How to root a fig tree branch


How To Start A Fig Tree From A Cutting - Rooting Figs

Fig propagation from cuttings is an economical way of obtaining new fig trees. As opposed to buying the new plant in the nursery, you can successfully transplant the old one from your or friend’s garden. In this article, I am explaining how to root your fig cuttings in a cheap and straightforward way. Instead of buying the new tree, just propagate your own – includes nearly zero cost.

My baby fig tree started from a cutting

Table of Contents

How To Propagate Fig Trees (Rooting Figs)

Can you start a fig tree from a cutting?

Yes, you can. I started with this fig tree two months ago. Although it was at the beginning of a hot and dry summer, I succeeded to propagate one fig tree out of three cuttings. It is 30 % success, and I consider it a good result.

If I started with propagation in the dormant season (winter) it would be more successful, however, achieving one out of three is also good.

My fig baby tree

How long does it take for fig cuttings to root?

Depending of season, it takes about 2 to 4 weeks for cuttings to root.

Process for How to Start a Fig Tree

Starting a fig tree from cutting is a fairly simple and straightforward process. Here is how to do it in the step – by – step guide, my simple method:

Step 1: Ideally, choose a dormant season (winter) to propagate the tree. However, if you can’t do it in the dormant season, you can also do it at any other time, with a little bit of lower success.

Step 2: Get several cuttings from your favorite fig tree. Choose branches that are young, about 1/2 to 1 cm thick, and take about 10 to 20 cm cutting. In my case, I took three very young branches, each about 0.5 cm thick and about 10 cm long. On top of each of these branches, there was one green bulb from which the leaf was expected to form.

Step 3: Cut the bottom end of the branch to about 45 degrees and place it in the small, about 10 cm wide pot filled with the compost. For this purpose, any compost would do, you don’t need special compost or soil. Instead of rooting hormone, use some of your own salivae. The depth of the hole should be about 5 cm deep. Water the pot thoroughly.

Step 4: Place the pot in the bright location but not to the direct sun and away from the direct wind. I kept my pots in the corner of the patio which was shaded for the most of the day.

Step 5: Check every day if the soil is dry and water as often as you notice the soil becomes very dry. I sprayed my cutting almost every morning but bear in mind, that was summer and soil was drying very fast.

Young leaf on the newly propagated fig tree

After about 4 weeks, the small leaf started to develop and one morning I noticed a young leaf (above photo)

Step 6: As soon as faster growth starts, move your rooted fig cuttings in larger pots.

This is currently the tiny fig tree that I moved today in the large pot. The tree grew from 4 to 8 cm high and the leaf developed and grown three times larger (see above photos), so I decided it is a time to move the tree in the larger pot.

The larger pot is now about 18 cm wide and 25 cm deep. I filled it up with a new compost, added the tree and watered it thoroughly.

Step 7: After the tree becomes stronger, wait for the dormant season (autumn or winter) and transplant the new tree outdoors, in the ground, in the sunny and shield location.

With this particular tree, I will do it in late autumn, as I feel the tree is not ready yet to endure my open field weather. This tree is still a baby, only two months old. While still in the pot, I will keep it on the patio where I can care about it easily.

Note, with this same method, you can also root figs indoors, just make sure you create an environment similar to the outdoors. Keep the fig cuttings warm and in a bright (not direct sun) window, monitor it daily and water it as much as it needs.

Can you root fig tree cuttings in the water?

Yes, you can. It is an easy process with very high success rate. Here are the details:

This is what I am currently doing – I’m rooting fig tree cuttings in the water in the winter. I made the first two episodes of the videos (see them below), the third episode is coming in few weeks when roots develop even further

How to propagate fig cuttings in water in the winter

To root fig tree cuttings in water, ideally, choose a dormant period (winter) to take cuttings off the fig tree. I usually do it at the same time as pruning my trees which is here, in the Mediterranean, in early January.

Process
  1. Select the best looking and healthy fig tree branches and cut them off the tree with clean, sanitized pruning shears.
  2. Cut branch into 2-3 pieces each consisting of at least four buds.
  3. With a sharp knife remove about 2 cm of skin (bark) from the bottom of the cutting
  4. Place the cuttings in the mason’s jar 3/4 filled with clean, ideally rainwater (for this purpose, save some rainwater if you can)
  5. Place jars indoors, near the window, out of direct sunlight
  6. Keep changing the water twice a week as cuttings need a lot of oxygen to develop roots and leaves
  7. Optional: make some homemade rooting hormone and apply it twice a week. Make sure you change the water after few hours. See my article on how to do it properly.
  8. In a few weeks, the tiny roots should emerge – > see below the progress of my cuttings
Video

Here is a video of me preparing cuttings for rooting – have a look:

Update – 3 weeks later:

After three weeks of waiting, the first signs of root emerging are visible. Here are some photos:

Above photo: Roots are starting to emerge on fig cuttings after about 3 weeksAbove photo: Buds are starting to open on fig cuttings after about 3 weeks

Update – 4 weeks later:

Above photo: A large leaf and smaller one are now developed, roots are also developing – fig cuttings after about 4 weeks

Video Update: One Month Later

Stay tuned for updates and for the next video episode on my YouTube channel.

Update – 6 weeks later:

Above photo: A large leaves and a fruits are now developed, roots are also growing – fig cuttings after about 6 weeks

Update – 45 days later:

Above photo: On three of my cuttings the roots are now well developed and they are ready for potting

The first three cuttings are ready for potting 45 days after the beginning of the propagation process.

Video Update: 45 Days Later

Here is potting video:

As you can see, to propagate fig trees is a simple process, economical and cheap, you hardly need to spend any money on it. No need for any root hormones nor fertilizers, just use the cheapest compost available and plastic pots to continue with and to increase your tree production.

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How to Propagate Fig Trees in Water (Easy Tips) – Bountiful Gardener

Figs are a staple in many gardens and for good reason. They can thrive in a variety of growing conditions, and they’re more forgiving than other fruit trees. If you have a fig tree you want to propagate, whether it’s to expand your garden, share with others, or just to use those branches after winter pruning, it’s easy to do via cuttings.

Many vegetables and herbs can be propagated by cuttings in water, including vegetables like tomatoes and peppers, and herbs like mint and thyme. Many trees can also be propagated with cuttings, and fig trees are among the easiest to root in water.

Below are tips on how to go about propagating fig trees, whether they are ornamental or fruit-bearing trees.

On this page:

Can You Root Fig Tree Cuttings in Water?

Fig cuttings can be easily rooted in water. You don’t need any special tools, only sanitized heavy-duty scissors or pruners, a cup, and some water. The whole process can take as little as three weeks, but may take more than a month.

Benefits of Rooting Fig Cuttings in Water vs. Soil

The conventional way of rooting tree cuttings, including fig trees, is in soil. However, while soil allows roots to naturally grow and spread, and there is less risk of your figs getting waterlogged roots, rooting in water has several other advantages which outweigh the cons.

  1. Rooting cuttings in water prevents your cuttings from drying out before rooting.
  2. If using clean water that’s changed every few days, there is a lower risk of your fig cuttings rotting before they can root.
  3. You can see what’s happening to your cuttings in real time, being able to see which ones have successfully rooted, as well as identify which ones are rotting and should be discarded.  
  4. Root rot is not an issue if you transplant into soil after a few healthy, strong roots have formed. Fig roots also seem to be more tolerant of growing in water for an extended period of time before transplanting.
  5. Fig cuttings root very easily in water and have a high success rate, unlike some other fruit trees (i.e. citrus trees). 

The third benefit is especially important, since there’s no guessing game as to whether your cuttings have rooted or not. Cuttings will often start growing leaves before they’ve rooted, so the only way to know for sure if propagating in soil is to see the roots growing out the bottom of a pot or digging around your cuttings to check on root growth. 

How Long Does It Take to Root Fig Cuttings in Water?

Assuming your fig cuttings don’t start rotting before they root, expect to see the first roots within 3 to 4 weeks. If it’s past 4 weeks and your fig cuttings look healthy, are putting out new growth, yet still haven’t rooted, be patient and give them more time.  

Should You Root Fig Cuttings in Summer or Winter?

The best time to take and root fig cuttings is when you prune your fig tree, which is ideally in winter when the tree is dormant. 

That said, you can take fig cuttings in summer, and the pictured rooted cutting in this article was originally cut in late September before starting to root in late October. If taking cuttings in the summer, remove any figlets (baby unripe figs) and leaves, except for any small ones just beginning to grow. Also check for and remove any pests (it helps to give cuttings a quick wash and rinse in cool or lukewarm water).

A rooted fig cutting, showing the nodes on the branch. Note the bottom (right) two nodes were kept under water, and roots are now growing out of both of them. This cutting is definitely ready for transplanting.

