How to prevent borers in trees
How to treat and Prevent Borer BeetlesFebruary 11, 2020 Denise Piaschyk February 13th, 2020
Here at our 60 acre family farm we take great pride in offering the healthiest and highest quality of trees found in the Metroplex. With that highly regarded reputation comes constant inspections for various pests and issues. To ensure that you keep your trees in the same high quality health as when planted, we are going to share more educational blogs this year to help everyone learn about what pests and issues to look for. Today we are going to be talking all about borers so you can all learn how to prevent, identify, and treat if needed.
In this blog we will specifically be discussing the following important topics:
- What are borers?
- Stages of a borer.
- Learn about the different types of borers.
- How to monitor and inspect your trees for borers.
- How to prevent borers from attacking your trees.
- How to treat your tree if it gets borers.
Borer beetles are part of the Anobiidae (order Coleoptera) family. These adult pests are known for burrowing into trees and laying eggs inside the trees. These adult borers find sites for laying eggs by responding to chemicals and signals from stressed trees. Once the larva hatches then they feed on the inside of the tree and create tunnels. This causes additional stress to an already declining tree and can lead to a quicker death if not treated quickly. The tunnel can cut off portions of the vascular system of the tree and deprive it from sending nutrients up the tree.
Life Cycle of a Borer
Timing of life stages throughout the year will differ depending on the species of borer, your location and environmental conditions, but all borers go through complete metamorphosis with four life stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult.
- Eggs – Laid when adults are mating on or near the host plant. Common egg-laying sites are on or under bark, in leaf litter/detritus on the ground, and in cracks of tree trunks or branches.
- Larvae – Once hatched they bore into the host plant using digestive enzymes and begin feeding. Feeding will increase progressively as they grow.
- Pupae – Some borers pupate in or on the host plant; others drop to the soil and pupate there. No damage is done during this stage.
- Adults – Emerging from the pupae, adults mate and seek out optimal sites for eggs to be laid.
Clearwing and flatheaded borers are the main types that attack woody ornamentals. The groups differ somewhat in their habits and host preferences, which can affect the approach for controlling them with insecticides. The key to controlling these pests are to keep plants healthy and, if necessary, to treat during the Spring and Summer when borers are vulnerable to insecticides.Iberia haldemoni, a longhorned borer beetle. Photographed by Lauren Miller.parelaphidion aspersum, a longhorned borer beetle. Photographed by Lauren Miller.
How to Monitor and Inspect Your Trees for Borers
Borer beetles are most easily identified by the round, oval or D shaped holes that they burrow in the tree trunks. Also keep an eye out for large holes that are leaking sap like the below pictures. You might also see sawdust like material on the ground or in the cracks of the bark.
Some people do misidentify borer holes for woodpecker holes. Just know that woodpeckers also carve a series of holes together, while the borers burrow just one hole in an area. If you have several borer beetles then you could see several holes randomly placed around your tree trunk, but never in a row like the woodpeckers holes.Borer beetles attacking a sick tree.Borer beetles attacking a sick tree.
How to Prevent Borers From Attacking Your Trees
Borers prefer trees in stress or decline, and truly the best way to control these pests is by keeping your trees and shrubs healthy. Planting trees properly and not wounding the trees while planting or mowing around them is also important. But should your tree get borers, then not all is lost and you can try treating it.
How to Treat Your Tree if it Gets Borers
If the borer beetles have already burrowed inside the tree then insecticide sprays will not be effective. Products must be applied during the Spring or Summer while the larvae or eating on the tree so the chemicals are actually ingested. Systemic insecticides (azadirachtin, emamectinbenzoate, imidaclprid) applied with a trunk injection works well along with bark sprays and soil drenches (dinetofuran and imidacloprid). Our favorite product to recommend for flatheaded borers is Bayer Advanced 12 Month Tree & Shrub Protect & Feed. It is a soil drench and the active ingredient is imidacloprid. You will need to treat your trees a couple times, and please make sure to always read and follow label directions for safe use of any pesticides. If you feel overwhelmed with applying these treatments yourself then you can always hire a local arborist to help you.
