How to transplant tree shoots


How to Propagate Trees From Root Suckers | Home Guides

By Maureen Malone Updated September 15, 2020

Many species of trees send up root suckers or tree shoots all over the yard in response to stress. Some things that may trigger the tree to start new trees include injury, old age, pests or disease. Other trees simply have an aggressive root system. The rootstock of grafted trees is selected because it propagates easily, so these trees may often send up tree shoots at the base of the tree. You can remove these suckers and use them to propagate new trees.

Remove and Prepare Root Suckers

In the springtime when new growth has started, select a healthy sucker. The longer you wait, the more difficult it is to remove the root sucker. As root suckers become more established, they will also begin to compete with the parent tree for water and nutrients, advises the University of Illinois Extension.

Break up the soil around the sucker, taking care not to damage the sucker or the roots of the parent plant. When you reach the main root, cut the sucker with a knife to separate it from the parent plant, advises the Royal Horticultural Society. Be sure that the fibrous roots of the root sucker are still attached.

Fill in the soil that you loosened and removed when you cut out the sucker to protect the parent plant. Before planting, cut off the root or underground stem up to the fibrous part of the roots.

Plant Root Sprouts

Prepare the soil where you plan to plant the root sucker. Amend the soil with well-rotted compost or manure to ensure the soil is rich with organic material. The soil should drain well so as not to drown the young roots. Plant the trimmed root sucker in the soil and water to fully moisten the soil around the roots.

Regular watering during the first year after planting the root sprouts is critical to ensure the tree's survival until the roots are established. The specific watering schedule varies depending on your climate and local rainfall. Be sure to irrigate enough to keep the soil and roots moist, but avoid waterlogged soil.

In addition to regular watering, be sure to keep the area directly around the new sprout clear of weeds, advises Royal Horticultural Society. Other plants may compete with the new root system and take water away from the tree.

Tips and Considerations

Propagating a plant from root suckers will not work for grafted plants. Although you may successfully grow the sucker, you will likely be disappointed as it will resemble the rootstock, not the original tree. You can, however, use this method to create new rootstock to graft. Even if you decide not to use a sucker to grow a new tree, you should still remove it as soon as possible to protect the parent tree and keep your yard looking clean.

Before you use garden tools to cut your plants, be sure to disinfect them. Even the hardiest plants can become infected with fungus or bacteria that may be lingering on your pruning shears. After removing the dirt from the tools, soak them for 30 minutes in a diluted bleach solution to kill any pathogens, advises the University of Florida IFAS Extension.

References

  • Royal Horticultural Society: Propagating Using Suckers
  • Royal Horticultural Society: Trees and Shrubs: Establishment Problems
  • University of Illinois Extension: Suckers and Water Sprouts
  • University of Florida IFAS Extension: Disinfecting Your Garden Tools

Warnings

  • Dig slowly while removing suckers from the ground to prevent excessive damage to the main tree root system.

Writer Bio

Maureen Malone has been a professional writer since 2010 She is located in Tucson, Arizona where she enjoys hiking, horseback riding and martial arts. She is an outdoor lover who spends her weekends tending her raised garden and small orchard of fruit trees.

How to Transplant Shoots From Fruit Trees | Home Guides

By Teo Spengler

If you clip off the shoot of a fruit tree and follow proper procedures, you may have a new tree to transplant that is a biological clone of the parent plant. Growing a cutting is essentially persuading the tree to regrow roots and branches from the shoot that you have clipped. Shoots clipped from figs, grapes, kiwis and pomegranates root readily from cuttings taken while the tree is dormant. Other fruit tree varieties root better if you take cuttings in summer or fall, but the steps you need to take are the same.

  1. Soak a rag in denatured alcohol. Wipe it across the blades of a garden clipper to disinfect them and prevent spreading disease from one tree to the next.

  2. Cut off shoots from the fruit tree you wish to reproduce. Take 6- to 12-inch cuttings from the ends of branches, making sure each cutting has at least two to three nodes or buds. Take two or three cuttings for every new tree you hope to transplant, since it is not likely that every cutting will root.