How to Take a Cutting from a Fig Tree

Taking cuttings from your fig tree is very easy. Below are tips on how to get through the process if you’ve never pruned a fig tree before:

  1. Sanitize your pruners or heavy-duty scissors with alcohol or soak in a 1:9 bleach-to-water solution for 30 minutes. You can also wash them with warm, soapy water, but sanitizing will greatly reduce your chance of spreading disease to your cuttings or your mother tree.
  2. Select a branch with at least two nodes, and preferably three or more. You can also cut off a longer branch and divide it into smaller cuttings of at least 4-7 inches, each with three or more nodes. A node is a “knot” in a branch where new shoots or roots will grow. Make sure there are one or two nodes lower on the branch (for root growth), and at least one near the top (for leaf growth). 
  3. Important Note: Always remember the direction of your cutting so it’s not pointing upside down while rooting. One tip is to cut the bottom at an angle and keep the top flat, that way you know which part to submerge in water.
  4. It’s recommended to take cuttings when your tree is dormant in winter, but if taking cuttings during the growing season, remove any baby figs (figlets) and leaves. New leaf growth will occur at the nodes.
  5. Wash and rinse your cuttings in cool or lukewarm soapy water. This optional step will help remove any pests on the branch. Some fig growers also give the branches a quick 10- to 30-second dip in 1:9 bleach-to-water solution to also kill off any fungal spores on the surface. If you have a problem with fig cuttings rotting before they root, you can try a brief bleach solution soak.

Pro-Tip: Take several cuttings to help guarantee success. You can also keep multiple cuttings in the same cup while they root.

How Much Water Is Needed to Root a Fig Cutting?

You only need enough water to cover at least one node on a fig cutting. However, keeping two nodes submerged in water and at least one node above the water will ensure you always have at least one node constantly wet. 

Change the water every few days to reduce the chance of your cuttings rotting. 

Light Requirements for Propagating Fig Trees

Indirect light, such as next to a window or on the kitchen counter, is more than sufficient for rooting fig cuttings. Fig trees are shade tolerant, and although they grow best and fruit more in full sun, cuttings require very little light to survive. 

After you’ve rooted and transplanted your fig cuttings, you can place them in partial sun or ideally full sun. Fig trees also thrive under grow lights.

When and How Should You Transplant Rooted Fig Tree Cuttings?

As long as a fig cutting has several healthy, long roots, it’s safe to transplant. Avoid transplanting when there are only one or two roots, or if the roots are still very small. 

The safest way to transplant a cutting while minimizing damage to roots is to backfill around the roots with soil or potting mix. Start by filling up the bottom of your pot, then place your cutting in the pot, holding it up with one hand while pouring soil or potting mix around it until you’ve completely covered the roots.

After transplanting, water thoroughly to reduce transplant shock.

How Long Does It Take for a Fig Cutting to Fruit?

If growing fig trees for production, expect a good crop within 3 to 5 years from rooting your cutting. However, you don’t have to wait that long to get any figs. Fig cuttings can produce figs within 2 years. It just takes a few years more to grow large enough to produce a more substantial harvest.

 

Conclusion

Fig trees are very easy to propagate in water. As long as you use clean pruners, take multiple cuttings, and ensure at least one node is submerged in fresh water (and that the cuttings are not upside down!) you’ll be multiplying your fig harvests within a few short years. And propagated figs make great gifts for friends and family.

reproduction in summer, spring and autumn, how to root a twig, methods of cuttings

Countries with a subtropical climate are considered to be the birthplace of figs. Previously, in Russia it was grown only in hot Krasnodar and the Crimea. Later, varieties were bred that are suitable for cultivation in regions with a temperate climate and, with proper care, can withstand temperatures down to -20ºС.

There are several ways to propagate figs, but cuttings are the most popular. This method allows you to get a large amount of planting material, which quickly takes root and retains maternal characteristics. How to propagate figs by cuttings at home, read on.

Content of Article

  • Is it possible to grow and propagate the figs at home
  • Features and advantages of figures of figs with cuttings
  • Suitable periods of Cherging
    • Small cuttings
    • 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 twigs
    • Planting
      • In pots
      • Outdoors
    • Care after planting
    • Conclusion

    Is it possible to grow and propagate figs at home

    It is possible to grow figs at home. More and more gardeners are cultivating this plant on the windowsill, because the fig tree is undemanding in care, and it is easy for him to create suitable conditions on the windowsill.

    The fig tree is a ficus. It has a beautiful branched crown with large cut leaves. Looks attractive even without flowers and fruits.

    During flowering, the plant is covered with large flowers that look like a tea rose, but have more stamens. It bears beautiful and tasty dark purple fruits.

    In order for the plant to flower and bear fruit at home, it is important to choose the right variety. Be sure to use self-fertile varieties (Solnechny, Sochi, Kadota), since it will be problematic to “force” a tree that requires pollination to set fruit.

    In order for a plant to bear fruit, it must be propagated vegetatively. From the seeds often grows wild, which begins to bear fruit late or does not bloom at all.

    Please note! At home, figs reach a height of up to 1.5 m (depending on the size of the pot). An adult plant produces up to 100 fruits per year.

    Features and benefits of propagating figs from cuttings

    Most gardeners prefer cuttings from figs. The advantages of this breeding method are obvious:

    1. Allows you to get a large amount of planting material. Often use branches obtained by pruning the plant. This is the advantage of the method over propagation by layering.
    2. Cuttings allow the first flowering to be achieved faster than propagation by seeds.
    3. When propagated by the vegetative method, the fig tree retains varietal characteristics.
    4. Fig cuttings root well and quickly. They are easy to work with.

    The right timing

    In order for the cuttings to take root quickly and easily, it is important to choose the right timing for harvesting and planting them. Options:

    1. Spring. It is better to cut green cuttings in the spring, before the buds wake up. It is better to do this in early March. Cutting is also possible at the end of February. Such planting material is ready for rooting immediately after pruning, that is, in the spring.
    2. Autumn. Lignified cuttings are harvested in autumn. Root them only next spring.
    3. Summer. Reproduction of figs is also possible in summer. This time is suitable for two methods of cuttings. However, many gardeners believe that in the summer the branches take root worse and the plant experiences more stress during pruning. In addition, it is important that the sun is not active when cutting. The procedure is carried out in the morning or in the evening.

    Cutting options

    Green and woody planting material is used for growing figs. Working with such cuttings has some differences. This must be taken into account when choosing a method.

    In both cases it is important to choose a suitable mother plant. It should be blooming and fruiting. This is a guarantee that the child trees will also have this ability.

    It is important to inspect the tree for disease and pest infestation. In the presence of any suspicious spots and other symptoms, reproduction is transferred until the plant is completely cured.

    Woody cuttings

    Woody cuttings have hard but elastic bark. If you make an incision on it, you can see a green layer. Branches should not be too old or dry. The absence of damage, signs of damage by diseases and pests is important.

    The branches are cut into lengths from 15 to 25 cm. They must have at least three living buds. The lower cut is made at an angle of 45 °, and the upper cut is perpendicular to the branch.

    Collected branches are placed in storage. If there is a basement, they are buried in boxes with sand. Before use, the sand is disinfected with a hot dark pink solution of potassium permanganate or by calcining in the oven (30-40 minutes at 180°C).

    In the basement, planting material is stored at a temperature of +1…+5ºС. Once every 30 days, the sand is moistened with a small amount of cold water so that the cuttings do not dry out.

    If there is no basement, the planting material is stored in the refrigerator, previously wrapped in a damp cloth.

    In March, the cuttings are cleaned of sand. The lower part is shortened by 1.5-2 cm. On the bark (in the lower part), cuts are made 1.5 cm deep. The depth of such notches should be such that the green epithelium is not damaged.

    Please note! Lignified cuttings take root within 45-60 days.

    Green cuttings

    Green cuttings are cut in spring. They must be absolutely healthy, well developed, without damage. The number of buds on high-quality pruning is not less than 3-4. Branches are cut at an angle of 45º.

    From a cut of green branches, a juice resembling milk is released. Immediately after cutting, the planting material is left for 6-8 hours so that the flow stops.

    Keep the planting material in a cool, dark place for 4-6 hours. Shallow incisions are made on the bark. After that, the stalk is immediately rooted. Billets form a root system in 1.5-2 months.

    Please note! Notches on the bark are made so that the root system is formed faster and is more developed.

    Preparation of cuttings

    Both woody and green cuttings are prepared for planting. This process involves three steps:

    1. Disinfection. The cuttings are soaked for an hour in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate. It is not necessary to lower the entire branch into the liquid, it is enough to pay attention to the cuts.
    2. Stimulation of growth. For this, planting material is soaked in a growth stimulant solution, for example, Kornevin or Heteroauxin. For green branches, the duration of soaking is 30-40 minutes, and for lignified branches - 1.5-2 hours.
    3. Sectioning. To do this, the upper and lower cuts are dipped in ash or tobacco dust.

    Immediately after processing, the planting material is ready for rooting. The described procedures are carried out on the day of landing.

