarin trees, which are predominantly grown in tropical climates, require a balanced soil composition. In a specialized store, you can purchase ready-made soil mixture for indoor tangerines. You can also prepare it yourself by mixing several components:

  • sod land - 2 parts;
  • leaf ground - 1 part;
  • rotted manure - 1 part;
  • river sand - 1 part.

In such a nutritious and loose soil, the plant takes root well and grows intensively.

Material preparation

To grow a full-fledged tangerine tree at home, you need a ripe fruit pit. The seed is removed from the pulp, washed and wrapped in a damp gauze cloth. Every day, the fabric is irrigated with warm water to prevent the seed from drying out.

First, the seed should swell, then hatch and release a small sprout. This is a sign that the time has come to plant it in the ground.

The best option for planting mandarins is a 3 liter clay pot

Fit Features

An ornamental plant is best planted in a pot made of natural material - ceramics or clay. The container is filled with a nutrient mixture, the recipe for which is described above. Then they make a small depression - 2-3 cm and lower the bone into the hole with the sprout up. After the seed is instilled and plentifully sprayed from a spray bottle.

Care instructions

After planting, mandarin at home needs careful care, especially in the first years of life. Indoor citrus does not require much cost and effort, so even a novice grower can grow it.

Lighting

This is one of the main conditions for caring for mandarin at home. Tropical culture requires good and long daylight throughout the year. Therefore, a tub or flowerpot with a tree is placed on the southern, southwestern or southeastern window sill.

Domestic mandarin does not react well to sudden changes in temperature and does not tolerate drafts. Under such conditions, the plant massively sheds foliage and may die.

With the onset of warm spring days, the plant can be placed on a balcony or loggia, in the summer - put on the street, where there is protection from the scorching sun.

Temperature

Mandarin at home requires a certain temperature regime - from +16 to +18 °C. Then the plant begins to bloom and successfully bear fruit.

In summer, indoor tangerines easily tolerate heat and temperatures up to +40 °C.

In winter, the plant is given the opportunity to rest - it is moved to a room with a temperature not exceeding 14 ° C. Under such conditions, the growth and flowering of citrus is suspended until spring.

Humidity

The basis of tangerine care at home is the optimization of the humidity level - at the level of 65-70%. To ensure high humidity, you should regularly irrigate the tree, place pallets with water or containers with moistened expanded clay next to the pot.

Watering

In winter, for a mandarin indoor plant, settled water at room temperature should be used. Water the tree no more than 1 time in two weeks. In spring and summer, the frequency of watering is increased and moisture is produced as the earthen coma dries out.

Indoor mandarin does not respond well to overflow, so the plant should be watered in small doses. Water flowing into the pan should be poured out to prevent the appearance of mold in the lower layer of the earth and the decay of the roots.

The citrus plant responds well to showers with warm water. Foliage is washed once a month. Before irrigation, the soil is covered with polyethylene. Additionally, the plant is sprayed every day from a spray bottle with warm water.

Top dressing

For mandarin at home, care includes regular fertilization. Citrus needs organic and mineral supplements, which are applied to well-moistened soil. Slurry or ready-made complex fertilizers for citrus fruits are well suited as food.

The tree is fed throughout the growing season no more than once every two weeks. For the winter, plant feeding is stopped, because during this period the dormant phase begins.

To enhance fruiting, the tree can be fed with fish soup. 200 g of fish products are poured with two liters of water, boiled for half an hour. Then cool, filter and water the soil around the trunk circle. Such top dressing is introduced in a complex with the preparation "Mandarin". It is used for plants with a height of at least 1 m.

Unshiu variety at home bears fruit for the 3rd year of life

Transplant

As the decorative mandarin grows at home, it should be regularly transplanted into a new container 2-3 cm larger in diameter than the previous one. Transplantation is carried out by transshipment of an earthen clod with the addition of fresh nutrient soil mixture.

The first transplantation procedure is performed 3-4 years after planting with a frequency of 1 time per year. Adult plants do not bother, they only periodically replace the surface layer with a new nutrient composition.

Trimming and pinching

The pinching procedure stimulates the fruiting and growth of young shoots. Pinching is done in early spring, shortening the apical shoots by a third of the length.