  3. Store the cuttings in a chilled cooler until you are ready to plant them. Act as quickly as possible to guarantee the best success rate.

  4. Mix one part peat moss to one part perlite in a large bowl. Add sufficient water to dampen the mixture. Put this mixture into planting pots at least 6 inches deep with drain holes on the bottom.

  5. Press the lower half of a cutting into the mixture in a planting pot. Put a plastic bag over the top of the pot, tying it loosely; this keeps the air around the cutting humid. When the fog on the inside of the bag disappears, remove the bag, water the pot and replace the bag; the soil must be moist at all time for the cutting to root. Repeat the procedure with other cuttings. Place the pots in a warm place that does not get direct sunshine.

  6. Transplant the cuttings when new growth appears. Plant them in a sheltered area of the garden where they get indirect or partial sun. Water them regularly through the growing season.

  7. Work the soil in the permanent planting location you select for each young tree the following spring or autumn. Remove grass and weeds and turn the soil to a depth of 18 inches. Spread 3 inches of organic compost on the top of the planting area and turn it into the soil. Dig a planting hole on top of the worked soil as deep as the new tree's root system and twice as wide. Fill with water and allow to drain through.

  8. Dig out a young tree with its root ball from the garden bed and place it in the new planting hole so that the level of the soil remains the same in the new location as in the old. Fill in around the root ball with extracted soil and press it into the cracks with the back of your shovel. Build a circular basin around the tree from the remaining extracted soil. Pour 10 gallons of water in the basin and allow it to drain through. Repeat this several times a week for the first three months after transplant.

References

  • University of California Master Gardener Program: Propagation
  • Sunset: Rooting Hardwood Cuttings
  • Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California: Sacramento Master Gardeners: Planting Fruit Trees

Resources

  • California Rare Fruit Growers: Plant Propagation Chart
  • Fine Gardening: Storing Woody Plants
  • University of California ANR Publication: Fruit Trees: Planting and Care of Young Trees

Tips

  • Rooting cuttings is not the best option for propagating every type of fruit tree. Some species propagate better from seeds, others from grafting. Check a university extension website for lists of fruit trees that root easily and the best time of year to take cuttings for different species.

Warnings

  • Never allow your cuttings to dry out during the rooting process. It is better to water them every day than not enough, as long as your medium is well-drained. Use a water mister if necessary.

Writer Bio

From Alaska to California, from France's Basque Country to Mexico's Pacific Coast, Teo Spengler has dug the soil, planted seeds and helped trees, flowers and veggies thrive. World traveler, professional writer and consummate gardener, Spengler earned a BA from U.C. Santa Cruz, a law degree from Berkeley's Boalt Hall, and an MA and MFA from San Francisco State. She currently divides her life between San Francisco and southwestern France.

EASY TREE TRANSFER | Nauka i Zhizn

I have subscribed to the magazine "Science and Life" for more than 30 years. In response to your request to send interesting materials, I send my article "An easy way to transplant trees."

Science and life // Illustrations

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My own experience served as the basis for writing it. Planting wild trees and shrubs near roads, plots or on the plots themselves is not yet very popular in Russia. In Western Europe and America, large and small cities are buried in greenery, and there are more evergreen trees than deciduous ones. The published literature contains almost no information on the transplantation of wild plants. Over the past 10 years, I have planted more than 500 fruit and wild trees and shrubs, all, with rare exceptions, have begun. Fruit planted on the site. Wild (of which 50% are evergreen, mostly coniferous up to 3 m or more) both on the site (near the house, shed, shed, paths, fences) and on the street (on the outside of the fence or across the road). Of course, without prejudice to the sunlight of vegetable and berry crops.