    Ways to root twigs

    There are several ways to root fig cuttings. The options are listed:

    1. Sand. Before rooting a fig from a branch, the sand is disinfected with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, boiling water or in the oven. The substrate is poured into a plastic cup. The cutting is buried in the sand by 3 cm. A bag or a cut bottle is put on the container and the twig. Every day, the greenhouse is dismantled and the planting is ventilated for 15 minutes. As it dries, the sand is moistened with warm water, and the stalk is also moistened. The greenhouse is dismantled only after the branch takes root.
    2. Water. Warm water is poured into a jar or plastic glass to a height of 3 cm. Another option is to put cotton wool soaked in liquid into the glass. Add liquid as it evaporates. To speed up the process of root formation, a growth stimulator is added to the water.
    3. Nutrient primer. To prepare a soil suitable for rooting, mix 2 parts garden soil and humus, 1 part sand and 1 part peat. The soil mixture is calcined in the oven or watered with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. At the bottom of the tank, 3-5 cm of drainage is poured (fine gravel, expanded clay, broken brick, chipped ceramics), the rest of the volume is filled with soil. The cutting is deepened by 3 cm. The soil around it is compacted. A layer of sand is poured on top. A bag or a cut bottle is put on the handle. The greenhouse is ventilated daily for 15 minutes. As it dries, the soil is moistened with warm, settled water.

    When placed in sand or water, the cutting is transplanted into a new container with earth as soon as it takes root. If the branch was immediately planted in the ground, it is transplanted only when the root system fills the entire pot.

    The fact that the branch has taken root is indicated by awakened buds. The plant will begin to throw out leaves or new shoots.

    If it is planned to plant a tree in open ground, the seedling is grown in a greenhouse or at home during the year. By the time of transplanting to a permanent place, the root system should be well formed, and the tree should be strong. In this case, as the pot is filled with roots, the plant is transplanted into a new, larger container.

    Planting

    Planting the grown seedling depends on where the figs will grow. If it is used as a houseplant, it will have to be transplanted several times in pots of different diameters.

    When grown outdoors, one- and two-year-old seedlings are used. By the time they land on a permanent place, they should have a well-formed root system and several branches.

    In pots

    If the cuttings have been placed in water or sand, they are transplanted into a pot as soon as they are rooted. If a nutrient soil mixture was used, transplantation is carried out after the fig root system completely fills the old container.

    Transplant at home is carried out several times as the pot is filled with the root system. Usually, adult figs are grown at home in a 6-8 liter pot.

    How to plant figs in a pot:

    1. A layer of drainage 5 cm thick and some soil are poured onto the bottom of the disinfected container.
    2. Figs are taken out of the pot along with a clod of earth. Clean off the layer with the old drainage.
    3. The plant is moved to a new container. Free space is covered with soil mixture.
    4. Figs are watered with warm settled water.

    Outdoors

    There are two ways to plant fig seedlings outdoors. In the first case, plants are planted in trenches, in the second - in holes. Landing technology is different.

    Proper trenching technique:

    1. Dig a trench up to 1 m deep.0-85º, and the south wall should be at an inclination of no more than 30º. This is necessary so that the soil warms up better.
    2. At the bottom of the trench, dig holes 40-60 cm deep, 1 m apart. The soil taken out of them is mixed with 2 kg of rotted manure, 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulfate, 1 tbsp. ash and 5 kg of sand.
    3. 5 cm of drainage is poured into the bottom of the hole (broken brick or expanded clay can be used, but not concrete). Then part of the soil is covered. A seedling taken out of the pot is placed in the hole along with an earthen clod.
    4. Fill the hole with soil. The soil around the seedling is compacted and watered with plenty of warm water. The trunk circle is covered with a layer of mulch, for example, peat or rotted straw.
    5. The walls of the trench are reinforced with a mixture of clay and crushed bricks.

    Also use planting in holes. In this case, there are other features:

    1. Dig a hole with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth of 80 cm.
    2. Place 5-10 cm of drainage at the bottom of the hole. Spread 15 cm of nutrient soil mixture on top.
    3. Seedling is placed in the hole together with a clod of earth. The pit is covered with soil, which is compacted.
    4. The tree is watered . The soil around it is mulched.

    Care after planting

    In the first year after planting, care for figs in the garden will be minimal:

    1. Watering. In hot, dry weather, the tree is watered daily, spending at least a bucket of water per plant. In cool and humid weather, the amount of watering is reduced to two times a week.
    2. Loosening. After each watering and precipitation, the soil is loosened. In the process of loosening, weeds are removed, which are considered one of the causes of infection of plants with diseases and pests.
    3. Top dressing. They are held every two weeks. Use a solution of chicken manure, manure or ammonium nitrate.
    4. Disease protection. To prevent infection of figs with diseases, in spring and autumn they are sprayed with a solution prepared from 1 bucket of water and 1 tbsp. l. copper sulfate.
    5. Preparing for winter. In autumn, all fallen leaves are removed. The tree is bent to the ground, covered with a film, sprinkled with earth, and then with branches and leaves. If possible, the structure is covered with snow in winter.

    It is not necessary to form a plant in the first year of cultivation.

    Conclusion

    Figs are usually propagated by cuttings. After all, it is this method that allows you to get a large amount of planting material literally from the scraps left during formation. They quickly take root, develop well and retain the varietal characteristics of the mother plant.

    Figs are propagated by cuttings for growing in the garden and at home. The rooting process is simple to perform, even a novice gardener can handle it.

    Propagation of figs by cuttings.


    Watch this video on YouTube

    Fig breeding

    Growing indoor figs

    The fig tree has been used in pot culture since the 16th century. Home-grown figs produce tasty, healthy fruits that are not inferior to garden and wild figs in terms of their valuable properties. The room fig tree is compact in size, unpretentious, grows well on the windowsill and produces a crop 2 times a year.

    Propagation is by seeds or cuttings. It is recommended to purchase several seedlings that are grown and then propagated by cuttings, or use ready-made cuttings. The seed method of propagation of the fig tree is no less popular. However, when propagated by cuttings, the fruiting of the culture occurs faster.

    Low-growing, self-pollinating varieties are used for domestic figs:

    Shuisky

    Adriatic White

    Moisson

    Black pearl

    Seedling Oglobin

    Gift for October

    Dalmatica

    Kadata

    How to grow fruitful figs at home

    In order to grow figs at home using cuttings, fully matured branches of a fruit-bearing fig tree are selected. Rooting is best done in January-February before the plant sheds leaves and begins to grow young shoots. The cuttings are cut 10-16 cm long with 3-4 buds. A sharp knife is used to cut them. Sections are dried in a cool place or in the open air for 7 hours. A few small cuts are made at the bottom of the cutting, this will contribute to better root formation. For rooting, the cuttings are placed in a container with river sand to a depth of 2-4 cm. After that, they are watered and placed under a jar. Prepared cuttings can be placed in a container of water, this will also contribute to rapid rooting.

    When the roots grow, the seedlings are transplanted into pots with prepared soil. The soil should be nutritious, drained, contain leaf humus, turf, peat and river sand. After some time, when the root system of the tree grows and fills the entire pot, indoor figs should be transplanted into a larger container with a volume of 6-8 liters.

    The fig tree needs regular watering, so during the growing season it is necessary to moisten the soil in a timely manner, otherwise the leaves will begin to curl up and fall off.

    Houseplant fig at home

    When propagating by seed, use thoroughly washed and dried fig seeds. Sowing is carried out in early spring. The soil for sowing should be light, contain sand, leafy soil and peat. Seeds are placed in the soil to a depth of 3 cm and watered. The container with seeds is covered with glass or plastic wrap. After the appearance of the first shoots, the shelter is removed for 1-2 hours a day, when most of the shoots appear, it is removed. When the seedlings grow up, they are transplanted into separate containers.

    Houseplant care

    Indoor figs are cared for all year round. In summer, the trunk and leaves of the tree are sprayed with warm, settled water, and abundant watering is carried out. When the soil dries out, the fig tree drops its leaves. In addition, frequent spraying prevents the appearance of spider mites. During the fruiting period, the volume of watering is reduced so that the fruits do not become watery.

    Like all subtropical plants, this crop needs a dormant period. To do this, for the winter, the tree is placed on an insulated loggia, in a winter garden or some other cool place where the air temperature does not exceed + 10-15 °; and does not drop below 0°C. However, figs can also overwinter at home on the windowsill away from heating appliances. Lighting during this period is not required. Winter dormancy lasts from November to January. At this time, the fig tree sheds its leaves. The number of irrigations is reduced. Watering is required in order to prevent the earthen coma from drying out. Water the sleeping plant with cool water to prevent early awakening of the kidneys. When a tree wakes up (buds swell), it is taken out into the light, regular watering is provided, and top dressing is applied.

    Nitrogen is essential for fast crop development and good fruiting, so the first top dressing should consist of this fertilizer. When growing figs at home, fertilizers are applied during each transplant. During the swelling of the kidneys, fertilizing from a solution of manure alternates with fertilizing from phosphorus. Feeding is not required during the dormant period.

    In the spring, when the weather is warm, the container with the plant is placed on the balcony or in the garden.

    Juveniles need to be repotted annually as their root system grows very quickly. Transplantation is carried out in the spring before the leaves bloom. Trees that have reached 7 years old are transplanted every 3 years. The new pot should be a few centimeters larger than the old one. In a container that is too spacious, the root system will develop rapidly, which will negatively affect fruiting. When transplanting, drainage is poured into the bottom of the pot with a layer of about 3 cm. The plant is transplanted so that the root neck remains on the surface. The transplanted tree is placed in a well-lit place.