Flowering and fruiting

Growing at home, mandarin in a pot can bloom indefinitely without entering the fruiting phase. To stimulate this process, you should remove some of the flower buds and fruit ovaries, which take strength and energy from the tree. This procedure is carried out on the basis that at least 15 leaves should fall on 1 fruit.

Methods of propagation

There are several ways to get a houseplant:

  • seeds;
  • cuttings;
  • layering;
  • by vaccination.

Seed cultivation is used in the absence of own specimens at home. Propagation by layering is suitable for old trees. Cuttings are used only for some varieties of indoor mandarin in order to obtain a varietal fruit-bearing plant. The graft is suitable for those who already have a sprouted mandarin sprout and any other citrus that can be grafted onto.

Grafting a tree

Indoor tangerine can grow and develop for a long time at home without fruiting. To speed up the process of formation of fruit ovaries, gardeners carry out the grafting procedure.

Before grafting, abundant watering of the tree is carried out to accelerate the process of sap flow in the shoots. So the bark will better move away from the trunk. For vaccination, a well-ripened shoot with several vegetative buds is used. All foliage is removed to prevent the process of evaporation of moisture and the drying of the branch. The optimal grafting height on a tree is 7-10 cm from the soil level. The bark in this area should be healthy, smooth, without buds and foliage.

A T-shaped incision is made in this area with a sharp knife. The bark at the incision sites is lifted and a cooked stalk or kidney with a heel is inserted into it so that the kidney remains on the surface. The raised bark on the rootstock is pressed tightly and wrapped with insulating tape. After the kidney takes root, the tape is removed.

You can understand that the grafting of the tangerine tree was successful in three weeks - at the grafting site, the petiole should turn yellow and fall off. If it dried up and remained in place, the grafting procedure should be repeated.

After a successful budding, after about 3-4 weeks, it is necessary to prune the apical shoots on the rootstock, and also remove the insulating tape. The pruning of the shoots is carried out in two stages - first, the branch is shortened 10 cm above the eye, then after its germination - at a distance of the spike up from it.

In the future, after vaccination for mandarin, home care is the same as for adult specimens.

Diseases and pests

Pesticides are not recommended for winter damage. From spider mites, folk infusions and solutions based on garlic, tobacco dust, soap and ash are used.

Water-oil emulsions help well in the fight against scale insects or false scales.

For the prevention of diseases and pests, it is necessary to carry out regular treatments of the crown - with a weakly concentrated solution of potassium permanganate at least once a month.

Growing difficulties

Many flower growers, especially beginners, do not know how to care for tangerines at home, as a result of which it is not always possible to grow a strong, beautiful and fruitful tree.

Conclusion

It is easy to grow indoor tangerine on the windowsill. The main thing is to plant the plant correctly and on time and choose high-quality planting material for growing. Under conditions of competent home care, tangerines will regularly bloom, bear fruit and delight with their beauty.

is one of the most favorite treats on New Year's Eve. The aroma of citrus cheers up, gives the body a lot of useful trace elements and pleases with a pleasant, sweet taste. It is possible to grow a "home" tangerine. Moreover, it's simple. The plant will decorate the interior of the room, freshen the air with delicate floral and citrus notes.

A small citrus tree specially bred for growing in greenhouses, winter gardens and rooms. A beautiful ornamental plant can not only brighten up the decor of the room, but also bear fruit. The process of growing a mandarin is very interesting, and what pride comes after the first taste of a sweet fruit grown on your own! Growing conditions, planting and caring for citrus - all this can be found in useful material for the grower.

Mandarin in the wild originally grew in China. In nature, it reaches a height of 4 to 5 m and grows as a lush tree. Citrus leaves are bright green, juicy and glossy. Interestingly, the plant changes its crown only once every four years. The plant blooms with white inflorescences in May. Mandarin begins to bear fruit at 4-5 years of age. The fruits are rounded, slightly flattened in the center, bright orange or yellow, ripen in October. The peel is easily removed, thin or compacted, depending on the variety and type.

The tangerine tree belongs to the mulberry family and has many species and varieties.