I really hope that you have found this blog helpful. We will continue sharing about some of the pests in North Texas so all of our customers and followers can feel more prepared and informed for any pest that comes their way.
How to Get Rid of Tree Borers and Prevent Infestation
Also known as tree borers, wood borers feed on and make habitats from trees and other woody plants. They belong to a variety of insect groups, including beetles, wasps, and moths, and are often the larva of these species.
Wood-boring insects fall into two categories — primary and secondary invaders.
Most tree borers act as secondary invaders, meaning they attack weakened, dying, or dead trees.
Primary invaders target healthy plants, which can lead to them weakening, or dying. With a proactive approach to handling wood-boring insect infestation, you can defend your trees from both kinds of pests.
- See How to Prevent Tree Borer Infestations
The types of borer that could infest your trees depend on your region in the United States. Wood-boring insect species also attack different varieties of trees and bushes, so your plants may be more prone to certain borers than others. Some of the most common types of wood borers include:
- Flat-headed wood borers: Also called jewel beetles or metallic wood-boring beetles. This large family of beetles attack stressed or recently transplanted trees.
As adults, these borers have unique metallic colors and a boat-like shape, with larvae having a similar flat appearance.
Because of this body shape, the larvae create oval or flattened holes when they dig into wood. The tunnels that these insects create can girdle tree trunks and branches, putting trees at severe risk.
- Round-headed borers (longhorn beetle): In their adult form, round-headed borers are longhorned beetles that can have antennae longer than their bodies. The larvae of round-headed borers have a round shape that leaves behind a round or oval tunnel. A tree afflicted with a round-headed borer infestation will often have signs of dust-like frass (excrement) or sap on the trunk and branches. Most of the insects in the round-headed borer category act as secondary invaders.
- Weevils: In contrast to borers that create galleries or tunnels in wood, weevil larvae dig hollowed-out cavities or cells underneath bark. Many weevil species target the roots and bases of woody ornamental plants.
- Wood-boring moth caterpillars: Also known as clearwing borers because of their adult form as clearwing moths, wood-boring caterpillars hatch in tree bark after an adult lays eggs there. They immediately burrow into the bark after hatching to feed on the wood. Once the larvae tunnel into the wood, insecticide sprays won't affect them. Clearwing moths can sense the chemicals released by stressed or damaged trees and seek them out as egg-laying sites.
Photo Credit: http://pnwhandbooks.dev.extension.oregonstate.edu/node/269/print
Effects of Borer Damage to Trees
Borer-related tree damage has a few distinct signs, and it can become deadly for already-weakened trees. Since the boring occurs inside of the tree, many infestations go unnoticed until external signs of damage appear. If you notice any symptoms of tree borer infestation, act as soon as possible to prevent further damage.
To assess possible damage, keep an eye out for the following signs:
- Tunnel holes: One of the telltale signs of a tree borer infestation is the holes created from borer tunneling. Depending on the species of borer, these tunnels may have round, semicircular, or oval shapes. Borer holes tend to appear in a random pattern on the bark, contrasting with the neat rows created by a woodpecker.
- Frass: You can tell borer holes apart from woodpecker holes by looking for frass, the excrement that borers create as they feed on wood. Frass looks like sawdust, and you can find it inside the holes or just outside of them.
- Dead limbs or cracked bark: Wood borers tunnel in the cambium, the inner layer of tree bark that transports water and nutrients. As pests erode the cambium, the areas of the tree above the damage receive fewer nutrients. This lack of nutrition can cause the bark to crack or the connected tree limbs to die and fall off.
- Oozing sap (gummosis): A stone fruit tree will have gummosis, sap oozing from its wounds, during a borer infestation. If borers dig into sap-producing parts of the wood, the sap flows out of the tunnel. You may also see frass in the oozing sap.
Tree Borer Treatment and Management
If your tree has a wood borer infestation, you can use one of two methods to kill the tree borers:
- Chemical: Depending on the type of borer infesting your tree, you can use contact insecticide and soil treatment to kill active borers and prevent future infestations. Every state has its own standards on pesticide use, so make sure you can legally use a pesticide before applying it to your trees.
- Mechanical: Outside of using pesticides, your possible management strategies involve removing the larvae from the tree with a tool or getting rid of infested wood. If you have a severe infestation, you may need to clear the entire tree to eliminate the risk of falling branches.