    An important role in the development and fruiting of culture is the formation of the crown. In addition, if pruning is not carried out during the time, figs in room conditions can reach large sizes. It is better to form a crown before the buds swell. In young individuals, 3-4 developed branches are left, the rest are removed. When the plant reaches a height of 20-30 cm, pinch the top to stimulate the development of lateral branches, which are shortened by 1/3 of their length. The shortening of the upper branches is necessary in order for the lower shoots to become stronger. Pruning is carried out in such a way that the upper buds are directed not to the center of the crown, but to the sides. Proper and regular pruning contributes to the creation of a beautiful crown, consisting of 3-4 vertical branches and many side shoots.

    You can form a crown in the form of a fan. Fan pruning is quite popular among gardeners, as a result of it, the productivity of the tree and its decorative effect increase. The formation of the crown begins with pinching the apical bud. Shoots directed inside the crown and thickening it are removed, horizontal branches, on which most of the crop is formed, are left. With fan pruning, several main branches remain, located horizontally to the plane and parallel to each other. All sections are made over the kidney. After such pruning, the number of new, fruiting shoots increases.

    Subject to all conditions of cultivation and care, the fig tree begins to bear fruit in the second year. For a year, a houseplant fig can bring 1-2 crops. The fruits of the first collection are formed on last year's shoots, the second harvest - on young shoots of the current year. The first fruiting occurs in July, the second in September. The fruit ripening period lasts from two weeks to one month. Ripe fruits become soft and begin to secrete sweet juice from the eyes.

    Indoor fruit-bearing figs with unusual dissected leaves will become not only a crop that brings tasty, healthy fruits, but also a spectacular decoration of a room, terrace or garden plot.

    Diseases and pests of figs in indoor conditions

    Figs at room conditions are very rarely sick, but sometimes they can be exposed to diseases and pests. The most common pest of this crop is the spider mite, which develops during the heating season, when the air in the room is warm and dry. In order to prevent the invasion of the spider mite, daily spraying of plants and the air around them is carried out. Having found a pest on a tree, the lesions are washed off with a strong pressure of cold water, the leaves and the trunk are sprayed with an Actellic solution. A week later, this procedure is repeated. Of the fungal diseases, the fig tree is prone to coral spotting, which appears as small reddish dots on the stems of the plant. The affected shoots are cut out, the tree is treated with foundationazole, a solution of Bordeaux liquid or a solution of potassium permanganate.

    udec.ru

    Origin

    Homeland of figs N.I. Vavilov refers to the Western Asian focus, namely in the area of ​​\u200b\u200bmodern Yemen. The Latin name refers to the cultivation of figs in ancient Caria, a province of Asia Minor. It grows wild in Asia Minor, the Caucasus and Central Asia, the Near and Middle East, and Mediterranean countries.

    According to F. Kh. Bakhteev, figs were widely distributed in the area of ​​the evergreen tertiary flora. It is found in Meotic deposits, which indicates its growth six million years ago. Old Testament traditions, according to V. Dadykin (1985), call figs among those growing in the "paradise". According to Greek mythology, the lord of Olympus Zeus struck down the guilty sons of the goddess Gaia with a lightning strike, including her most beloved - Sikevs, whose remains his mother turned into a fig tree. In the Mediterranean countries, figs have been cultivated since ancient times, and its images are on the bas-reliefs of Ancient Egypt.

    Currently, figs are cultivated on an industrial scale in Turkey, Algeria, Tunisia, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and the USA. In the CIS - mainly in Georgia, Azerbaijan, the North Caucasus, Central Asia, southern Ukraine and Moldova. World production of fruits is about two million tons per year.

    Meaning

    Typical subtropical deciduous plant. It grows in many southern regions of the CIS, both in industrial and household plots. On the coast of the southern coast of Crimea, it is found everywhere in the form of wild bushes grown from seeds. An indispensable plant of all sanatoriums and rest houses on the southern coast of the Crimea and the Caucasus, where it grows in the form of large fruit-bearing trees with a beautiful crown, green from May to November. In the area of ​​Sevastopol and Simferopol, it occurs in the form of individual trees in household plots and near multi-storey buildings on the south side, protected from cold northern winds.

    Fig fruits are a valuable food product and have high medicinal properties. Most of the figs are consumed fresh, and some are processed into jam, jam, coffee and other products. Dried fruits are popular and are a good nutritious product due to their high content of sugar, pectins and the ability to be stored for several years.

    Dense wood suitable for turning. Fig syrup is used as a mild laxative, especially for children (Muravyova, 1983). Figs are very useful in diseases of the cardiovascular system, as they are rich in potassium. The enzyme ficin contained in the fruit is useful for vascular thrombi. Infructescence is used for anemia, to improve digestion and urination, especially with stones in the bladder.

    Furolene was obtained from the leaves, which stimulates the action of enzymes in the body and promotes the formation of melinin pigment. In folk medicine, decoctions or jam from figs are taken as an antipyretic and diaphoretic. For gargling with angina, a decoction of dry seedlings in milk is used. The same decoction (2 tablespoons of seedlings per 1 glass of milk) is advised to drink for gastritis, diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. There is a lot of fiber in figs, so it is not recommended to use it for inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and due to the high sugar content - for diabetes.

    The fruits are very nutritious - 100 g of seedlings are able to saturate a starving person.

    Chemical composition

    Ripe fruits are very tender and tasty and are consumed fresh immediately after picking. Fresh fruits contain (in%): carbohydrates 9-14, organic acids 0.5-1 (the main ones are citric, malic with a small amount of tartaric, acetic and boric), proteins 0.7-1.3; potassium salts - 1161 mg%, calcium - 227 mg%, magnesium - 117 mg%, phosphorus - 263 mg%, iron - 46 mg%.

    The content of pectin in figs grown in the Crimea, in terms of dry weight, varies from 1.4 to 2.6%. The mature fruit contains 0.3-1.3% ethyl alcohol. Fig fruits contain small amounts of vitamins C, A, B1, B2, etc. In addition, it contains tannins, minerals and milky juice.

    Fresh fruits do not keep well, and therefore they are dried and lightly pressed. In this case, the content of sugars (mainly fructose and glucose) rises to 55-70%, pectin substances - up to 5-6%, organic acids - up to 1%.

    Biological features

    The fig is a deciduous tree, under favorable conditions with one trunk, or multi-stemmed, with light gray bark and with lactifers in all organs. The life expectancy of trees, according to S. Penezhik (1973), is 150-200 years. This typical subtropical plant thrives in warm temperate areas bordering the subtropics. The tree is deciduous, freezing at minus 15-20 degrees. Plant height - up to 6 m, sometimes more. The root system of figs is powerful, highly branched (penetrates to a depth of more than 2.5 m). Skeletal roots are covered with overgrown roots. In 10-year-old fig plants, the roots are found at a depth of several meters, and their bulk (up to 80%) is located in the soil layer of 0-40 cm.

    Leaves on long petioles, entire or 3-7-lobed (finger-dissected), broadly ovate, large, fleshy, up to 20 cm long.

    Figs have two types of buds: mixed and fruit. Kidneys can be single or double. Double ones consist of two fruit, two mixed, fruit and mixed buds. Most often, double buds predominate, containing one growth (conical shape) and one (or several) fruit (round shape). The laying and differentiation of fruit buds occurs in the process of growth of the shoots of the current year during the formation of the next leaf node and lasts almost the entire period of their growth.

    Flowers are collected in peculiar inflorescences. Unlike other fruit crops, figs have their own characteristics of pollination, flowering and fruiting.

    Depending on the ratio of plants to pollination, varieties are divided into 4 groups:

    1. Caprifigs are dioecious plants that serve as pollinators for varieties that need pollination. Their characteristic feature is the development of three generations of inflorescences: spring - profika, summer-autumn - mammonia, wintering mamma. On female specimens, inflorescences are formed with long-petalled flowers that produce edible fruits;
    2. Common or Adriatic figs produce only long-pistil flowers and produce edible figs of all generations without pollination;
    3. Smyrna figs have only long-pistil (female) flowers and form edible figs of all generations with obligatory pollination;
    4. Intermediate figs in which inflorescences of the first generation of inflorescences are formed without pollination, and for the development of inflorescences of the second generation (in autumn) pollination is required.

    The inflorescence of figs (syconium) can be compared to a basket of sunflowers when folded with the flowers inside. Inflorescences have fleshy walls, pear-shaped, bulb-like shape with a cavity inside and an opening (eye, window) going out. There are flowers on the walls of the inner cavity.

    Figs have flowers inside male and female inflorescences (caprifig and fig), so figs never show flowers. From the outside, the inflorescences look like a pear-shaped berry; female inflorescences are larger than male ones. On the inner wall of the inflorescences there are a large number of male and female flowers. The former have stamens with pollen, while the latter have ovaries with pistils. There is a small hole at the top of the inflorescence. Fig flowers are fertilized with the help of small insects living in male inflorescences called blastophage wasps.