Our plot is located near Volokolamsk, in the collective garden partnership "Rainbow" of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K. A. Timiryazev. I myself am an engineer, for 38 years I worked in the department of metrology of the Radio Engineering Institute of the Academy of Sciences, for the last 10 years as a chief metrologist. When planting trees, he first consulted with his neighbors - teachers and researchers of the academy. An engineer by profession, I could not help but show interest in the tree as a cybernetic device, knowledge about which, unfortunately, today is mainly limited to empirical experience. My point of view was fully supported by TSCA Associate Professor A. D. Koshansky.

V. Merkulov (Moscow).

It is known that the movement of nutrients - salt solutions - from the soil into the tree occurs due to osmotic pressure (pressure in plant cells, depending on the concentration of salts). Inside the tree, the concentration of salts is higher than in the soil. In accordance with the laws of chemistry, the movement of a liquid solution always occurs in the direction of a solution with a higher concentration, that is, from the roots to the top.

When a tree is transplanted from one place to another, the plant is dug out of the ground, transported and planted in a new place.

Digging inevitably loses some soil and roots. A stressed tree quickly consumes the accumulated nutrients, and the osmotic pressure inside it drops. The situation is aggravated by transportation, especially a long one. If by the time of planting in a new place the concentration of salts in the tree is less than the concentration of salts in the soil, it will not take root and will dry out.

It turns out that for a successful transplant, it is necessary to dig up a tree with a large clod of earth and less loss of roots. Transportation to a new place should be quick and, if possible, keeping the clod and roots moist, which is why it is recommended to place the seedling in a damp cloth, preferably cotton, such as burlap, so that the roots breathe.

When transplanting, it is desirable that the living conditions in the new place do not differ from the previous ones. For planting a tree, a hole is enough, equal in volume to a coma of earth. To preserve the acidity of the soil and create better conditions for osmotic pressure inside the tree, I do not put fertilizer, manure, leaves, grass, sawdust in the pit. Planting fertilizers, in particular chemical ones, can burn the tips of the roots damaged during digging, and leaves, grass, sawdust can destroy the tree with organic acids, because with a lack of oxygen in the pit, it will take years to decompose. For the same reason, it is undesirable to dig a wooden stake near a tree as a support; it is better to use a neutral plastic pole, and even better a metal one.

In the event that the soil at the planting site is less loose, for better breathing for the roots, I make a hole of a larger diameter, and I fill the space between the clod of earth and its edges with earth mixed with sand (approximately 40%). It is also necessary to mix the earth with sand when planting seedlings with bare roots. When transplanting fruit trees, I pour lime at the bottom of the pit and mix it with the ground at the rate of 70-100 g per 1 sq. m.

After planting, the tree first of all needs water in abundance, but without excess: one bucket at the time of planting and on average one bucket every 3 days for 1-1.5 months.

According to my observations, a tree or a shrub is more easily accepted when it is transplanted from a soil rich in nutrition to a soil less rich, with equal qualities. And it is much worse for a seedling when transplanted from soil poor in nutrients to rich.

Such a simple method of replanting trees and shrubs, primarily wild ones, up to 3 m high and more does not require much time and effort. In one hour, you can plant 5-6 or more trees, and at any time of the year, even in winter, but it is better in early spring, immediately after the snow melts. It is possible in the summer - preferably small trees with a large clod of earth. In autumn, plantings, however, take root worse, and so that they do not die, you have to regularly water them until frost. One of the necessary conditions for survival at any time of the year: the clod of earth of a tree should be as large as possible, such that it can be lifted, moved and transported.

In a new place, wild trees and shrubs take root quickly and require almost no maintenance. For better growth, I fertilize them, but not earlier than a year after planting, most often with water-soluble mineral fertilizers (20-30 g per 1 sq. M a year after planting, in subsequent years - 40-50 g per 1 sq. m).

In addition to nurseries, without damage to forests, wild trees for planting (with the knowledge of foresters) can be found under power lines, along highway and railway right-of-way, in quarries and other places where they are not needed and are most often destroyed.