Photo Credit: https://e360.yale.edu/features/small-pests-big-problems-the-global-spread-of-bark-beetles
Preventing Tree Borer Infestations
The best way to handle a wood borer infestation is to stop it before it begins. Consider these methods of preventing tree borers from attacking:
- Proper tree care: Since borers target weakened or stressed trees, you can lower the risk of infestation with correct watering and fertilization techniques. Remember to pay careful attention to newly transplanted trees with a higher risk of stress.
- Choosing the right tree species: When planting new trees, select species that wood borers in your area don't often attack. Research the less susceptible trees in your region and focus on them instead of more vulnerable varieties.
- Preventing and caring for tree injury: External damage from equipment like mowers can leave a tree open to borer infestation. If you accidentally damage a tree, take care of the wound using pruning or wound paint as soon as possible.
Wood Borer Control Solutions from Diamond Mowers
When you can only get rid of tree borers by removing the infected tree, we suggest using one of our
American-made skid-steer or excavator attachments.
We offer a wide range of attachments for clearing trees and brush, mulching, and grinding stumps so you leave no food behind for borers.
To learn more about our products and how to use them for invasive species management , visit a Diamond dealer near you or contact our attachment experts.
Topics: Skid-Steers & Attachments, Application: Forestry, Excavators & Attachments, Invasive Bugs/Insects
Arboplasty: weaving into nature
8 800 500-86-46
“Recently bought a house with a mature garden. The trees have grown, walking is inconvenient. In one place, the branches interfere with the wires. But cutting down is a pity, the varieties are good! Is it possible to fix already existing thick branches?”
Landscape designer Sergey Sidorenko talks about the adjustment of mature trees.
General Arboplasty (or "arbosculpture") - control of tree growth. In a narrower sense - giving living, growing trunks an unusual (necessary for a person) shape. It is to the trunks that the emphasis is on the skeletal part of the tree. Therefore, please do not confuse arboplasty with curly cutting of plants - topiary art. The masters of arboplasty are the Japanese with their centuries-old traditions of growing bonsai.
Arbosculptors work with young, flexible branches, giving the future trunks the most incredible shape. Naturally, the cultivation of such living sculptures takes more than one year.
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It would seem , what does arboplasty have to do with permaculture and natural farming? The most direct! It is possible to change the direction of growth of trunks and skeletal branches not only for purely decorative purposes, but also for quite practical reasons. And even better - to combine beauty and usefulness.
Indications for use
When does it become necessary to change the growth direction of a thick branch (or even a whole tree)? Firstly, when changing the layout of the garden (the branches interfere with the new path or the planned building, but it’s a pity to clean it up). Secondly, when “renovating” a recently purchased site. Thirdly, when the tree is valuable, but planted unsuccessfully - under the wires, blocks the view from the windows, not blocks an unsightly view, etc.
And fourthly, the most typical example is that the crown was simply "lost". With a good growth of a young tree, a couple of years is enough for the "formation" of the crown to become possible only with the help of a hacksaw.
So, form the skeleton of the crown in time. Just in time is when it's summer, the tree is young and the pruner is almost not needed. Two hands or even two fingers are enough! Nothing else is needed to pinch the completely unnecessary and weave the necessary (to turn into fruit twigs)! After a timely summer shaping, spring pruning is reduced to thinning out excess fruit formations.
Another technique for timely crown formation is the pulling (tilting) of young branches to accelerate fruiting and create a low crown.
Let's talk about how to bend really thick branches. When the train left. When it is too late to pinch with nails, pull with twine or cut with secateurs. The good news is that you can bend a branch with a diameter of 10-15 cm!
I draw your attention to optimal terms for "surgical intervention". The best time is spring. From melting snow to bud break. In this case, the saw cuts will close until autumn. After bud break, it is risky to do the operation - the branch can dry out in extreme heat.
What kind of trees does it make sense to "operate on"?
Only healthy, winter-hardy and actively growing. These are mandatory conditions. Freezing, overloaded with crops, too old, with weak growth - they are not suitable. Do not mix cosmetic surgery with resuscitation!