    A female blastophage wasp, fertilized by a male inside a male inflorescence, crawls out in search of other male fig seedlings to lay eggs in. Several hundred eggs are laid in one inflorescence. A month later, larvae appear that feed inside the ovary and turn into pupae, and then into adult insects 1.0-1.5 mm long.

    While climbing through the hole in the top of the male inflorescence, the female receives pollen from the male flowers on her body. In search of male inflorescences, some insects get inside the female inflorescences. The pollen brought by them falls on the stigma of the pistils, due to which the pollination of flowers occurs. Blastophages from the winter generation of figs fly out in March. Thanks to their pollination, fruits ripen in June. Blastophages of the June generation cause the development of fruits that ripen in August. And insects from August caprifigs crawl inside the ovaries formed in autumn and spend the winter there. The best varieties of figs grown on the plantations of Georgia and the Crimea require mandatory pollination, called caprification. On industrial plantations, for good fruit ripening, male trees that form caprices are laid among female trees in a ratio of 1:20. In some cultivars of figs, seedlings can develop without fertilization.

    The best Smyrna fig in the world, without pollination, is not able to produce a single fruit. Pollination is produced by blastophages that develop in caprifigs and carry pollen from them. That is why, where Smyrna figs are cultivated, caprifigs are certainly grown, which were known to Greek scientists, and even Aristotle very accurately described the process of pollination.

    In the conditions of the Kuban, it is more expedient and easier to grow ordinary figs that form only female flowers and give edible seedlings without pollination (Chapla, Adriatic, Damiatsky, Sochi 4.7, Violet and others).

    The fig fruit is an achene located in an overgrown compound fruit. Depending on the conditions of the year, the variety and age of the plants, the fruits ripen within 2-2.5 months before the first frost. Unripe fruits fall off. Part of the buds that are late laid in the axils of the upper leaves of the shoots do not develop into mature fruits in the current year and go underdeveloped in the winter. The fruits preserved after overwintering continue to develop and form the first crop of figs, which ripen at the end of July. In the case of a long and hot summer, a small part of the fruits that have arisen on the growth of the current year (about 1/3 of all seedlings) has time to ripen. The rest, the larger ones, fall off. The smallest ones (the size of a pea) overwinter and develop next year.

    Seeds are small, sprout only when pollinated.

    Requirements for growing conditions

    Temperature and lighting

    Fig is a photophilous plant. Figs do well in areas with a long warm period and plenty of sunny days. It is important that autumn is dry and warm, and the sum of active (above 10 °C) temperatures is 3500 °C. and higher, which fully ensures the ripening and fruiting of a number of varieties of figs.

    Figs begin vegetation in Krasnodar, when the soil warms up to temperatures above 10 ° C, in the second half of March - April, and the fruits of the first harvest ripen at the end of June, more often in July, and their collection continues until early November. The resistance of plants to autumn frosts is affected by the level of agricultural technology, conditions at the end of the growing season, when the shoots are lignified, and the age of the plantations. Young plants are more sensitive to low temperatures. Tweezing shoot tips, warm and dry weather improve the maturation of growths and contribute to their less damage by frost. Of great importance is the correct choice of site and exposure, the selection of local, Sochi varieties.

    Figs can also grow in more northern regions when grown in creeping form. The biological features of the fig are such that it is well preserved under dug in the ground and bears fruit on current growths. This feature of figs has long been used in the cold regions of Central Asia. Grown in an inclined position, the trees are bent to the ground for the winter and covered with straw, brushwood and earth. The method of inclined planting of figs in a shallow trench was tested in the Donbass and gave positive results when the trench was covered for the winter with old clothes, rags, and on top with plastic wrap.

    Moisture and soil

    Undemanding to soils. Figs are quite drought-resistant, but, nevertheless, like citrus fruits, they prefer moderately moist soils and tolerate summer heat well under these conditions. From this point of view, it deserves attention for promotion to the regions of the Rostov region and eastern Ukraine.

    Dry winds make fruit rough and dry.

    Examples of undemanding soil figs are widely known in the literature. Fig specimens are described that have grown between stones, on the roof of a house, on the tops of palm trees, poplars and sprawling willows - everywhere where birds and wind bring its small seeds. Moreover, even in such incredible conditions, the fig does not wither, but grows into a powerful tree that bears fruit. This becomes possible due to the powerful root system that penetrates deep into the soil.

    Propagation of figs

    Figs are propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering, root shoots.

    Seeds

    Propagation by seed is used to develop new varieties. From mature fruits, a jelly-like mass with seeds is selected and left for 3-5 days for fermentation. After fermentation, they are washed from the pulp. Seeds are dried in the shade and stored at a temperature of 5-7 ° C in a dry place until sowing. In February, seeds are sown to a depth of 0.5 cm in a mixture of sand, humus and soddy soil in a ratio of 1: 1: 1. With daily spraying with warm water and a temperature of 20-25 °, seedlings appear in 21-28 days. The picking of plants is carried out when four pairs of leaves appear in pots with a diameter of 10-12 cm and placed so that direct sunlight does not fall on them (for better survival).

    Cuttings and cuttings

    In central Russia and Ukraine, the most acceptable methods of propagating figs are cuttings and cuttings, and the first method is well tested in Ukraine and in various regions of the CIS; it is recognized as the most affordable, fast and reliable. These methods guarantee the preservation of the varietal qualities of mother plants.

    Cuttings are harvested in autumn from bushes 10-15 years old. It is important that they are well developed, fruit abundantly, and produce large fruits without fertilization. The most suitable figs grown in the Crimea. Particularly valuable are trees growing in the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens, sanatoriums, rest houses of the Crimea and in household plots, located as separate individuals and bearing fruit without pollination.

    The best for rooting, as experience shows, are annual shoots 15-20 cm long with short internodes and an apical bud. These shoots are best not cut, but broken off from branches and trunk. In the place of breaking off, roots form first of all during rooting. Then many lateral roots are formed along the entire length of the shoot in the soil. However, the thickest and most powerful roots are formed from the palus on the heel of the cutting, at the point of its breaking off from the mother plant.

    Cuttings harvested from the upper part of the shoots have low rooting. Higher resistance (rooting) of cuttings from the middle and lower parts of the shoot is associated with their better maturation and increased content of soluble sugars. The diameter of the fig cuttings should be at least 12-15 mm, length - 25-30 cm. Even longer cuttings increase the yield of seedlings, although they increase the consumption of planting material.

    After cutting the cuttings, immediately remove the thin top with a diameter of up to 12 mm. In winter, they are stored in cellars in damp sand so that the cuttings do not dry out. Depending on the weather, cuttings are planted in March - April. The lower cut is made under the kidney, and the upper one is 2 cm above the kidney. Planted so that above the soil was 5-6 cm of the upper part, watered to tightly fit the ground around the cutting. In the book of Grekov S.P. it is indicated that the period of storage of cuttings is no more than 2-3 weeks after they are separated from the mother plant and delivered to the place of rooting. During this time, they must be kept in a wet cloth, moistened as it dries. If, in addition, they are placed in a plastic bag, then its top should be open in order to avoid rotting of the buds of the cuttings. In this case, it all depends on the time of cutting the cuttings.

    It is advisable to plant the cuttings immediately after they have been delivered to the area where they will take root. Given the small number of rooted plants in amateur conditions, it is necessary to plant them in transparent containers from drinks and mineral water. The bottles are cut in half, only their lower part is used, in which 5-10 drainage holes are made with an awl.

    Soil mixture for planting cuttings:

    • soddy and leafy earth, humus, sand in the ratio 2:2:2:1;
    • hardwood, humus and garden soil - 1:1:1. If there is no deciduous land, washed coarse river sand can be used (but not slag sand from metallurgical plants).

    Place 1-3 cuttings of figs in each container, the lower end of which should be at a distance of 3-4 cm from the bottom of the container. Planting depth - 7-10 cm. After planting, the container with cuttings is poured with water and placed in a warm, bright place, preferably on a battery near a window facing south. The temperature of the soil in the pot should not be higher than 20-25°C.

    After about 3-4 weeks the cuttings begin to grow. By the end of April, bushes of 3-4 leaves are formed from each (survival rate 1-2 out of three in a pot), and sometimes with a developing fruit. Plants get used to the air within 1-2 weeks, and then to direct sunlight for the same period of time. After spring frosts, fig seedlings are planted either in a tub or in a permanent place of growth. Watering is carried out regularly, 2-3 times a month, and more often. Soil care consists in loosening it to a depth of 5-10 cm and removing weeds. It is also desirable to fertilize with mineral or organic fertilizers 2-3 times over the summer. They are fed with nitrogen fertilizers (1 tablespoon of saltpeter per bucket of water).

    In autumn, standard seedlings have at least 30 cm of mature shoots with a diameter at the base of at least 3 mm; the length of the main roots is at least 20 cm with the number of calcaneal roots of at least four. At the end of the growing season (approximately at the end of September), fig seedlings are either dug in with earth (if in open ground), or covered (if in a trench), or dug out with a large clod of earth and placed for wintering in a cool (but with positive temperature) place, better all in the basement. Before planting, seedlings are stored in cellars in wet sand at a temperature of 0-7 ° C. The next year (in April), seedlings are planted in a permanent place of growth: in the ground (with the intention to grow in the future with shelter with rags, leaves, waterproof film, earth), in a trench or pot (with further cultivation in room conditions).