The house plant belongs to the group called "satsumy". It is customary to grow them indoors. This is a frost-resistant tree, reaching a height of no more than 2 m. It begins to bear fruit at 3-4 years of age, the fruits are sweet or moderately sweet, depending on the variety in this group. Many gardeners grow tangerines from seeds they get from store-bought fruits. But such seeds are not able to produce sweet and tasty fruits in the future. Fruits from the store are tangerines from the "tangerine" or "noble" group, which are not grown at home, they need a full-fledged climate and a lot of space.

For growing mandarins indoors, it is advisable to find satsum seed and indoor varieties. So you don't have to bother with grafting tangerine or a noble species planted and grown from a "shop" bone. Having understood the intricacies of citrus, you can decide which tangerine to grow at home.

Whatever type of tangerine the gardener chooses to grow, you must observe the conditions under which the plant will feel comfortable. For successful development, you need to choose a good place and provide the tangerine with lighting, humidity and pick up.

Lighting and air temperature:

  • Citrus fruits like bright areas where there is a lot of diffused sunlight. A twelve-hour daylight is a necessary condition for a mandarin.
  • At home, choose south-facing windows. you can also place the bones on the windowsill, and protect the already grown sprouts from sunburn - put the flowerpot a little further from the window.
  • Keep your distance from radiators in winter. Do not expose the tangerine to dry air and currents emanating from batteries. It is more expedient to choose a place against the wall of the room, not far from the window, but at a sufficient distance from the radiators. Lighting plays an important role in growing a plant, you should not ignore it.
  • The room temperature must not fall below 15° in winter and below 18° in summer. Varieties of the "satsumy", "tangerines" and "noble" groups can withstand temperature drops up to -7 °.

Citrus is very fond of nutritious soils rich in trace elements. Moreover, one mixture is needed for the seeds, and another when transplanting adult plants.

The main condition is good drainage and soil nutrition.

For seeds and their germination, a substrate is prepared from soddy soil, sand, humus and leaf soil. Ratio 2:1:1:1. You can not add peat to the soil, it acidifies the soil. For a tree aged one year or more, a substrate is prepared from turf, humus, sand, clay and leafy soil. Ratio 3:1:1:1:1. If there is no clay available, it's okay. This is not a mandatory component of the substrate. Having properly prepared the soil, you can safely plant seeds or transplant an already matured tree.

It is very important to provide the plant with sufficient air humidity. This condition is quite difficult to implement at home, especially if the heating system is equipped with conventional radiators. Experienced growers put containers of water next to pots with tangerines, and in winter they put wet towels on the batteries. A prerequisite is a regular sprinkling procedure - this will maintain high humidity and prevent the citrus from drying out. As often as possible, you just need to spray water into the air in the room where the tangerine is located.

Mandarin from the stone: planting rules

Mandarin pits are the most common type of plant. It can always be obtained from a purchased fruit or purchased at a garden store. Rarely buy seedlings. The process of growing an exotic fruit from a seed is very interesting. It is always pleasant to realize that the resulting fruit was grown "from scratch" - from the seed.

Bone planting:

  1. Existing seed must first be prepared. To do this, the bones are placed for several days in wet gauze. should swell and peck a little. So they will rise faster, in 3-4 weeks, and not in the prescribed 5-6. Mandarin grows for a long time. So please be patient from the start.
  2. Lay a layer of drainage in a flowerpot or any other container. Expanded clay, broken brick or pebbles can act as it.
  3. The pot is then filled with young plant substrate (see above).
  4. Plant the stone shallowly - to a depth of 1-2 cm.
  5. Cover the container with cling film to create a greenhouse climate.
  6. The seed dish can be placed on the windowsill.

The air temperature must be at least 15°. The soil must be periodically moistened, but not flooded. Remove the condensate from the film so that the young sprouts are not affected by the fungus. Initially, the bones soaked in gauze will sprout in 3-4 weeks.

Plant care is simple and requires minimal effort, mainly watering and fertilizing. Mandarin will not cause trouble if all growing conditions were initially observed and provided.