Let's prepare the necessary
In order for the operation to be successful, it is necessary to prepare everything necessary in advance. You will need:
- Sharp hacksaw (preferably with a small tooth - it creates a narrow incision, which is what we need). Closely in the crown - take a narrow garden one, but if access to the places of cuts is normal - a carpenter's is quite suitable. A carpenter's saw (regular) is even more convenient.
- Strong twine or clothesline.
- Strong pegs (or even stakes) to secure the rope.
- Ax or sledgehammer for driving stakes.
- Strong props for fixing the operated branch. At least two.
- Electrical tape , polyethylene film or thick cloth - to protect wounds from sun and wind.
- Brute male power . Two people will be enough - one gently saws, the second gently holds. The mass of branches is not a joke, and the risk of an accidental break is high.
In the photographs illustrating the article - a young and very strong apple tree in my garden, planted by former owners. Perhaps she herself grew out of a fallen seed, since the grafting site is not visible and the growth from the root is no different from the shoots high in the crown.
Very tasty and fragrant fruits ripen on the tree, which were very inconvenient to pick. The initial height of the apple tree was about 6 meters, the crown looked like an inverted broom (or a slightly disheveled pyramidal poplar). The tree grows almost close to the border of the plot, beyond which there is a not very well-groomed neighbor's estate. The high-lying crown of the apple tree did not create any visual isolation from the neighbors.
Places of cuts when bending and the place of cutting off an excess vertical branch (left).
After bending the skeletal branches (giving them an almost horizontal position), the crown of the apple tree turned out to be at a height of 1.5-2 meters, which made current pruning, pinching shoots and picking fruits very convenient. In addition, the tree has become an additional barrier from prying eyes, and from our site in the summer you can hardly see dilapidated buildings and deposits of "necessary things" behind the fence.
The original canopy is shown in yellow, showing the removed branch, cut points and direction of bend.
The tree has become like a tent (or a very wide bowl), in the scattered penumbra under the crown, good conditions have formed for planting evergreen shrubs, which over time will completely cover the unsightly view.
In the process of correcting the crown, only one large vertical branch was removed - there was simply nowhere to bend it without creating excessive thickening. The bent, operated branches laid many flower buds in the first year and gave a normal increase. If I just cut off the vertical branches, I would have to thin out for another two years and form powerful (and brittle) tops growing from the place of the cut. There would be no talk of abundant fruiting for the next year.
The procedure is quite simple.
1. Mark the cuts. The place of the bend should be without large branches, it is better to cut small branches. Pay attention to the sizes. Too frequent cuts (more than 1.5 cm on thin branches, more than 2-2.5 cm on thick branches) can cause the bark and cambium to die between cuts. The depth of cuts on thin branches is 3/4 of the diameter. On thick branches, the depth is determined differently - you need to leave only about 2-3 cm intact. If you saw only half the diameter, a thick branch may crack along the fibers. Dimensions are indicative.
That's how much you need to cut (yellow - marking line).
2. Sawing. It is more convenient to do this together, although you can handle a thin branch alone. The fact is that the branch must be held tightly, otherwise the saw may be clamped or even the branch broken off by an accidental gust of wind.
Too frequent cuts (every 1.5 cm) and swinging of the branch provoked bending cracks. The wound heals for a long time.
3. After several cuts, carefully bend the branch and check whether the required angle of inclination is reached. Be careful. No need to try to bend the branch after closing the cuts!
4. If the branch bends slightly in the wrong direction, you need to step back from the cuts made 5-10 cm (minimum) along the length of the branch and make new ones at the right angle.
5. If necessary, mark more cuts and cut again. And we are holding!
6. When the branch is bent to the desired angle, we put up the props, drive in the stakes and secure the branch firmly with twine in the desired position. Attention - do not pull the branches with twine! The loop must be larger than the diameter of the branch.
Loose loop braces allow the branch to thicken.
7. If you need to bend the branch to a horizontal position (or lower), be sure to point the tip (shoot-leader) of the branch up. A well-placed side branch can take on the role of leader. This will avoid weakening the branch or a constant "struggle" with tops at the bend.
The leader of the branch is pointing upwards, this will keep the good growth of the bent branch.