About the timing of transplanting fruit trees on the site

About the timing of transplanting fruit trees

It is practically possible to replant fruit trees throughout the year, but still less labor and cost will be incurred when replanting during the dormant period of plants - in early spring, before the start of growth, in autumn, during the period of mass leaf fall, and in winter when the air temperature is not lower than -5 -6 0 . In the conditions of central Russia, early spring is considered the best time for transplanting fruit trees.

Age of trees to be transplanted

It is more expedient to replant fruit trees at the age not older than 20-25 years, but here some varietal characteristics of plants are taken into account.

Trees of early-bearing varieties are generally considered to be less durable and should be replanted no older than this age. Long-lived varieties are another matter, the transplantation of which is permissible even at an older age.

In both cases, it is important that the trees to be transplanted be healthy, develop normally, and show no damage to the trunk or branches. Of course, hollow trees are unsuitable for transplantation.

Transplant with soil ball

Fruit and ornamental trees are transplanted in different ways: a) with a soil clod, b) without a clod (with exposed roots), c) with preliminary preparation of trees for transplantation.

The most common transplant with a soil clod.

With modern technology, digging and transporting trees with a fairly heavy clod of soil does not present any particular difficulties. It is not difficult to transplant in the conditions of backyard and collective gardens using the simplest improvised devices.

The size of the clod of transplanted trees is determined depending on their age: for 7-10-year-olds, the clod diameter is 1.0-1.25 m, for 10-15-year-olds - 1.3-1.5 m, for 20-30- summer -1.7-2.0 m.

Taking into account the depth of the greatest distribution of active roots of the apple tree, the height of the coma is set at 60-70 cm.

The shape of the soil ball can be in the form of a cylinder or a cube. Depending on this, the tree is dug in a circular or square-shaped ditch 40-50 cm wide.

Roots encountered during digging are cut with a garden knife to a level with the wall of the coma. Thick roots are chopped off with a shovel, an ax, cut down with a hacksaw, but after that the ends of the roots are cleaned with a knife to form a smooth, better healing wound surface.

For ease of use, when cutting a lump from below and pulling it out of the pit, one of the walls of the ditch is made inclined.

For long-distance transportation and transplants from loose crumbling soils, the soil clod is sheathed with matting, wire mesh, and preferably with boards. A round ball is lined with boards vertically and pulled together with strong wire, and a lump in the shape of a cube, somewhat tapering downwards, is sheathed from the sides and from the bottom with boards in a horizontal direction and fastened with bolts. Pre-cut shields are convenient for sheathing according to the size of the sides and bottom of the coma. In this case, it turns out, as it were, a collapsible box. So, for example, the workers of the Michurinsky Garden do it at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of Russia.

From below, together with vertical roots, it is not difficult to cut with a strong wire, thrown in a loop around the bottom of the ball and attached to the tractor at both ends. When the tractor moves forward, the wire cuts off the soil under the bottom of the clod, simultaneously cutting off the roots.

To extract the prepared clod from the pit, an iron sheet-drag is used, on which a tree with a clod is pulled up and installed. They pull it out along the inclined wall of the pit with a tractor. To lift a tree with a lump, cranes, winches, etc. are also used.

When transplanting mature trees in household plots and in collective gardens, the simplest devices are used: they dig up the soil ball with shovels, cutting the roots with an ax, lift it out of the pit using rollers, logs, tripods, and for movement - with iron sheets-drags.

Transportation of fruit trees

Before loading onto vehicles for long-distance transportation, tree branches are tied up, and the entire crown and stem are wrapped with matting. The trees in the back of the car are placed in an inclined position and always in a lump to the driver's cab. If the branches lie on the sides of the machine, lay mats or tarpaulins to prevent damage to the branches when rubbing against the sides.

When transporting over short distances, trees can be installed vertically, securing the lump with strong ropes, wire, in order to prevent the tree from moving along the bottom of the car body.

Arriving at the planting site, the trees are carefully removed by a crane or lowered along boards, logs into a pit prepared in advance for planting.

Planting fruit trees

Pits for planting are prepared in depth and width slightly larger than the size of a tree clod, so that after planting the space between the walls of the pit and the clod is filled with good nutritious soil.