  • In summer, citrus should be watered and sprinkled frequently. It is impossible to allow overdrying of an earthen coma.
  • Keep the soil evenly moist but not waterlogged.
  • For use only separated, warm water. You can't take it straight from the tap. All the precipitation that is always present in the water will settle in the soil. This adversely affects the health of the plant and the nutritional value of the soil.
  • Sprinkling procedures are also carried out with warm, settled water. In the hot season, the plant is sprayed 1-2 times a day so that after that direct sunlight does not fall on the leaves.
  • In winter, watering and sprinkling are reduced by 2-3 times.
  • Top dressing:
  • In the spring, it is necessary to apply and to the soil. The first feeding is carried out after 5-6 full-fledged leaves have formed on the sprout. It is better to give preference to mineral complexes for citrus fruits. Well-rotted humus is introduced from organics.
  • Feeding is reduced in autumn.
  • In winter, it is better to refrain from them.

It is important to fertilize before - May-June and before fruit ripening - September. Always follow the measure and adhere to the gardener's golden rule: fertilizers with nitrogen compounds are applied in spring, and closer to autumn with phosphorus-potassium compounds.

Every year, in the spring, the young tree should be transplanted into a larger pot.

After 8 years of life, the mandarin is transplanted once every 2-3 years. Method - transshipment of an earthen coma. The fresh substrate is distributed in a circle, in a free space along the diameter of the pot. Young plants should be moved from one flowerpot to another with extreme care, as the mandarin root system is very fragile. Many gardeners make a young tree so that the fruits are sweet and tasty. However, if the variety and group are chosen correctly, this procedure is not needed. Basically, it is provided if the bones were taken from a purchased fruit of an unknown variety and group.

At home, tangerine is more often affected by spider mites, scale insects or mealy worms. Pests are removed with a cotton swab, and the plant is treated with either vegetable solutions or insecticides of chemical origin. Solutions can be prepared from soap shavings as well. As for chemicals, "Fitoverm" or "Aktellika" will help here. Remember that the use of chemistry is justified in case of severe damage to the plant, which rarely happens at home.

Pests attack tangerines more often when the room is hot and there is low humidity.

If incorrect, the leaves of the tree become stained and fall off. Therefore, it is very important to water the citrus in a timely manner, but not to swamp the soil. Otherwise, the mandarin no longer has enemies and diseases.

It is easy to grow indoor mandarin at home if the rules are followed, the tree has enough light and moisture. For 3-4 years of the life of the exotic, the first tasty fruits will appear - the pride of the plant breeder. Good luck growing your tangerine!

More information can be found in the video:

Many flower growers dream of getting indoor tangerine with fragrant flowers and delicious fruits . But for fear of not coping with the care of the plant, they do not dare to take this step.

However, can be successfully grown fruit tree at home and take a good harvest. It is only necessary to strictly observe the rules for keeping the plant.

What do we know about the famous mandarin

Mandarin or in Latin Citrus reticulate is a member of the citrus genus from the rue family.

Motherland evergreen fruit tree is northern India, where mandarin as a cultivated plant began to be grown many centuries before our era.

Later it was cultivated in China and Japan, and at the beginning of the 19th century has been introduced to Spain, Italy, Algeria and other countries in the southern and western Mediterranean.

In ancient China, only rich officials could afford this fruit tree, which is why they were called "tangerines" .

Natural fruit tree grows up to 4 meters in height. Its small, elliptical leathery leaves are dark green in color.

Matte white mandarin flowers are fragrant and self-pollinating . After dropping the petals, ovaries appear on the tree - future fruits, which in six months turn into beloved tangerines, reaching up to 60 mm in diameter.

Mandarin successfully grown even in room conditions. It is valued by flower growers not only for useful fruits, but also as an ornamental plant.

Some types of tree can bloom all year round. Particularly impressive it looks during the fruiting period, when its crown is strewn with bright orange fruits.

Many dwarf varieties have been bred through the efforts of breeders tangerine for growing at home. Here are just a few of them:

  • Citrus unshiu is the best known seedless species growing up to 1.5 meters in height. Begins to bear fruit after 3 or 4 years.
  • Forged Vasya (Citrus Unschiu Marc. cv. Kowano-Vase) - early ripe dwarf mandarin up to 80 cm in height. Flowering continues all year round. Begins to bear fruit in two years. The fruits can stay on the bush for up to several months.
  • Honey (Murcott) - a rare variety in the form of a compact bush with very sweet fruits.
  • Shiva-mikan (Citrus leiocarpa Hort var. Shiva-mikan Tanaca) - dwarf tree with juicy fruits up to 30 g in weight. It grows quickly, blooms profusely and bears fruit well.
  • Clementine (Citrus clementina) - an early ripe hybrid of mandarin and orange. It bears fruit in the second year. One tree per year can produce up to 50 orange fruits of a flattened shape.