8. Protect open wounds (cuts) from the sun and wind . Tape, cloth or film. No need to smear. According to my observations, the putty that got into the places of washed down slows down the healing of wounds. Guarding the cuts is not necessary, but rather a way to help the tree a little.
9. Now it's time to cut out the extra branches, including those that have nowhere to bend.
Thick branches can be bent in this way not only down, but also up or to the side. With the help of such a procedure, even the trunk of a young tree can be bent!
Protective harness must be checked during the summer to prevent constriction. It is advisable to remove the harness in cloudy weather.
A slight delay in leaf opening on a bent branch is normal. Until the cambium heals the wounds, the branch receives only half the water rate, and, accordingly, turns on the “saving mode”.
When flowers appear on the branches, it is desirable to remove them all - there is no need to expend energy on flowering and fruiting now. If you know how to distinguish flower buds from growth buds, it is better to break flower buds.
The appearance of top shoots in the place of gashes and below is also normal. During the summer, they must either be removed completely or pinched regularly, turning into fruit twigs.
And the last thing - it is possible to remove supports and stretch marks from the operated branches thicker than 5-7 cm only in the autumn of of the next . Remember, tree wounds do not heal . They hide under young bark and wood. After two seasons, the branch will acquire the necessary strength.
Growth of wood layers on a sawn branch (section).
Over the summer, the cuts closed.
Good luck and prosperity! Sidorenko S.A.
"Natural Agriculture" No. 1(13) 2013
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Calendar for the treatment of beets and carrots from diseases and pests
Root crops such as carrots and beets are quite unpretentious, but they can suffer from diseases and pests not only during the growing season, but also during storage. Processing at different stages of plant development will help protect vegetables from damage.
Breeders have bred varieties and hybrids that are resistant to diseases and pests. Pay attention to this quality when buying seeds, which should be done from trusted manufacturers. Thus, already at the initial stage, you will lay a healthy foundation for the future harvest.
Beets and carrots have a huge variety of varieties and hybrids. So, in the "girl in the dungeon" varieties are resistant to carrot fly and black rot varieties Perfection , Nantes , Olympus , Vitamin , COLLECTION , etc. In beets, can withstand diseases and pests of such varieties as Bravo , Egyptian flat , Bordeaux 237 , Buysholnaya TSHA, Pronto , Cold -resistant one -resistant Signal , etc. .d.
Seed treatment before sowing in the ground
For prevention purposes, carrot and beet seeds should be disinfected before sowing. After all, in 80% of cases of infection, pathogens "hide" in the seeds, and only in 20% - in the soil. Beet seed can be infected with peronosporosis and phomosis, carrots with black rot and other fungal infections.
Start preparing beet seeds for sowing 10-12 days in advance. To do this, soak them for 8-10 hours in water heated to 35-40 ° C, and then place the swollen seeds for 3 hours in a pink solution of potassium permanganate. After disinfection, dry them on a paper towel or cloth.
Prevent lodging of beet sprouts caused by a fungal disease called rhizomatous seedlings by soaking seeds in an aqueous solution of superphosphate (5 g per 1 glass of water), as well as disinfecting the soil before sowing with a hot solution of raspberry-colored potassium permanganate.
Potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) is also used for dressing carrot seeds. They are soaked for 30-40 minutes in a 1% solution of the substance, after which they are washed and dried.
To prevent gray rot in carrots, before sowing, disinfect the soil with a 3% solution of copper sulphate (consumption - 1 liter per 10 sq. m). Warming them in warm water (50-52 ° C) for 15 minutes will help protect the root seeds from black rot. Then dip them in cold water. You can also pickle the seeds with Sporobacterin (10 g per 1 liter of water).
Application of Trichoderma Veride biologics (25-50 g per 10 l of water) or Fitosporin-M (6-10 ml per 10 l of water) into the soil before planting will protect vegetables from many bacterial infections and fungal diseases.
Treatment of carrots and beets for diseases during the growing season
In wet weather, to avoid infection of beets and carrots with fungal diseases, treat their crops with solutions of Trichocin (6 g per 10 l of water), Trichoderma Veride (15 g per 10 l of water) or Fitosporin-M (6-10 ml per 10 l of water). They can be applied to the soil and sprayed on the leaves of plants.