    Another option is possible. Figs for the second year of planting can be grown outdoors, then, at the end of the growing season (in September), transplant the seedlings into pots of sufficient capacity, keep them for 3-4 months in a cool place, and in February - March, place them in room conditions.

    Landing

    For planting figs, choose areas protected from cold winds, slopes of southern exposure with moisture-intensive fertile soils, with good drainage, not flooded. Swampy and salted saucers are unsuitable.

    It is rational to place plants in a 5 x 4 m pattern, which provides good lighting and makes it easier to shelter in the winter. On the site chosen for planting in autumn, the soil is dug up into two bayonets of a shovel, humus and mineral fats are introduced. Deep digging favors the accumulation of moisture, promotes better plant growth in the first three years. Rows of plants are placed from north to south. Digging holes measuring 40 x 50 cm a week before planting. Planted in the first decade of April. Before planting, after removing damaged roots, seedlings are dipped in a clay-dung mash. Do not allow drying of the roots. The roots in the landing hole are spread evenly over the cone of earth poured onto the bottom. Then they fall asleep with loose, moist soil without lumps, carefully compact it, water it (4 buckets of water per bush), again fall asleep flush with the surface with dry soil.

    Shaping and pruning figs

    The formation of figs is carried out in a stem or bush form, depending on the areas of growth. When digging figs or growing them in a trench, fan and bush formations should be used.

    In the first year of bush formation, the plants are cut at a height of 10-15 cm from the soil surface, leaving 3-4 strong branches that serve as the base of the skeleton. The following year, shoots of the following orders grow from each abandoned branch. Pruning of figs is carried out in autumn or spring before the start of sap flow. The cut points must be covered with garden pitch, as they do not overgrow well, and the entire branch may dry out.

    In the case of digging figs, no pruning is done during the first 2-3 years. In the spring, only damaged shoots are removed. The creeping form of figs can also be created in another way: an annual seedling is planted in a permanent place of growth, cut off by 25-30 cm. Of the shoots grown this year from the lateral buds, the lowest ones are left and bent to the ground in different directions. The upper part of the trunk is cut off and must be covered with garden pitch or paint. The bush forms a spider-like form, which is covered with improvised material for the winter. Branches growing upwards are removed.

    Formation of figs in the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory

    In the conditions of Krasnodar, figs are formed in a bush form, which is advantageous in that it allows to protect plants covered with soil from freezing.

    Plants form with two or three trunks adjacent to the ground. The stems are removed in the second year after planting. The following year, the trunks are shortened by a third, leaving three to five shoots of the first order on them at a distance of a meter or more from the base of the bushes, which makes it easier to bend down and shelter.

    Figs bear fruit on the shoots of the current year 20-50 cm long. Pruning in the spring allows you to get more such branches. Timely rejuvenating pruning for three to four years of wood is carried out in order to maintain the compactness of the bush.

    During the growing season, root shoots emerging from dormant buds of bushes in a covering culture are removed in a timely manner. Sections are carefully covered with garden pitch or paint based on natural drying oil.

    As a result of weathering and frost damage to poorly covered parts of the bush on the shoots of the current year in varieties Krymsky 9and 43, Kadota, Uzbek yellow develop fruiting, resulting in annual fruiting even under adverse conditions.

    Pinching, or pinching the tops of the shoots above the 7th-15th seedlings, improves the ripening and preservation of the shoots in the winter. Pinching also causes the formation of shoots of the next branching orders, which increases the yield. The best time for tweezing is when the shoots are 50-60 cm long. The delay in shortening the shoots awakens only the upper buds, from which weak shoots develop.

    Agrotechnics of cultivation

    Fertilizer

    For fertilizer, it is better to use organic and mineral fertilizers. Humus is used at a rate of 30–40 kg per bush. At the same time they give phosphorus and potassium fertilizers - 300-500 g of superphosphate and 150-300 g of potassium salt for full-grown plants.

    Nitrogen fertilizers cause a noticeable increase in growth and thus increase fruiting. Nitrogen is given in the spring (60% of the norm) simultaneously with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, the rest in June, before the mass laying of seedlings of the main crop. The general norm of nitrogen is 300 g of ammonium nitrate per bush. VF Ostashchenko for two-three-year-old plants introduced 70 g of nitrogen, 100 g of phosphorus and 40 g of potassium into the wells.

    Watering

    For the successful cultivation of figs, it is necessary to carry out timely irrigation of the soil. Watering, especially young, only planted plants, is carried out every ten days, 5-10 liters per plant. In subsequent years, with the development of the root system, the number of irrigations is reduced, but the norms are increased, ensuring the wetting of the entire root system. You can spend 6-10 waterings. Even a slight drying of figs during the ripening of the crop leads to a decrease in the mass of the seed. Gardener V.F. Ostashchenko in Krasnodar during the growing season carried out 15-25 irrigations of 40-50 liters of water at a time.

    The last watering is carried out after harvesting, which facilitates the work of sheltering bushes and increases the resistance of figs to low temperatures.

    During the growing season, the soil is kept loose and free of weeds. It is watered in home gardens and summer cottages along the annular furrows, which are covered with soil after each irrigation. In autumn, the soil is dug up in the middle of the row spacing by 25 cm, and closer to the plants - by 10-12 cm.

    Because the root system of figs is largely located in the upper layers of the soil. Its drying has a negative effect on figs: the leaves turn yellow and fall, the fruits do not pour. Therefore, in dry years, irrigation of figs is mandatory and should be done at least 1-2 times a month. Since there is usually a sufficient amount of precipitation in spring (March-April), irrigation is carried out starting from the second half of May. Watering stops in the first decade of August, when the crop begins to ripen on the shoots of the current year.

    Shelter bushes for the winter

    Shelter of figs (digging with earth, covering with rags and film, shelter in a trench) is carried out before or with the onset of the first autumn frosts. The best time for sheltering fig bushes in the Krasnodar Territory is the second half of October - the beginning of November. To enhance protection against frost and improve the safety of plants under earthen cover, the bushes are first covered with plant material. Dry leaves of garden plants are used. First, the bushes are pinned. With the help of a pole, the bushes are bent to the ground and squeezed from the sides, laying in a previously dug furrow 30-40 cm deep. Leaves are poured on top with a layer of 4-5 cm, covered with a film and covered with earth with a layer of 15-20 cm.

    Some gardeners (VF Ostashchenko, 1996) put a roofing material, a waterproof film, on the ground. In order to protect against the wind, they press down with old boards, pipes, stones. This method of shelter during one of the most severe winters in the Donbass, when the temperature on some days reached -33°C, made it possible to completely preserve a 3-year-old fig bush without any visible damage.

    When covering young plants whose branches are bent, bend the lower part of the stems to make them easier to cover in subsequent years.

    Fig bushes are freed from winter shelter after the end of frost - in April, at the same time as grapes. When opening the bushes, the ground is removed carefully so as not to damage the plants. The branches are untied, the dry leaves are removed and burned, and the fruits are left. After the bushes are freed from winter shelter, the soil surface is leveled.

    Grades

    Varieties of figs bear fruit early, in the second or third year after planting. Earlier, according to O.P. Kulkov, the Crimean 9, Chapla and others, later - Dalmatian, White Adriatic and others. Full fruiting occurs in the sixth or seventh year.

    • Universal varieties (White Adriatic, Nikitsky fragrant, etc.) are suitable both for preparing dried fruits and for making jam, and for fresh consumption.
    • The purely dried fruit direction includes early and medium-term varieties and fruits of the second harvest - Dalmatsky, Krymsky 15, Sochi 4, Smirnsky 2, etc.
    • For fresh use and canning, Kadota, Sochi 7, Purple, Apsheron and others are good varieties.

    All varieties of figs have a long maturation period. Their ripening is more friendly in early spring and long hot autumn. The inflorescences at the base of the shoot are larger than in its upper part. Due to the need to shelter the bushes for the winter, the assortment of figs for Krasnodar is limited to varieties in which the inflorescences develop without pollination.

    White Adriatic. A tree with a wide spreading crown. Fruits weighing up to 60 g, light green on the outside, reddish flesh, contains about 15% sugars. Gives two crops a year: the first in June, the second (main) in August-September. The formation of ovaries is possible without pollination, although pollination improves quality and yield. When ripe, the fruits do not crack, good for drying.

    Absheron (Sary fig). Large trees with a wide crown and hanging branches. Fruits of medium size. Gives two crops a year: the first in July - the fruits are flat, yellow on the outside, creamy pink inside; the second harvest in August - September - the seed is larger than during the first fruiting, but the ribs are less pronounced, but there are more ripening fruits, good both fresh and canned. On the Absheron Peninsula of Azerbaijan, it is resistant to low temperatures.

    Breeders from Sochi F.M. Zorin and Yu.S.