Features of caring for indoor tangerine

An important point in the content of tangerine in room conditions is the observance of temperature and light conditions.

Also you should know that the mandarin grown from the stone bears inedible fruits, called "wild" or does not bear fruit at all .

To get a tree with delicious tangerines from such a plant, you need to graft a seedling , grown from the stone, on the handle of a fruit-bearing tree.

Mandarin, unlike other citrus fruits, cannot be propagated by cuttings . However, in flower shops, as a rule, already grafted fruit-bearing trees are sold.

Dwarf tangerines do not need crown formation . It is only necessary to remove dried or strongly elongated branches in time.

Lighting and temperature control

Mandarin loves heat and light. Place plant best on a south, west or east window, but shaded from the midday sun. In winter, the tree will need additional lighting.

In summer, it is advisable to place the plant on a balcony or veranda in places protected from the wind. Indoor mandarin should be accustomed to fresh air gradually .

Optimum temperature for a plant in summer - about 25 ° C, but not higher. It is better not to overheat the tree, otherwise its flowers may wither and crumble.

In the spring when the buds appear recommended temperature is 16 to 18 °C. For abundant fruiting, mandarin needs a cold winter. For the winter, you need to place it in a bright, cool room with a temperature of 10 to 12 ° C.

Watering and air humidity

From spring to autumn , it is necessary to water the mandarin abundantly once a day with warm, settled water. It is important to prevent both drought and waterlogging of the soil.

Excess moisture can cause roots to rot, and lack of moisture can cause leaves to fall off. During wintering, the plant should be watered, waiting for drying top layer of the earth.

Mandarin needs high humidity. Regular spraying is very important for the plant.

When doing this, make sure that water does not get on the flowers. It is useful to put a container with a tree on a pallet with wet moss, pebbles or expanded clay.

Soil composition and replanting

Tree prefers slightly acidic soil. Ready-made citrus soil is suitable, or you can make your own mixture of the following ingredients:

  • 1 part humus;
  • 1 part leaf earth;
  • 3 parts sod land;
  • 1 part coarse sand;
  • some clay.

Young tangerines are transplanted annually in early spring before active growth begins. Pot bottom is a must provide a layer of drainage 3-4 cm thick in the form of broken bricks or expanded clay. Fruiting tangerines are recommended to be transplanted every 2 or 3 years.

Transplantation should be done by transfer method so as not to damage the roots of the plant. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the root neck of the tree is at the same level as in the previous container.

Top dressing

At the beginning of June during the period of rapid growth you can start fertilizing tangerine twice a month. This should be done after watering, so as not to burn the roots.

It is preferable to feed a fruit-bearing tree with cow dung infusion at a ratio of 1:10 or a special fertilizer for citrus fruits. In winter, feeding the plant is not required.

Flowering and fruiting

Plant goes through two phases during the year active growth. The tree enters the first phase in March or April, and the second phase - in August or September. To give the young plant a good chance to get stronger, it is desirable to remove flowers and ovaries for the first three years.

In the fourth year a tree can be allowed bear fruit, but not more than 6 tangerines at a time, partially removing the ovaries, since the branches of the plant at this age are still thin and weak.

Regulate fruiting tangerine is possible with a simple count - for 15 leaves of a tree there should be 1 fruit.

As the tangerine matures, it will be able to produce more and more fragrant fruits. During fruiting, it is advisable to tie branches with ripening tangerines so that they do not break off from the weight of the fruit.

With proper care, up to 60 fruits can be harvested from one adult tree during the year .

Mandarin propagation

Indoor mandarin can be propagated at home in two ways: by seeds and by grafting.

Propagation by seed

Mandarin pits are soaked in a damp cloth or hydrogel for several days. Next, the swollen seeds are planted in the soil, consisting of the components listed above, or in the finished mixture for roses.