Treatment of leaves with Immunocytofit (1 tab. per 1.5 l of water) helps to increase the immunity of plants. It is used in mid-June, when there are no signs of the disease yet. Spraying is repeated after 40-45 days.
If infection could not be avoided, and signs of brown spotting appeared on the carrots (tops become dirty brown and break, the root crop rots in the ground), treat with Epin Extra (1 ml per 5 liters of water) or Immunocytophyte (1 tab. per 1 .5 liters of water).
A white coating on the tops of carrots indicates a disease of the vegetable with powdery mildew. Although it does not lead to the death of the rhizome, it disfigures it and delays development. Dust diseased plants with ash or powdered sulfur, treat with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. Powdery mildew and beets are affected. Spray the tops with Thiovit Jet fungicide (20-30 g per 10 liters of water).
Both plants are susceptible to cercosporosis. In the middle of summer, the tops are covered with small rusty spots with a light middle. The leaves begin to curl and eventually fall off. Root crops stop growing. Treat the plants with Abiga-Peak fungicide (50 g per 10 l of water), Fitosporin-M (6-10 ml per 10 l of water) or Immunocytophyte (1 tab. per 1.5 l of water).
Both vegetables also suffer from phomosis, which appears as elongated grayish-brown spots with black dots in the center, in which spores are stored. The disease gradually passes to root crops that deteriorate during storage.
It will not be possible to save the plants and collect seeds from them too. Therefore, remove them from the garden, and treat the soil and neighboring plants with Fitosporin-M (6-10 ml per 10 liters of water). To prevent the disease, soak the uterine roots in the same preparation, and during the growing season, spray them with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Alternariosis develops on damaged and weakened plants. It affects both carrots and beets. The disease is most pronounced on old leaves, which are covered with a dark olive or black moldy coating.
At the first signs of infection, treat the plants with a solution of copper sulphate (20 g of the drug and 200 g of soap chips per 10 liters of water) or fungicides Skor (3-3. 5 ml per 10 liters of water), Ordan (25 g per 8 liters of water) or Abiga Peak (50 g per 10 liters of water).
Treatment of carrots and beets from pests during the growing season
Great damage to the future harvest of carrots and beets is caused not only by diseases, but also by pests. Among them are carrot fly, beet flea, slugs, beet miner, carrot psyllid, root-knot nematode, mole cricket, etc. It is better to spray the plants with a solution of black pepper and soap (1 tablespoon of ground spice and 10 g of soap per bucket of water). For processing 1 sq.m, 1 liter of the resulting mixture is enough.
Carrot fly treatment
photo from inaturalist.org
If a carrot fly has settled on a carrot bed, you can forget about a good harvest. The pest feeds on the plant at all periods of its development: from cultivation to storage. The purple shade of the leaves will tell about the "heavy activity" of the insect. Winding passages and transverse cracks appear on root crops.
The carrot fly does not tolerate onion and garlic odors. Planted next to carrots, these crops will discourage the pest from "eating" the root crop.
Spraying plants with onion infusion will scare away insects: 300 g of chopped onion, poured over 2 liters of boiling water, insist for a day. Then strain and dilute with a bucket of water, adding 30 ml of liquid soap to it. Treat carrots and aisles with this solution.
Another folk remedy for carrot fly is a decoction of tomato tops. For two days, insist 4 kg of tops filled with a bucket of boiling water. Then add 50 g of liquid soap to the decoction and spray a bed of carrots.
A mixture of tobacco dust and ash (1:1) has proven itself against the carrot fly: sprinkle it on the soil between rows 2-3 times per season.
And if these folk remedies did not help, use insecticides Inta-Vir (1 tablet per 10 liters of water) or Iskra (1 tablet per 10 liters of water).
Carrot blotch treatment
photo from the site inaturalist. org
Carrot psyllid damages the beds of the root crop of the same name, both adult insects and larvae suck the juice from the petioles of the leaves, thereby inhibiting the plant.
Against psyllids in May or June, apply insecticides such as Alatar (5 ml per 4 liters of water). Usually one treatment is sufficient. You can scare away an insect with infusions of orange peels or tobacco dust.