    Sochi 4. The tree is small, compact. Fruits weighing up to 50 g with light red pulp, sugary, the fruits do not crack and do not turn sour. Fruits in Sochi conditions ripen from late August to November. Suitable for cultivation in a covering culture.

    Sochi 7 . The tree is vigorous, spreading. The fruits are large, weighing 65 g, yellow-green outside and dark red inside. Productivity is high, more than 100 kg from a 12-15-year-old tree. The fruits ripen at the end of August, their skin is tender, cracking on ripened fruits.

    Sochi 15. Strong trees with very large (75 g) fruits, yellow on the outside and pink inside, sweet, ripening in Sochi from September to November, fruitful.

    Smirnsky 2 (Sary's forehead) . The tree is vigorous and requires pollination. Fruits weighing about 40 g, greenish-cream, with pink flesh, crack, ripen in September - November. Gives one crop, which rots in rainy weather.

    Purple Borgesote. Medium-sized tree with dense crown. Gives one harvest a year in August - September. It bears fruit without pollination, infructescences weighing about 35 g, spherical, purple, contain up to 23% sugars. In dried form, the fruits are of good quality, but darken. Suitable for canning and fresh consumption.

    Buzoy-burnu. A vigorous tree with a compact crown. Gives two crops a year. Fruits of the first crop are large, reddish-green with white dots, and the second - smaller (50 g), purple-brown, with dark red flesh. Sugar (20%). The variety is more resistant to low temperatures than others, it is grown in the cold regions of Azerbaijan. The fruits are dried and used fresh.

    Brunswick (Chapla). Tree with spreading and dense crown, medium size. Infructescence irregular, ovoid, weighing up to 60 g, greenish-yellow, almost purple at full maturity. The flesh is pink, brown when ripe, contains about 20% sugar. Fruits without pollination, gives two crops a year. Used fresh, for canning and drying. Grown in Transcaucasia, Central Asia and Crimea.

    Crimean 9. Fruits without pollination. Seedlings weighing about 30 g, ribbed, pear-shaped, light yellow, carmine inside, sugary. Good for drying. Can be grown in digging culture. Crimean 29 (Forehead Fig). It has small infructescence and bears fruit without pollination. The fruits are light yellow with spots that are clearly visible after drying. The pulp is red, sweet.

    Kadota (Marokent). Vigorous, spreading and dense tree. Fruits of the first harvest are formed without pollination, weighing about 50 g, green, with pink flesh, few seeds. Fruits of the second harvest, obtained by pollination, weighing about 100 g, greenish-yellow, with golden yellow or light pink flesh. The variety is used as a dried fruit, for canning and fresh.

    For cultivation in a trench way or with digging, it is advisable, as mentioned above, to use parthenocarpic varieties of figs: Dalmatina, Kadota, White Adriatic, Violet Sukhumi, Sary Apsheronsky, Kusarchaysky, Sochi No. 7, Gift of October. For breeding in the Crimea, N. K. Arendt and A. A. Rzhevkin recommend varieties Date, Nikitsky fragrant (915), Crimean black, Chapla, Syulsky. The latter is distinguished by the fact that it gives a large first harvest, and is interesting for attempts to move it to the northern regions of Ukraine.

    Pest and disease control

    Caterpillars of the fig moth, spider mites, aphids, and mealybugs cause the greatest damage. The spider mite settles in the summer on the underside of the leaves, causing them to discolor, brown and fall off.

    Scales settle on branches, leaves, fruits in the form of white flaky colonies. On the sweet secretions of mealybugs, fungi settle, causing blackening of leaves and shoots.

    Of the diseases on figs, bacterioses have been noticed. They lead to yellowing and spotting of leaves, shedding of fruits and drying of shoots.

    In spring-summer figs are attacked by mealybugs, moths, mites.

    Harvest and processing

    Figs do not have special fruit twigs. Figs have an extended period of fruit ripening, which reaches 30-60 days. This is due to the fact that the maturation of seedlings comes from the lower part of the growing shoot. On one shoot there can be overripe, ripe and unripe seedlings, as well as inflorescences and fruit buds (AN Nizharadze, 1971).

    Yield depends on variety and age. Full fruiting occurs at 9-12 years. A fig bush in a covering culture forms three zones of growth and fruiting. The shoots of the upper and lower zones of the bush have insignificant fruiting, and the main fruiting of the bush is concentrated in the middle part (O.P. Kulkov).

    Seeds are harvested 10-12 times per season in dry weather. Fruits already 2-3 days after optimal maturity (size and typical color, taste) overripe, wilt and lose their economic value.

    Productivity of fig variety Sochinsky 4 from one bush in the region of Krasnodar in the third year after planting seedlings at the summer cottage of V.F. Ostashchenko (1996) reached 60.2 kg, and then more.

    Lay the fruits in a flat container, layering each layer with leaves. Within 2-3 days of storage at room temperature, they rot. Therefore, the fruits are canned or dried. For canning, fruits with a dense skin and medium size are used. Strictly speaking, the fruits are not the seeds themselves, but those small seeds that are inside.

    Fig compote (according to T.Yu. Lyubchenkova, 1997) . For 1 liter of water - 300-400 g of sugar, 3-4 g of citric acid. Prepared fruits are blanched at 70 degrees for 4 minutes, cooled in cold water, placed in liter jars and poured with hot syrup. Pasteurized at 85 degrees for 30-35 minutes.

    Fig jam (according to T.Yu. Lyubchenkova). For 1 kg of fruits - 800 g of sugar and 2 glasses of water. Figs are cleaned of stalks, washed and blanched at 85 degrees for 4-5 minutes, immediately cooled in water and boiled in two or three doses for several minutes at intervals of 8-10 hours. Before the end of cooking, another 200 g of sugar and 3 g of citric acid are added.

    The second way. For 1 kg of fruit - 1 kg of sugar, 1.5 - 2 glasses of water. Ripe and clean fruits are pierced with a wooden torch. In a bowl for jam, a syrup is prepared from sugar and water. Then dipped in syrup figs and boiled 2.5-3; hours until ready.

    According to L.V. Ivanova (1995), for jam 60-70 pcs. figs are boiled by changing the water 4-5 times in 30 minutes until the water turns yellow. Then the seedlings are taken out and transferred to cold water, in which copper sulfate crystals are dissolved (for 1.5 liters of water - a crystal the size of a pea). Here the fig is 10-15 minutes, it must be stirred frequently. Take out and rinse, changing the water 10 times. The water is decanted, and the seedlings are pricked with a needle. The figs are placed in the cooled syrup. Boil and leave to cool, and so on three times. Before the end of cooking, add the juice of one lemon and vanillin for smell.

    Seedlings are dried in dryers of various designs and in the sun. For sun drying, the stems are removed from the seedlings and laid in one layer with the eye up. To improve the color and against pests, they are fumigated in a sealed chamber with sulfur at the rate of 1. 5-2 g of sulfur per 1 kg of seedlings. After fumigation, the seedlings are laid out in a sunny place and dried for 5-10 days, turning them over 2-3 times. Dry until the pulp acquires a marmalade-like thick consistency, then put the fruits in small boxes and place them in a ventilated room for sweating and acquiring humidity in the range of 20-25%. The yield of dried products is 22-33%. Dried seedlings are flattened by hand, sorted by size, pressed and packed in cellophane. Dried fruits are valuable not only for sugars, but also contain from 3 to 6% protein. They contain potassium and iron. And in terms of calcium content, figs are second only to nuts.

    Growing figs in a room

    At room culture, it is most reliable and affordable to propagate figs by cuttings. Planting cuttings can be carried out in ordinary flower pots, boxes. Dimensions of cuttings: length 10-15 cm with 3-4 buds. Planted to a depth of 3 cm, covered with foil or glass from above.

    When the leaves unfold on the cuttings, the covering (glass, film) is removed. The optimum temperature (20-24°C) and sufficient humidity lead to rooting in 20-25 days. Cuttings are carried out in the spring, when there is still no growth, or from June to August. After 2-3 months, rooted plants are transplanted into flower pots with a diameter of 20-25 cm. Plants are fed 15 days after transplantation with mineral mixtures, and then twice a month. The composition of the mixture: ammonium nitrate 3 g, potassium salt 3 g per 1 liter of water; superphosphate 5 g per 1 liter is applied together with slurry (100 ml per 1 liter of water). Fertilizer solutions are applied only to moist soil, gradually, in several steps, at intervals of 10 minutes. In summer, the leaves are sprayed with water, and the pots are shaded.

    Figs after the appearance of the seventh leaf are pinched. Three or four of the side shoots are left. Left shoots are pinched over the fourth or fifth leaf.

    The first fruiting may be in the second year. At the beginning of summer, the plants are sprayed with a 0. 05% solution of potassium permanganate and 0.05% copper sulphate.

    Due to the fact that the leaves fall off in winter, the plant is transferred to a room with a temperature of 3-5 °C. It takes place in November. And in January it can be placed in a room with a normal temperature, and it starts to grow. Seed fruit appear in February and ripen in June-July. In autumn, new seedlings are tied, which will ripen only next year. The plant is again transferred to a room with a lower temperature. With the beginning of growth, the plant is gradually accustomed to open ground conditions, and in May they are taken out into the yard or onto the balcony, where it can be all summer.