The tree should be planted at the same depth as it grew in the same place (take into account the possibility of the clod settling after planting). It is recommended to keep its previous position in relation to the cardinal points. It is not difficult to achieve this: even before digging up a tree, you need to make a mark on one side of the stem with chalk, paint or tie a piece of cloth, twine on some branch. Such marks will allow you to correctly install the tree in the pit.

The space between the clod and the walls of the pit is covered with nutrient soil, compacted and, after completing the work, watered well.

Although a sufficiently heavy soil ball gives a stable position to the tree after planting, additional reinforcement with strong guy wires is still required.

Post landing care

Despite the fact that the tree was transplanted without leaves, water continues to evaporate through the pores of the trunk and branches, and its supply from the soil is greatly reduced due to the significant loss of roots during digging. This can lead to drying of the aerial part, poor survival, and possibly death of the plant.

Given this, after transplantation, and more conveniently even before it, the skeletal branches are shortened by about ⅓ of their length or the crown is significantly thinned out by removing some branches. It is better to cut 2-3 large branches than many small ones.

Wounds, as usual after pruning, are coated with garden pitch (petrolatum).

The trunk and the lower parts of the skeletal branches are tied with moss, matting, burlap, straw bundles to prevent excessive evaporation of water. During the summer, the soil under the crown of the tree is systematically watered, the strapping is periodically moistened (sprayed). It is useful after transplanting to sprinkle all the branches in the crown of the tree with lime mortar. It is also important to monitor the possible appearance of pests, especially leaf-eating and aphids, and take measures to combat them. Flowers formed in the first year should not be left, they are cut off.

Transplant with pretreatment

This case is better than the previous one, although it takes a little longer. It consists in the following. As in the first case, in the spring a circular or square ditch is dug around the tree, filled with well-fertilized loose soil, watered and left in this state until the next spring.

At the ends, trimmed and cleaned with a knife, when digging the roots, new fibrous roots form, which grow well in the fertilized soil of the ditch.

The tree is dug up next spring. The ditch is now being dug a little further than last year, so as not to damage the new roots formed during the summer. Such a tree tolerates a transplant less painfully and rather takes root in a new place.

This is the method of replanting trees with their preliminary preparation, the rest of the work is the same as described above.

The tree can be transplanted without a clod

In this case, leave longer (up to 1-1.5 m depending on the age of the tree) roots than when digging with a soil ball, and be sure to protect them from drying. Stepping back from the trunk to a distance of the length of the roots, they dig a circular ditch 1 m deep. Then carefully remove the soil layer from above the coma to the first roots. With a pointed stake or washing with water, the roots are gradually freed from the ground, pouring it into a ditch. As the ditch fills, the earth is thrown away. It is necessary to monitor the safety of the roots, not allowing them to be cut off under the weight of earthen clods.

As the roots are exposed, cover with damp moss, moistened with burlap, grass. At the end of the excavation, the tree begins to lose stability in the hole and needs to be temporarily secured with guy wires. This is especially necessary when cutting the lower roots.

In the case of long-distance transportation, the roots are tied, like the branches in the crown, and packed. The conditions of transportation, planting in a new place and primary care do not differ from those described above when transplanting trees with a lump.

As can be seen from what has been said, transplanting mature trees with exposed roots is more convenient, easier when lifting a tree from a hole, loading and unloading it, but freeing the roots from the ground requires more time, attention and caution.

Is it possible to replant a tree in winter?

It is possible, at a temperature not lower than minus 6 0 . At this time, the movement of trees along the toboggan path facilitates the work, and there is no need to cover the clod with boards.

Trees are ditched in late autumn. In order not to lower the strong freezing of the coma, and, consequently, the roots, the ditch must be covered with peat and manure. At the new location, a landing pit is being prepared at the same time.

After the coma has frozen (about mid-December), the tree is removed from the pit and transported. Some difficulty lies in finding thawed earth to backfill the ditch after planting. The near-stem circle insulates with a layer of manure, peat, and is well spudded with snow.