Parasol moth treatment
photo from hiveminer.com
Like other umbrella moths, carrots are eaten by caterpillars of the umbrella moth, or carrot moth. They are mainly attracted to flowering plant mother liquors. When buds appear on the testicles, the butterfly lays eggs in them. In a week, larvae will hatch from them, which will begin to eat buds and flowers, gnaw through pedicels.
The presence of such a pest on carrots is hard not to notice, because the caterpillars entangle umbrella inflorescences with their cobwebs.
This insect has a natural adversary - a Trichogramma wasp that eats moth eggs. In order to prevent the pest from damaging the carrot queen cells, release wasps into the garden at the end of April or collect the caterpillars by hand later, cutting and destroying the inflorescences inhabited by moth larvae.
You can also get rid of insects with insecticides. Treat plants against umbrella moths during the growing season with solutions of preparations such as Fufanon-Nova (13 ml per 10 l of water), Aktara (8 g per 10 l of water) or Spark (1 tab. per 10 l of water).
Beet leaf miner treatment
photo courtesy of naturespot.org.uk
Peak activity of the sugar beet leaf miner occurs in late May - early June, when it lays its eggs on the underside of root leaves. After 10 days, larvae appear from them, which feed on the pulp of the leaf, making moves in it. Over time, through holes are formed at the site of these passages.
In the middle of May, spray the beets with a solution of Iskra insecticide (1 tab. per 10 liters of water). To repel insects, sprinkle the beds with any ground pepper or mustard. In pest control, also use insecticides with the active ingredient beta-cypermethrin, for example, Kinmiks (2-3 ml per 10 liters of water).
Beet flea treatment
photo from fugleognatur.dk
In spring, the beet flea "feeds" on nettles and sorrel, and in summer it moves to root crops. The insect eats away the pulp on the upper side of the leaf, but does not touch the lower skin. Such holes resemble translucent windows.
To prevent the appearance of this small pest on beet plantings, treat the sorrel growing next to it with ashes. Deep digging of the soil in autumn will prevent the larvae from overwintering under plant debris in its upper layer.
If you find a flea on a beet, sprinkle the seedlings with ashes on wet leaves 3 times with an interval of 5 days. If this does not help, then spray the seedlings with an infusion of tobacco dust and ash, which you need to take 200 g each and leave for two days in a bucket of water.
After sieve, dilute 1:2 with water, add 40 g of laundry soap and treat the tops 2-3 times with a break of 5-8 days.
Root-knot nematode treatment
photo from aaltjesschema.nl
Small root-knot nematodes are dangerous pests for many plants, including root crops. They parasitize on the roots, leading to the formation of growths of various shapes and sizes on them, which are called galls. As a result, plants cannot properly feed and absorb water, wither and often die.
Common pesticides have no effect on them. Before planting, you can spill the soil with boiling water, but some of the pests burrow deeper and remain untouched. You can try anthelmintic drugs, for example, Decaris (1 tab. per 1 liter of water). Spill the diseased plant several times with this solution.
Medvedka is a formidable opponent. She lives mainly underground and gnaws the roots of plants, eats seeds. "Gets" from her and beets with carrots, on the root crops of which traces of the pest are especially noticeable.
There are many preparations and folk remedies for this pest. The most effective of them - Medvetoks (2-3 g per 1 sq.m), Thunder (3 g per 1 sq.m), Grizzly (2 g per 1 sq.m) are introduced into the soil to a depth of 3-5 cm during vegetation.
Folk remedies are not as effective, but they are safe for human and pet health. Medvedka moves can be filled with soapy water (100 g of laundry or tar soap per bucket of water), infusion of onion peel or a solution of kerosene with water (100 ml of fuel per 1 liter of water).
Slugs damage most garden plants. Beets and carrots also suffer from them, especially their seedlings. Slugs are distinguished by excellent appetite and high fertility. If they are not stopped, they can significantly reduce the yield of vegetables.
Collect slugs by hand. After watering the plants, sprinkle the aisles with slaked lime or a mixture of lime and ash. You can prepare a bait for them from beer or milk, and then collect all the "treated".