    In rooms, figs are harmed by mealybugs and soft false scales. It is best to remove them with a soft brush. Of the diseases, brown leaf spot occurs. When red-brown spots appear, at least a month (not later) before the fruit ripens, the leaves are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid.

    Literature
    1. Koblyakov V. V. Fig (fig)//On the field of the Kuban №2, 1999
    2. Subtropical in the middle latitudes / Auth.-comp. S. P. Grekov - M .: Publishing House ACT LLC; Donetsk: "Stalker", 2002. - 93, with: ill. - (Home garden). – ISBN 5-17-016228-6 (ACT Publishing House LLC), ISBN 966-596-782-7 (Stalker)
    Views: 18596 • This page was last modified: 3 January 2014 at 16:49 • Total 514 articles in encyclopedia

    agromania.ru

    Figs: care, watering, photo, transplant, reproduction

    Author: Сvetochnik

    General information:

    Fig (Ficus carica) the plant belongs to the genus ficus of the mulberry family, Fig homeland is the Mediterranean. Under natural conditions, wild figs can be found in the Caucasus. The plant is in the category of rare plants and is listed in the Red Book. In the states of Asia, the Transcaucasus and the Crimean peninsula, figs are cultivated in open land as an important fruit plant that produces fruits for making wine.

    Fig is a representative of the subtropical deciduous ficus genus. This small tree in the form of a bush grows up to three meters in height, and sometimes reaches fifteen meters in height. The crown is wide, sprawling, the rhizome system branches out. The bark of the tree and branches is clear gray. The branches are thick, have few branches. The leaves are long-petiolate, or very rarely divided, continuous. The length of the leaves reaches 15 centimeters, in width - up to 12 cm. The top of the leaves is green, the bottom of the leaf is gray-green. On both sides they are hard and covered with small hairs.

    The female plants, figs, have only pistillate flowers and bear fruits suitable for eating. Male plants, caprifigs, form both pistillate and staminate flowers. The pistillate fruits grow unsuitable for food, and the staminate ones are necessary for the pollination of figs. Pollination of figs is carried out by small wasps - blastophages. Trees bear fruit every year and produce considerable yields. All shoots of figs are fruitful. A flower bud, from which an inflorescence and fruits then develop, is established in the axils of all leaves.

    Fig - care:

    Lighting:

    The fig plant is photophilous and loves the sun's rays, but can still get along with a little shade; in low light it will not bear fruit well, the fruits will not have time to ripen during the season.

    Temperature:

    The room temperature must be kept at 25-27°C.

    Watering:

    In the summer, it is necessary to arrange a good watering. In the spring and summer periods, Figs should be treated with water only in very dry periods.

    In case of poor watering, Fig leaves curl up and then partially fall off; when the soil is dry, the leaves completely crumble, and even with good watering in the future they will grow again, this is not recommended.

    Humidity:

    Figs do not particularly need high air humidity, and in the dry season they need spraying.

    Top dressing:

    During the growing season Figs are fed with a solution of mineral and organic fertilizers once every half a month, changing the order of mineral fertilizers with organic ones.

    Transfer:

    The fig grows fairly quickly and needs to be transplanted into a large pot every year. The transplant procedure is done in early February before the start of the growing season. After 5 years, the Fig tree is planted in open soil.

    Breeding:

    In winter, cuttings are cut from one or two summer shoots and planted in early spring, before buds open, in light sandy loam soil. Green cuttings are planted at the end of spring - the beginning of summer in the sand. Cuttings, of course, are cut only from prolific trees. Planted fig cuttings are placed in a warm place, otherwise rooting will be difficult. After a month, roots appear. Having reached a length of two centimeters, the cuttings are allowed to be planted in the ground, and after they take root, they are planted in pots.

    Some features:

    During the period of transplanting a young tree, the volume of pots should be increased by almost 1 liter.

    In case of complete freezing of the branches, it is recommended to leave the roots of the plant. Figs are restored and even give a small harvest. And in the following year, the opportunity to bear fruit will be fully restored.

    Figs - diseases and pests:

    Pests of figs can appear in dry air, such as: spider and other mites that feed on plants, scale insects, mealybugs.

    From the spider mite, specks are visible on the leaves, which then become larger and begin to merge, and “cobwebs” form from the bottom of the leaf. Acaricides are used against them, and air moisture is kept high around the plant.

    They fight the mealybug by removing it with a wet cotton swab soaked in an alcohol solution, then treat it with anti-coccid substances.

    When the scutellum is damaged, secretions with a sticky structure are formed, and then a sooty fungus settles on them, spotting is formed and the leaves turn yellow. Leaves are allowed to be wiped with a cotton swab soaked with soap or tobacco tincture. If the infection is severe, then insecticides are used.

    Author: Vladimir Popov

    ukrflowers.info

    How to get fig seedlings, propagation at home

    Independent propagation of figs by cuttings, seeds, layering will increase the number of fig trees in your garden without spending much money. Useful and tasty fruits are attractive for their properties, and the use of new self-pollinating varieties and shelter for the winter will help to grow figs on the site even in open ground, subject to a temperate climate.

    Reproduction of figs is possible in various ways - layering, cuttings, root shoots, seeds.

    Figs can be propagated quickly and easily from root shoots. It is enough to carefully dig out and transplant to a prepared place. Especially a lot of overgrowth occurs in undersized varieties.

    Propagation of figs from woody cuttings

    In industrial and domestic conditions, cuttings are used to obtain seedlings. For propagation of figs , they are harvested in late autumn, cut into lengths of about 20 - 25 cm, picked up with a thickness of 1 - 1.5 cm and sent for storage. They are perfectly preserved until spring at a temperature of 0 - + 5˚С in moist (but not wet) sand. If you do not have such a suitable place with the right temperature, then simply dig the chopped planting material into the ground in the area. Make a hole with a depth of 25 - 30 cm and lay it horizontally, wrapped in cloth. At the bottom of the hole, pour a pillow of sand, it will serve to remove excess moisture. If you often have prolonged rains in winter and the earth turns into mud, then make a tubercle and cover this place with a piece of film so that the earth does not get very wet, the cuttings do not lie in very damp earth, otherwise they will rot.

    Propagation of figs by harvested cuttings, namely planting, occurs in the second half of April. Do not forget that the culture is thermophilic. We take out planting material, inspect it. The lower cut needs to be updated, cleaned. We plant 2/3 of the length on a prepared bed with loose soil. Then we carry out hilling so that only the apical bud remains above the ground. To improve root formation on lignified fig cuttings, several longitudinal cuts or scratches are made from below. With regular loosening, watering, the cuttings take root perfectly. You can put some under the film, and some leave as is. Gradually, root formation proceeds, the upper kidney releases an escape. Young shoots of propagated figs by autumn will be still weak, not ripe. Therefore, it is necessary to slow down their growth by stopping watering at the end of summer (in the arid regions of the south, water in September). This will allow the wood to mature enough and the fig will better endure the winter cold.

    Do not forget to spend at the beginning (south, second half) of November sheltering figs for the winter with improvised materials described in the article at the link. There are many ways, you will find answers there.

    In the spring, the shelter is removed, further measures are taken to grow figs in the open field. Matured seedlings are transplanted at the end of autumn in places prepared in advance. It is better to dig holes in the spring so that they stand.

    Propagation of figs from green cuttings

    If you don't have time to store cuttings or if you happen to have a mature plant that you can cut green handle , then proceed as follows:

    • - cut the stalk from the top into three internodes, cut off the lower leaves, and reduce the upper one by cutting off 2/3 of the leaf plate;
    • - milky juice stands out from the fig tree, so you need to let it dry, leaving the planting material in the air for 6 hours, the place should be dark and cool;
    • - earth mixture and sand to be used in the propagation of figs must be steamed (or use other methods of disinfection) to avoid rotting, mold;
    • - dip the lower ends of the cuttings in ashes, put in cups with the mixture, press the ground tightly, pour water;
    • - cover the rows of fig cuttings with a film from above, single specimens with a jar, a cut of a plastic bottle, spray periodically, keep at a temperature of about + 22 ˚С;
    • - when the kidneys grow, they gradually accustom to life without shelter.

    Cuttings can be taken in early spring, before bud break. They are dried and planted in the same way. After drying, you can soak for several hours (according to the instructions on the package) in a commercially available root stimulator, for example, heteroauxin.

    Propagation of figs by cuttings

    A simple and convenient way to propagate figs is cuttings . Especially if you cannot constantly monitor the humidity (for example, you do not come to the country regularly). Yes, and there will be no need to save the cuttings. We proceed in the same way as when receiving seedlings from other crops. We make a groove near the mother plant, about 25 cm deep, pour nutrient soil into it. The young shoot must be bent into this groove and fixed in this position, you can use a small arc of wire for this. The tip of the shoot remains above the ground. Fill the trench with soil, water well. To preserve moisture and stabilize the temperature regime, cover this place with mulching materials, the same dry grass, and humus.


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