It is important that the soil for mandarin seedlings be free of peat , which dries very quickly and often turns sour.

Three weeks after sowing the seeds, the first shoots can be expected. However, young tangerines grown from seeds in room conditions develop only as an ornamental culture. To grow a full-fledged tangerine with real tasty fruits from such a tree, need to vaccinate him .

Reproduction by grafting

Grafting is carried out during the period of active sap flow - in April or early May, but it is also possible in August. It is necessary to take care of the stock and scion in advance.

Rootstock is a young tangerine grown from the stone with a stem thickness equal to the diameter of a pencil - about 6 mm. Scion - a bud (eye) together with a leaf petiole, taken from a fresh cutting of a fruiting mandarin.

At a height of about 7 cm from the ground on the bark of the rootstock trunk, carefully so as not to touch the wood, an incision is made in the shape of the letter "T" . The size of the incision along the upper horizontal - 1 cm, and in height - 2.5 cm.

The bark is carefully folded back to the sides, and the kidney, held by the petiole, is inserted into the resulting opening. The inserted "eye" is tightly pressed against the corners of the bark.

Grafted plant is placed in a "greenhouse" in the form of a large plastic bag. The transplanted kidney usually heals within 3 weeks.

The success of the grafting is evidenced by the easily detached yellowed petiole of the leaf. If the petiole turned black and dried up, then the "eye" did not take root .

Sprouted bud begin to accustom to air , gradually increasing the ventilation time of the "greenhouse". A month after the shoot sprouts from the bud, the rootstock trunk is cut obliquely above the shoot at a height of 5 mm.

The cut is treated with garden pitch and the dressing is removed . A stick is installed in the pot, to which a young shoot is tied for vertical growth and proper crown formation.

Pests

Mandarin pests are spider mites and scale insects.

For pest prevention should be washed with soapy water once a month. To do this, it is necessary to cover the soil in the pot with a film, wrap the trunk with a cloth and treat the tangerine crown with cotton wool moistened with strong soapy foam.

In the case of spider mites, a solution of tobacco powder and laundry soap is used. To make it, you need to pour 1 tbsp of tobacco dust with a glass of boiling water and leave for 6 days, and then add 10 g of soap to the solution.

Also has proven itself garlic infusion - crushed head of garlic is poured with a glass of boiling water and infused for 2 days. Each of the solutions is filtered and applied three times for spraying with an interval of 6 days.

When shielding it is necessary to resort to water-oil emulsions. Very important for the time of processing, cover the ground with a film, and wrap the stem of the plant with gauze, folding it into several layers.

Frequent problems

Very often, when growing mandarin at home, growers face a number of problems : yellowing, curling and dropping of leaves, complete loss of foliage and dropping of flowers.

Why do indoor tangerine leaves turn yellow?

Most often the leaves of the tree turn yellow from lack of nitrogen and iron. To replenish the amount of nitrogen in the soil, it is recommended to feed the mandarin with organic fertilizers.

With iron deficiency, the plant develops chlorosis, which causes its leaves to become light yellow in color. For the prevention of chlorosis once a month the tree is treated with iron chelate.

Leaves sometimes turn yellow in insufficient light or because the pot size is too small. The problem is solved by transplanting the mandarin into a new, more spacious pot or by adjusting the light regime.

Another cause of yellowing leaves may be spider mite attack. The pest control method is described above.

Indoor tangerine - leaves fall

Leaves may fall off the tree due to too dry air. This can happen both in winter during the heating season and in hot summer. You need to spray the plant more often.

Another cause of leaf fall may be that the root collar of the tree is too deep into the ground, or that the tangerine grows in a very large pot. It is necessary to transplant the plant according to all the rules.

Sometimes leaves fall off due to lack of potassium in the soil. In this case, you should feed the plant with potassium nitrate. Also, leaf fall can begin with excessive watering, poor lighting and drafts.

In any case problem solved by establishing proper care.

Indoor tangerine lost all foliage - what to do?

Mandarin can shed all leaves if exhausted and in dire need of a period of rest. A well-deserved rest is necessary for a tree from mid-autumn to the end of February.


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