Will there be a harvest in the orchard?

Snow covered garden. The roots of fruit trees are securely covered with a snow blanket, and the branches of berry bushes and branches are almost covered to the top. Strawberries under the snow feel good.

Spring is not yet coming soon, and the gardener, of course, already now wants to know how the trees overwintered, whether the branches and especially flower buds have frozen, can we hope that there will be a harvest? After all, for the winter, more than once, trees were “grabbed” by frost, there were also strong ones that were dangerous for trees.

Knowing the possibility of freezing of fruit plants is necessary not just for the sake of curiosity, but in case of danger signals, prepare for the spring care of frozen trees. But how to do it?

As soon as severe frosts pass, cut off a few shoots and branches with flower buds with secateurs, dip in a bowl of water and hold in a heated room for 2-3 days. The layer of water in the dish should not exceed 5-6 cm.

After removing the branch from the water, cut it crosswise with a garden knife and carefully inspect the cut surface. Intact parts of the branch are light. If the core turns brown, it is frostbitten, blackened, severely frozen. By the same criteria, the freezing of wood cells is determined. If the core and wood are slightly frozen, this does not mean the complete death of the branch, and there is hope that subsequently they will gradually recover due to the formation of new wood cells by the cambium. When the circular ring of the cambium is severely damaged (blackened) by frost, this is already the death of the branch.

A week or two will pass, and life awakens in the buds: they swell, open their outer clothing, from under which the greenery of future flowers and leaves is visible. So the flowers have blossomed with pale pink fragrant petals, now they can be examined (preferably through a magnifying glass). It happens that all parts of the flower are fresh, green, and the pistil itself is green, and its top (stigma) is blackened, indicating death from frost. It is necessary to check the integrity of the branches again after wintering.

Cambium - the most frost-resistant and damaged at a lower temperature than the core and wood.

Freezing of annual shoots of an apple tree can still be established in the following way, proposed at the time by prof. MM. Okuntsev (Tomsk). Cut 1-2 cuttings from a one-year growth and place them in a washed test tube or a small jar filled with clean, unboiled water. Before dipping, wipe the cuttings with a damp cloth. In a heated room on the 2-3rd day, the result will be visible: if the water in the dishes becomes yellowish or of other shades, then the wood is not viable. With more severe frosting, the water is darker. If the water stays clean, the wood is healthy.

At the same time, make sure the flower buds are intact, because they contain the current year's harvest. With a razor blade, carefully cut along (from top to bottom) exactly in half such a kidney. A healthy kidney on a cut is light green. Inside it, the primordia of the pistil and stamens are visible crowding one to the other, covered from the outside with petals and integumentary scales. If there is blackness in the middle of the kidney, this is the result of freezing.

Especially dangerous is the blackening of the vascular bundles at the base of the fruit bud.

The pistil is the most frost-sensitive part of the flower; being in a bud that has not yet blossomed, it often freezes slightly. In this case, the hearth tree will bloom in spring, covered with white foam of fragrant flowers, and there will be no harvest.

The experiment with branches and buds can be continued by leaving them in the water until they bloom. Only in this case, it is necessary to cut the lower ends of the branches obliquely and slightly renew the sections when replacing the water in 2-3 days.

Cherry blossoms but no harvest

This happens sometimes, and gardeners often ask: "Why?" The reason for this is winter, freezing of flower buds.

A gardener sees in the spring: "Cherry orchards stand like drenched in milk." But this is only external well-being, apparent. Take the trouble to come closer to the cherry tree, close to its flowers, look at them carefully, and better armed with a magnifying glass. In the edging of pale pink fragrant petals, beckoning to the flower of furry workers - bees, pale green stamens with anthers peep out, among them a pistil. An external cursory examination of the flower does not seem to say anything, but take a closer look and see that the upper part of the pistil (stigma) is blackened. This means that the most important part of the pistil has died, there can be no pollination and fertilization of the ovary. Therefore, there will be no harvest.

Flower buds, as we know, are less frost-resistant than growth buds, and the most frost-sensitive part of the flower is the pistil. It does not tolerate high low winter temperatures and often freezes in an unopened flower bud.

If the pestle is not frozen, but there is still no crop, then the reason is different. Perhaps there is no pollinator for this variety - another variety that blooms at the same time. This, however, is very rare, since the total area of ​​the collective garden always has a large set of various varieties, and the bees carry out pollination work within a radius of 2-2.5 km. Other insects do the same.

Of course, the reliability of pollination largely depends on weather conditions: cold, rain, wind limit the flight of insects, and the process of pollen germination on the stigma of the pistil is associated with temperature and other conditions of the day.

In some areas, for example, in the gardens of the Moscow region, cherries rarely please the gardener with their fruits. This means that one should not get carried away with advertised varieties that have not been tested for resistance in local conditions, but should be planted recommended, the so-called zoned ones. These varieties must be provided with appropriate care, not pampering the plants, preparing them for a successful overwintering.

Spring frosts are coming

Gardeners are aware of the damage to the economy caused by spring frost if it occurs during the flowering period and the first days of the growth of fruit and berry ovaries. Frosts are dangerous because there are no effective guaranteed measures to combat them yet, and possible ones are very difficult.

Based on long-term meteorological observations, it has been established that in the conditions of central Russia, June 6-10 can be considered the latest frost period.

There are two types of frosts. Local ones that spread in certain areas (matinees) are usually short-lived, although they can be repeated after a few days. Such frosts are called radiation. But a decrease in temperature can occur as a result of the invasion of cold air masses from the north (advective frosts). Protecting the garden from such cold weather is very difficult, as they capture a large area, are accompanied by strong cold winds and can last for several days. Radiation frosts are more common.

Buds of most fruit and berry plants are damaged by frosts at minus 40, opened flowers at minus 20, and young fruit ovaries are even more sensitive and damaged even at minus 1-1.500.

The effect of freezing largely depends on the location of the orchard

The relief of the garden area is of great importance. In low places and especially in closed basins, in impenetrable clearings during frost, the temperature is always several degrees lower than in elevated places and on slopes, so the risk of frost damage is greater there. Cold heavy air in open places, not encountering vegetation and other barriers, flows down from elevated areas to lower ones and accumulates here.

There are rare cases of damage to gardens by spring matinees near large reservoirs, in floodplains of rivers.

The degree of frost damage depends on the nature of the soil, its cover. A moistened and compacted soil surface cools less than a loose and dry one. A surface covered with vegetation cools more than a surface free from it.

From all that has been said, it follows that the choice of a place for laying an orchard is of particular importance not only in relation to creating favorable conditions for the growth of fruit and berry plants, but also, in particular, to prevent possible damage to the garden by frosts in harvest years.

Local signs of frost

It is very important to determine in advance the likelihood of frosts and prepare in time to protect the blooming garden.

On the central radio and television, on the local radio broadcasting and the broadcasting network in the programs of the Hydrometeorological Center, agricultural workers are warned about the possible onset of frost.

The transmitted weather forecasts and warnings about the possible onset of frost relate to a fairly large area - an area, less often a district, therefore, for local conditions, some deviations in the forecasts are possible and inevitable.

There are local signs of approaching frost: after a hot day, suddenly by 19-20 hours the air temperature drops sharply, and the mercury of the thermometer continues to fall just as sharply at night; the air is quiet, windless; the sky is completely cloudless; the air is dry, there is no dew on plants and soil.

If the signs of the weather in the evening are opposite to those listed above (cloudy sky, windy, dew, etc.), this indicates that there is no possibility of frost.

Thermometers are hung on the branches of trees, and preferably on stakes at eye level. In large horticultural farms, thermometers are installed in several areas of different relief: in a lowland, in elevated places. Usually, thermometers installed in lower areas are the first to signal the threat of frost.


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